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Clara Telles 09/0109538 Dâmaris Bacon 09/0137574 Fernanda Diniz 10/0129668 Pedro Henrique Lemos 09/14444 Inglês instrumental Profa: Sônia Silva.

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Apresentação em tema: "Clara Telles 09/0109538 Dâmaris Bacon 09/0137574 Fernanda Diniz 10/0129668 Pedro Henrique Lemos 09/14444 Inglês instrumental Profa: Sônia Silva."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Clara Telles 09/ Dâmaris Bacon 09/ Fernanda Diniz 10/ Pedro Henrique Lemos 09/14444 Inglês instrumental Profa: Sônia Silva

2 As linking words são as conjunções do Inglês que servem para fazer relação entre as ideias e informações expressadas em uma frase. São conectores entre frases que desenvolvem a coesão, mas também podem desenvolver a coerência dentro de um parágrafo, ligando uma ideia ou argumento a outro. Essas palavras conectoras (algumas conhecidas como conjunções no português) desempenham uma função importante na escrita, pois sinalizam para o leitor a direção que o escritor está tomando. Fazem isso através dessa ligação entre ideias dentro de um parágrafo e estabelecendo pontes entre os parágrafos. É importante lembrar-se de corrigir a escrita para ter certeza de que as transições de uma ideia para outra, ou de um parágrafo para outro, estão sendo eficazes pela utilização dos conectores escolhidos, pois os conectores trazem uma relação semântica entre as ideias e parágrafos e não é qualquer conector que serve para qualquer lugar.

3 A maioria das partes de um texto formal é organizada de um jeito semelhante: introdução, desenvolvimento de ideias principais ou argumentos e conclusão. Uma parte da escrita ou texto pode incluir o seguinte: Idea And 1 ideia é ligada a outra Idea Or 1 alternativa é apresentada Idea But 1 objeção é feita Idea

4 A principais palavras e frases de ligação podem ser agrupadas em 3 conectivos básicos, de acordo com a semelhança de seus significados: and, or, but. Alguns podem ser usados para ligar parágrafos e outros podem apenas ser usados para ligar ideias dentro do parágrafo And Listing (listagem, lista) Enumeration: indica uma catalogação do que está sendo dito. A maioria das listas usa claramente um grupo definido de palavras: First, furthermore, finally, One, a second, a third, First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)… etc. To begin/start with, in the second place, moreover, to conclude. above all / last but not least > marcar o fim de uma ordem ascendente first and foremost / first and most importantly order > marcar o início de uma ordem descendente Addition: com o que foi anteriormente indicado. i. Reinforcement (inclui a confirmação): above all indeed actually in addition additionally moreover again not only... but also...

5 ii. Comparison (similaridade com o que precedeu) also in the same way both... and... likewise correspondingly similarly equally too also notably as well (as) obviously besides particularly especially specifically further then furthermore too what is more Transition: pode levar a uma nova etapa na sequência do pensamento. now regarding turning to with respect/regard to as for geralmente usado quando se discute algo brevemente. as to

6 Summary: uma generalização ou resumindo o que precedeu. altogether then hence therefore in brief thus in conclusion to conclude in short to sum up overall to summarise Reference: remete para sentenças anteriores. and mainly as follows mostly chiefly namely for instance notably for example or in other words particularly in particular such as including that is

7 Example: for example to illustrate for instance as an illustration such as to demonstrate Result: expressa a consequência ou resultado do que está implícito na frase anterior ou sentenças. accordingly now as a result so as a consequence so that because of the consequence is consequently the result is for this/that reason then hence therefore in order that thus Place: above in front below here adjacent in the background to the left at the side in the foreground elsewhere behind there to the right

8 Time : after a while now afterwards once at last presently at that time previously at the same time shortly before simultaneously currently since earlier soon eventually subsequently finally then formerly thereafter in the meantime until in the past until now initially whenever later while meanwhile

9 Or Reformulation (expressa algo de outra forma): better in other words in that case rather that is that is to say Replacement (expressa uma alternativa ao que precedeu): again alternatively another possibility would be better/worse still on the other hand rather the alternative is

10 But Contrast by (way of) contrast conversely in comparison in fact in reality instead on the contrary (on the one hand)... on the other hand... Then Concession (indica que o ponto de visa anterior é aceito com reservas): admittedly in spite of after all naturally all the same nevertheless although no doubt although this may be true nonetheless at the same time notwithstanding besides only despite still doubtless under certain circumstances even if/though up to a point even so while however yet

11 It's a little bit funny, this feeling inside I'm not one of those, who can easily hide I don't have much money, but boy if I did I'd buy a big house where we both could live. If I was a sculptor, but then again no, Or a man who makes potions in a travelling show I know it's not much, but it's the best I can do My gift is my song and this one's for you. And you can tell everybody, this is your song It maybe quite simple but now that it's done, I hope you don't mind, I hope you don't mind That I put down in words How wonderful life is now you're in the world. I sat on the roof and kicked off the moss Well a few of the verses, well they've got me quite cross But the sun's been quite kind while I wrote this song, It's for people like you, that keep it turned on. Your Song – Elton John

12 It's a little bit funny, this feeling inside I'm not one of those, who can easily hide I don't have much money, but boy if I did I'd buy a big house where we both could live. If I was a sculptor, but then again no, Or a man who makes potions in a travelling show I know it's not much, but it's the best I can do My gift is my song and this one's for you. And you can tell everybody, this is your song It maybe quite simple but now that it's done, I hope you don't mind, I hope you don't mind That I put down in words How wonderful life is now you're in the world. I sat on the roof and kicked off the moss Well a few of the verses, well they've got me quite cross But the sun's been quite kind while I wrote this song, It's for people like you, that keep it turned on. Your Song – Elton John

13 So excuse me forgetting, but these things I do You see I've forgotten, if they're green or they're blue Anyway, the thing is, what I really mean Yours are the sweetest eyes I've ever seen. And you can tell everybody, this is your song It maybe quite simple but now that it's done, I hope you don't mind, I hope you don't mind That I put down in words How wonderful life is while you're in the world

14 So excuse me forgetting, but these things I do You see I've forgotten, if they're green or they're blue Anyway, the thing is, what I really mean Yours are the sweetest eyes I've ever seen. And you can tell everybody, this is your song It maybe quite simple but now that it's done, I hope you don't mind, I hope you don't mind That I put down in words How wonderful life is while you're in the world

15 Sinais de Sequência Tempo A ordem cronológica ou a sequência lógica de ações dentro de uma narrativa é facilmente identificável por expressões linguísticas características, como preposições, advérbios, linking words e tempos verbais. Essa ordem é que vai dar sentido cronológico ao texto segundo a intenção do autor, estruturando as ideias a serem transmitidas. Preposições Uma preposição é uma palavra que liga dois elementos da oração subordinando o segundo ao primeiro, o regente ao regido. Ela vai ligar substantivo a substantivo, substantivo a verbo, verbo a substantivo, adjetivo a substantivo, advérbio a substantivo. No casoda ordem cronológica e lógica, as preposições mais usadas vão ser: antes(before), depois(after), até(until), desde(since), entre(between), durante(during), e outros(on, in, at, since, for, ago, to, past, till, by).

16 Advérbios São palavras que modificam um verbo, um adjetivo ou um outro advérbio, mas raramente modificam um substantivo. Indica as circunstâncias em que ocorre uma ação. Como exemplos, temos: slowly, fully, well, directly, lately, mostly, nearly, shortly. O verbo Os tempos verbais vão ser cruciais para exprimir a cronologia. Eis os tempos verbais no Inglês: Present Simple Ex: They have a car. Present Continous Ex: Hes Reading now. Past Simple Ex: They saw a movie. Past Continous Ex: It was snowing. Present Perfect Ex: We have been there. Present Perfect Continous Ex: Youve been working hard. Future Simple Ex: It will snow this winter. Future Continous Ex: She will be travelling. Future Perfect Ex: He will have arrived. Future Perfect Continous Ex:You will have been working.

17 Olympic success of the British team ensures increased funding in 2016 The body which funds elite sport in Britain has announced an increase of 11% across Olympic and Paralympic sports. But some sports which underperformed in London 2012 have been given less money. Britain finished third in the gold medal table at the London Olympics. The target is for the country to become the first host nation to improve on its tally at the following Games. And so UK Sport, which divides up the cash available to individual sports, has increased its funding to five hundred and sixty two million dollars, a rise of eleven per cent. But those sports which underperformed in 2012 have seen their allowance go down. Liz Nichol is the Chief Executive of UK Sport: "We're very confident that the system can be even better in Rio. We're very confident there is more medal-winning potential to come. And so we're setting out with a very ambitious goal, we want to be the first nation in recent history to be more successful in both the Olympics and the Paralympics post hosting." In this century Australia, Greece and even China failed to match their medal count in the years after they staged the summer Olympics. Britain has a no-compromise approach to investment. It means the likes of cycling, rowing and boxing, which delivered in London, get a financial windfall. But the amount set aside for swimming, which failed to meet expectations, has been slashed by six and a half million dollars. And there are four sports - basketball, handball, wrestling and table tennis - which will receive no money at all. Meanwhile, Paralympic sports were given a huge boost; their pot of cash has been swollen by 43%.

18 Sinais de Sequência A lógica Como já mencionado, as conjunções ou connecting words são empregadas com o intuito de correlacionar termos e sentenças, conferindo-lhes sentido dentro da estrutura de um texto. Podemos tratar de dois grupos de conjunções: as coordenativas e as subordinativas. As coordenativas ligam sentenças com mesmo nível sintático e as subordinativas, sentenças com níveis sintáticos diferentes. A ligação entre as sentenças é pautada pela correlação entre os níveis sintáticos, sendo que tais níveis tem a ver com lógica linguística. Exemplificando, pode-se observar conjunções classificadas como conclusivas: "I think, therefore I am." A frase acima é composta de duas orações que são ligadas pelo conectivo "therefore", o qual significa "logo". O sentido que se estabelece entre as orações graças ao conectivo é claro, ele liga as duas orações, introduzindo a segunda oração que é uma conclusão da primeira.

19 Aprofundando, podemos mencionar além das categorias das conjunções coordenativas, as conjunções subordinativas. Sendo que as subordinativas ligam uma oração de sentido incompleto com uma oração de sentido completo, formando assim, um conjunto que através de tal ligação torna-se completo a nível de sentido. Ou seja, são orações que sintaticamente completam-se e formam um todo com sentido lógico. É importante empregar a categoria correta de conjunção de forma a trazer o sentido almejado entre as orações.

20 Exemplos de conjunções subordinativas e seus empregos: - AFTER (após) I went home after the concert finished. - ALTHOUGH / THOUGH / EVEN THOUGH (apesar de (que), embora, ainda que) Although it was raining, we went out. - AS (enquanto, assim que, logo que, como, porque, à medida que) As you know, Julia is leaving soon. (Como você sabe, Julia está indo embora em breve.) -AS IF / AS THOUGH (como se) She was acting as if/as though she was in a great movie. - AS / SO LONG AS / PROVIDED THAT (contanto que, desde que, com a condição de que) You can take my car as/so long as you drive carefully. - BECAUSE (porque, pois) I went to England because my boyfriend was there.

21 - BEFORE (antes de, antes que) Do it before you forget. (Faça antes que você esqueça.) - IF (se) If you meet my sister, give her this note. (Se você encontrar minha irmã, dê a ela este bilhete.) - UNLESS (a menos que, a não ser que, salvo se) Don't leave the room unless you receive permission. - UNTIL / TILL (até, até que) Do I have to wait unitl / till tomorrow? (Tenho que esperar até amanhã?) - WHEN / BY THE TIME (quando) She left her job when she knew she was pregnant.

22 "Up to half of the world's food is wasted, says a report Up to half of the world's food is wasted due to inefficient production in poorer countries and over-fussy consumers in the rich world, says a new report from the UK-based Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The world has limited resources and a growing population. By the end of this century there could be three billion extra mouths to feed. So wasting food, this new report says, is a tragedy that should not continue. The study says changing the way consumers in the rich world reject less-than-perfect-looking vegetables in the shops, and eat large quantities of meat - which requires a lot of resources to bring to market - could have an impact. But the engineers who wrote this report also recommend better use of scarce land and water around the whole world. They say that putting more land to agriculture will be difficult without damaging the environment, so improving the efficiency of farming is vital. The report says better irrigation is the key here, because water used in agriculture is often sourced badly: from aquifers which are poorly managed. In some cases, the engineers say, governments and aid agencies have exacerbated this problem by sinking boreholes in the wrong places. The report also says that irrigating crops through spraying or flooding fields is wasteful because so much of the water evaporates. It says that drip or trickle methods of irrigation, while more expensive to install, can be as much as a third more efficient. Na notícia acima, podemos destacar, além do emprego de outras categorias de conjunções, o emprego das conjunções "because", "and", "but" que são amplamente utilizadas. Nesse caso, empregando sentidos usuais.


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