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J. A. Scharffenberg, M.D., M.P.H.

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1 J. A. Scharffenberg, M.D., M.P.H.
DIETA VEGETARIANA J. A. Scharffenberg, M.D., M.P.H. Adjunct Prof. of Nutrition, Loma Linda University Assist Dir Health Dept General Conference Stoy Proctor, M.Div., M.P.H. Adjunct Asst Prof Health Promotion Loma Linda University Assoc Dir Health Dept General Conference Dr. John Scharffenberg is a medical nutritionist, meaning he is a physician but is full time in public health nutrition. He has been on the Loma Linda University faculty for most of the time since He was born of missionary parents in Shanghai, China, graduated from Loma Linda University medical school in the class of 1948, and received his masters degree in public health with a major in nutrition at Harvard University where he was a member of the Delta Omega society. He was clinician on the secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. He was director of the International Nutrition Research Foundation in Riverside, California. He was health officer for the San Bernardino County Public Health Department also. Stoy Proctor is a minister but received his master’s in public health from Loma Linda University with a double major - nutrition and health promotion. He is chairman of the Nutrition Council of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists as well as Associate Director of the Health Department of the General Conference. Tradução: Pr. Roberto Biagini Digitação: Silvane Luckow Biagini

2 Objetivos Entender os benefícios da dieta vegetariana
Entender os perigos de dietas alternativas Entender que a dieta ideal é a dieta original

3 Países em Desenvolvimento
A espectativa de vida é curta Devido primariamente à alta mortalidade infantil e doenças gastrointestinais Contudo, doenças crônicas causam mais mortes em países em desenvolvimento

4 Exemplo - Doença Cardiovascular
Na Índia 17% de morte são de DCV Mais pessoas morrem de DCV na Índia do que nos EUA 78% de mortes no mundo são em países sub-desenvolvidos % do total de mortes de DCV na Índia é baixo mas os números reais são altos Although 43% of all deaths in the United States are from CVD the number of total deaths from all causes is small and therefore the actual number of people dying from this is less than in India where only 17% of their total deaths are from CVD but the total number of deaths from all causes is very high.

5 Maiores Causas de Morte
Nos países Ocidentais 2/3 são devidos às doenças cardiovasculares (43%) e câncer (23%) Devido ao fumo e dieta pobre Dieta pobre devido à demasiados produtos animais Two-thirds of the deaths in Western countries are because of what we put into our mouths - cigarettes and bad food. There are three major factors in foods that cause serious problems. They are too much animal fat in our diet, eating too much and becoming obese and too little fiber. All of these three items are related to animal products. Animal products have little or no fiber. Meat is a concentrated source of calories which promotes obesity. It is the animal fat that correlates best with heart disease and cancer.

6 Prevenção é Necessária e Possível
90% de mortes de ataque do coração podem ser evitadas Países sub-desenvolvidos não têm as finanças e a tecnologia para cuidar de tais pacientes The World Health Organization states: “In developed countries, the enormous cost of the high-technology, tertiary health care needed for the diagnosis and management of these high-incidence chronic diseases is already apparent. Similar demands in developing countries will impose a huge burden on the human and economic resources of the country and are liable to disturb priorities in the health care sector.” Report of a WHO Study Group. Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, pp. 4-15, WHO Technical Report Series 797. How can developing countries afford Proton Accelerators for cancer treatment? Or Coronary Bypass Surgery or Angioplasties for heart disease? Many areas of the world have hard enough time to get enough disposable needles, oxygen tanks, IV equipment, etc. Prevention must be the answer rather than treatment. A dollar in prevention is equivalent to $15-20 in treatment.

7 Cálcio

8 Vantagens da Dieta Vegetariana
Vida mais longa Menos doenças crônicas – isto é: Cardiovascular, Câncer, Diabetes, Osteoporose, Obesidade Maior aptidão física Melhor economicamente Sã ecológica e ambientalmente Mais fácil seguir recomendações dietéticas Here are listed the major advantages of the vegetarian diet from the health, economic and environmental standpoints. There are other advantages as we shall see, such as the mental and spiritual benefits. These are more difficult to document. However, with studies on cognition etc. it may be that these will soon be documented also.

9 Extensão de Vida Homens vegetarianos, 40 anos, vivem 3,7 anos a mais do que não-vegetarianos Ministry Sept. 1989, pp Em Gên. 9: 3-5 é afirmado que a carne encurtaria a vida Patriarcas viveram acima de 900 anos até que a carne foi usada; então somente 300 anos Because of the manner in which Gen. 9:3-5 is punctuated it is difficult to interprete. However, Dr. Leslie Hardinge, a Ph.D. in 6 Biblical languages states that the original language is clear that when one kills animals for food and and eats the meat his life will be shortened. Other students of the original languages do not always concur in this. In any case, we know this is what happened with the patriarchs and this concept is confirmed by the testimony of Jesus through the Spirit of Prophecy.

10 Doença Coronária do Coração
Homens Adventistas não-vegetarianos aos 40 anos, tinham 4X mais ataques do coração do que os vegetarianos. Prev Med 1984;13: Os de 60 anos, tinham 2X mais Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:S191-8.

11 Doença do Coração e Dieta
This is a good example of the effect of vegetarian diets on CHD mortality. This was the first SDA study. There were small numbers of total vegetarians so one would not use this data of itself to prove the point. However, other data does show the same effect from the use of milk and eggs. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians have a 24% high LDL cholesterol level and also a 7% higher HDL cholesterol level than total vegetarians. See Sacks and Castelli in JAMA 1985;254: They state, “Anaysis within and among vegetarian populations suggests that ingestion of fatty dairy jproducts raises the LDL-C level on a percentag basis about three times more than it raises the HDL-C level.” A study in Britain showed total and LDL cholesterol increases from total vegetarian to lacto-ovo-vegetarian to fish-eaters to non-vegetarians. There was no difference in the HDL cholesterol levels. The HDL to LDL ratio became poorer in that same direction. Based on estimates from this data vegetarians had a 24% lower CHD risk and total vegetarians a 57% lower risk than non-vegetarians. Br Med J 1987;295:351-3.

12 O Plano Original é Melhor
“Replicaram-lhe: Por que mandou então Moisés dar carta de divórcio e repudiar? Mt. 19:7. “Por causa da dureza do vosso coração. Entretanto, não foi assim desde o princípio.” Mt. 19:8. O plano original é o melhor! Com a dieta também! Jesus enunciated the principle that the original plan in marriage was the ideal. Would not that same principle apply to diet?

13 Gordura Saturada Sem colesterol na dieta, a gordura saturada não danifica as artérias. J Nutrition 1992;122: 100% de colesterol é de produtos animais Nos U.S.A. 68% da gordura saturada vem de produtos animais. USDA, ARS Home Economic research Report No. 52, 1994. More recent studies show no difference in blood cholesterol with high or low saturated fat diets. See Grundy SM N Engl J Med 1986;314:745-8. Helen Brown states: “With no dietary cholesterol serum lipids are unaffected by the fat composition.” Prev Med 1983;12: It appears polyunsaturates or saturate do not affect serum cholesterol if there is no cholesterol in the diet. One study brings this into question: see J Lipid Research 1985;26:

14 Como Nós Sabemos Disto? Babuínos alimentados por 2 anos com óleo de côco, uma gordura saturada, não tinham danos em suas artérias. J Nutr 1992;122: Quando o colesterol foi adicionado à dieta, as artérias foram danificadas. Uma dieta alta em gordura saturada não é boa se há colesterol (produtos animais) na dieta.

15 Abacate Abaixa Colesterol
Abacate é alto em gordura, mas não em colesterol. Recentes estudos mostraram que abacate realmente abaixa o colesterol do sangue, mesmo sendo o abacate alto em ácido palmítico (18%) que é o maior ácido gorduroso que dizem elevar o colesterol Amer Jour Clin Nutr 56: , 1992 This is an exciting study. Avocados are high in palmitic acid and yet a diet with additional avocados actually lowered serum cholesterol better than the American Heart Association’s phase III diet, the strictest diet designed to lower serum cholesterol. Cholesterol was also in the diets given to these individuals. It appears plant foods are good and animal foods arre bad. The so-called bad factors in animal foods when found in plant foods does not seem to be damaging.

16 Colesterol Oxidado Colesterol puro na dieta não tem produzido arteriosclerose em estudos experimentais em macacos. Foi somente quando o colesterol oxidado foi adicionado à dieta que o dano às artérias ocorreu. Dietary Fats & Health, pp , 1983. Em humanos, colesterol oxidado vem da dieta. O corpo produz colesterol puro. The Inter-Society Commission forHeart Disease Resources states: “In the absence of dietary cholesterol, severe atherosclerosis has not been induced in nonhuman primates.” Circulation 1984;70: Pure cholesterol did not damage the arteries in the study by Dr. Bruce Taylor when he experimented with rabbits and with monkeys. Only the oxidized cholesterol caused the problem That means if you have an elevated serum cholesterol because you are under stress it is because your body has produced it and this is not the type that causes a problem. Stress may cause a heart attack because of angiospasm but is unlikely to do it because your blood cholesterol is elevated because of it.

17 Produção do Colesterol do Corpo
O colesterol LDL produzido pelo corpo pode ser oxidado se: Dieta é baixa em vit. A. Dieta é baixa em vit. C. Dieta é baixa em vit. E. The body produces the LDL cholesterol which is the kind that can damage the artery walls. The damage usually occurs from this being oxidized. If one consumes adequate amounts of the antioxidant nutrients such as vit. A, C, E and selenium there is less likelihood of the body’s LDL-C being oxidized. Vegetarians are much more apt to get adequate amounts of the antioxidants because they are in great quantities in plant foods.

18 Teste Clínico (250 mg col/dia)
Um médico colocou pacientes com artérias coronárias obstruídas sob uma baixa dieta de gordura (gordura sat. < 5% de cal.) e 250 mg de colesterol por dia. Sob observação, 1 ano mais tarde a doença tinha progredido e as artérias estavam mais obstruídas do que antes. JAMA 263: , ‘90 How much cholesterol can we have in our diet? Dr. Blankenhorn of the University of Southern California gave patients with clogged up coronary arteries a diet that was low in saturated fat (5% of the calories) but allowed up to 200 mg of cholesterol which is at the Phase II level of the American Heart Association’s diets to prevent heart disease. A year later the arteries were more clogged up than before. Another physician conducted a similar study using only 100 mg of dietary cholesterol and a year later 32% showed regression. Dr. Dean Ornish did a similar study and allowed only 12 mg of cholesterol and 82% of the patients a year later showed a reversal of the atherosclerosis. In all three studies the saturated fat was low; the difference was in the amount of cholesterol in the diet. Now how much cholesterol in the diet do you think should be recommended? One cup of nonfat milk has 5 mg of cholesterol, lowfat milk 20 mg, whole milk 34 mg. A little nonfat milk may be useful in the diet because it will provide the needed vit. B-12.

19 Teste Clínico (100 mg col/dia)
Um outro médico com pacientes semelhantes permitiu só 100 mg de colesterol na dieta por dia. 32% dos seus pacientes mostraram reversão de arteriosclerose um ano mais tarde. Circulation 86:1-11, ‘92

20 Teste Clínico (12 mg col/dia)
Em um terceiro teste, o médico permitiu apenas 12 mg de colesterol na dieta por dia (o equivalente a 2 copos de leite desnatado diariamente) 82% dos pacientes mostraram o reverso de arteriosclerose, os vasos obstruídos começaram a se abrir. Lancet 336: , ‘90

21 O que dizer sobre Frango e Peixe?
Frango é aprox. tão alto em colesterol quanto o bife (70 mg por 100 g) Peixe tem de mg de colesterol por 100g , dependendo do tipo de peixe Assim, se colesterol oxidado, antes que gordura saturada, é o maior problema em arteriosclerose, peixe ou frango seriam tão danosos quanto bife, independente dos níveis de colesterol do sangue Se o colesterol na dieta é o problema e não somente gordura saturada então o frango seria tão danoso como o bife, porque ele contém quase a mesma quantia de colesterol. Peixe também é um alimento alto em colesterol e poderia não ser recomendado.Stamler points out from animal studies “long-term feeding of small amounts of cholesterol leads to atherosclerosis despite little or no rise in serum total cholesterol, indicating an independent contribution of dietary cholesterol to atherogenesis over-and-above its influence on serum cholesterol. . .” Arch Pathol ab Med 1988;112: Stamler also points out that “On average, a 200-mg/1000 kcal higher intake of cholesterol at baseline was associated with a 30% higher CD rate in the Chicago Western Electric Study, a 200-mg/1000 kcal habitual lower cholesterol intake was associated with a 37% lower risk of death from any cause, equivalent to a life expectancy longer by 3.4 years. The importance of a low-dietary cholesterol intake for prevention of CHD merits increased emphasis.” Ibid. We should not wait to counsel people to go on a low cholesterol diet until the blood cholesterol level is elevated but should do it when we find they are consuming foods containing cholesterol.

22 Fibra Ingerida e Doença do Coração
Dietary fiber aids in lowering serum cholesterol. The soluble fiber does it the best. Foods which are best for this purpose are apples, oats, beans, buckwheat, and barley. A recent study should cereal fiber in general to reduce heart attack the best. Animal products contain little or no fiber.

23 Fibra Dietética e IM “Após ajustar a medida de erro em fibra dietética, total de energia, vitamina E, álcool, gordura saturada e índice de massa do corpo, o relativo risco de IM (ataque do coração) para uns 10 g o crescimento em fibra dietética foi de 0,56.” “Estes dados sugerem que dietas altas em fibras especialmente de fontes cereais, reduzem significantemente o risco de doenças coronárias do coração.” JAMA Feb. 14, 1996. It is difficult to get adequate fiber if one consumes much in the way of animal products. Fiber could reduce the risk of a heart attack by one-half.

24 O Testemunho de Jesus “Os alimentos cárneos produziram sangue e carne pobres. Vosso organismo se encontra em estado de inflamação, pronto a apanhar doenças. Estais sujeitos a ataques agudos de doença, e a morte repentina.” CRA 387, 1868. Sudden death would likely be heart attack. Adventists were told that meat would likely increase one’s risk of this back in 1868. Note what WHO says: “Population subgroups consuming diets rich in plant foods have lower CHD rates than the general population. For example, Seventh-Day Adventists in the Netherlands and Norway have CHD rates that are one-third to one-half of those in the general population. Californian Seventh-Day Adventists who eat meat have higher rates than do those who are vegetarians, and British vegetarians have a 30% lower rate of CHD mortality than non-vegetarians once an allowance is made for their lower rates of cigarette smoking. Serum cholesterol levels among vegetarians are significantly lower than among lacto-ovo-vegetarians and non-vegetarians.” WHO Technical Report Series 797, 1990.

25 O Testemunho de Jesus “Essa carne é tóxica e tem produzido nos seus consumidores câimbras, convulsões, apoplexia, e morte súbita.” CRA 386, 1864. Besides sudden death or heart attack it could cause apoplexy which is the old word for stroke. Now we know today that science says the same thing.

26 Não-vegetarianos têm:
Risco de Câncer Não-vegetarianos têm: 41% maior risco de câncer de próstata. Cancer 1989;64: 66% maior risco de câncer do ovário. Environmental Aspects of Cancer, 1983. Duas vezes o risco de câncer da bexiga. O uso de bife, aves domésticas ou peixe mais do que 3X por semana, tem duplicado risco. Maior risco de câncer do cólon. Maior risco de linfoma (tumor) JAMA 1996;275: Red meat and high protein foods were associated with a higher risk of renal cancer. J natl Cancer Inst 1994;86: A study of 6115 vegetarians in the United Kingdom with 5015 meat-eaters over a 12-year priod showed a 40% lower risk of dying of cancer among the vegetarians. Brit Med J June 25,1994;pp

27 Alimentos e Risco de Linfoma Não-Hodgkin
A high fruit intake reduced the risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by about one-third whereas high intake of hamburgers more than doubled the risk.

28 Vantagem das Frutas Proporção do risco de câncer foi listada como 1,0 para os que usavam frutas menos que 3X/semana: Isto era 0,3 por uso 1X /dia 0,26 por 2X ao dia. Comendo fruta 2X/dia: Tinham só 1/4 de risco de câncer do pulmão. Menos de 1/3 do risco de câncer do estômago. According to recent data from the Adventist Health Study eating fruit 2X or more a day reduced the risk of cancer by three-fourths. Lung cancer risk was reduced by three-fourths. Stomach cancer risk was reduced by two-thirds.

29 Mais Vantagens das Frutas
Frutas secas (passas, etc) são protetoras contra câncer pancreático. Também 40% de redução em câncer de próstata. Freqüente uso de tomate: Evita o risco de câncer de próstata em 40%. Evita o risco de câncer pancreático. Here is further data from the Adventist Health Study. Other studies in other groups have also shown the same thing.

30 Vantagens dos Vegetais
Se o risco do câncer de cólon pelo uso de feijões, ervilhas ou lentilhas usadas menos do que 1X/sem. era 1,0, ele foi reduzido pelo uso de 2X/sem. Mais de 3X/sem. havia 50% menos câncer de próstata. Também reduzido o risco de câncer pancreático Dried beans are useful in reducing colon, prostate and pancreatic cancer risk. This data again comes from the Adventist Health Study but is verified by other studies also. Note the WHO comment: “Lower rates of colorectal cancer in Californian Adventists, half of whom are vegetarians, support a protective effect of a vegetarian diet. . .” WHO Technical Report Series 797, 1990. Particularly useful are the leafy greens, the cruciferous vegetables and the beans in preventing disease, especially cancer and in maintaining good health. If one is consuming quite a few calories from animal products he is unlikey to be eating adequate amounts of these protective foods.

31 Frutas,Vegetais e Mortes
Os que têm acima de 65 anos de idade que foram mais altos consumidores de frutas e vegetais, com muita vitamina C e A, tinham além de tudo uma mortalidade de 0,3 comparados a baixos consumidores Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:32-6. Mortality rate was decreased by 70% in these older people if they were on a diet high in those foods that were high in vitamins A and C. Of course, these people didn’t wait until they were 65 to beging to eat this way. They were in a habit for many years of living this way.

32 Tipos de Gordura Os Adventistas nos USA consomem tanta gordura* quanto a população geral, contudo têm somente a metade de muitos cânceres, mesmo cânceres não relacionados ao fumo e álcool. Provavelmente seja o tipo de gordura que faz a diferença, desde que 62% dos Adventistas nos USA sejam considerados vegetarianos. *Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40: Yes, it is the animal products and not only the animal fat but other products in the meat that is increasing the cancer risk.

33 Frutas e Vegetais têm Muitos Fatores Preventivos
Flavonóides; Isoflavones; Plantas de esterol Compostos de alho; Elementos do limão Vitaminas: A (carotenóides), C, E, Folate Fibra Dietética Glucossinolates e Indoles Isotiocianatos e Tiocianatos Ditioltionos Minerais: Selenium Hexafosfato Inositol On the other hand scientists are now discovering all the good things in plant foods that help to prevent one from promoting the growth of cancers.

34 Carne e fatores de Risco de Câncer
Carne tem todos os fatores de risco de câncer: Alta em gordura animal Falta de fibras Falta de alfa e beta caroteno e vit. C Pode conter o vírus do câncer Contém carcinógenos químicos (nitrato) Alta proteína abaixa resistência ao câncer When one considers all the dietary factor which promote the growth of cancers meat has them all. On the other hand when one lists all the factors which help to inhibit the growth of cancers it is the plant foods that have them.

35 O Testemunho de Jesus “Cânceres, tumores e doenças do pulmão são em grande escala produzidos por comer carne.” CRA 383, 1902. Why did God tell us these things? Because He wanted us to be happy and in good health. “Beloved I wish above all things that thou propser and be in health, even as thy soul prospereth.” 3 Jn. 2. “For why will ye die, O house of Israel?” Eze. 18:31. “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. . “ Hosea 4:6. Was reall lack of knowledge? No. Because the next phrase states they had rejected the knowledge.

36 Diabetes Não-vegetarianos têm 3,8X maior risco de diabetes aparecendo em seu certificado de morte. Am J Public Health 1985;75: Não-vegetarianos têm maior risco de adquirir diabetes. Tem 2-2,5X maior risco de ser obeso. Obesidade aumenta o risco de diabetes. There is some uncertainty in some minds as to why vegetarians have less diabetes. Is it because of the meat in the diet or the lack of fruit and vegetables? It appears to be both factors. The WHO states: “Diets high i plant foods are associated with a lower incidence of diabetes mellitus. In a large follow-up study of California Seventh-Day Adventists, the death rate from diabetes mellitus wa approximately half that for all whites in the USA. Moreover, within the same group, vegetarians had a substantially lower risk than non-vegetarians of having diabetes a an underlying or contributing cause of death. Intervention studies in urbanized Australian Aborigines with impaired glucose tolerance have demonstrated beneficial effects of reversion to a traditional diet. These observations, and other studies, raise the possiblity of the primary prevention of diabetes by dietary means.” WHO Technical Report Series 797, 1990.

37 Osteoporose Densidade óssea de mulheres vegetarianas de 80 anos tão boas quanto não-vegetarianas de 60 anos JADA 1980;76: 20 anos de vantagem para mulher vegetariana Dr. Alice Marsh showed this in her study of approximately 1000 people half of whom were vegetarians and the other half were not. Some other studies have not shown this. More research needs to be done. But we were told by the Lord that the bones are not as healthy when we are on a meat diet.

38 O Testemunho de Jesus “. . . ossos e músculos encontravam-se em condição doentia, porque viviam de carne de animais mortos.” CRA, 387 (1896)

39 Obesidade Mulheres não-vegetarianas têm 2X o risco de ser obesas do que as vegetarianas Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:S191-8 Homens não-vegetarianos têm 2,5X de risco Obesidade duplica o risco de ataque do coração Obesidade aumenta o risco de: Câncer de Próstata 2,5X Câncer de Colon 3X Diabetes The Adventist Health Study showed meat eaters are much more likely to be obese. Skipping breakfast does it to according to a study done by Dr. Donald Hall in Clackamas, Oregon. Meat is a high caloric dense food and such always tends to make one eat more according to scientific studies. Dr. Gary Fraser recently reported that Adventist men who are obese double their risk of heart attack. Many cancers are increased by obesity also such as endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, etc.

40 Vegetarianos Provavelmente são Menos Obesos
No estudo de saúde Adventista, vegetarianos eram seguramente menos obesos. Alimentos de altas calorias (ex.:carnes, queijo, manteiga) tendem a aumentar calorias ingeridas. Taxa de Obesidade % Não-vegetarianos: Homens % Mulheres 32% Vegetarianos: Homens % Mulheres 16% Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:S191-8.

41 O Testemunho de Jesus “. . . o uso da carne de animais tende a tornar pesado o corpo. “ CRA 389, 1890. Adventists were told this back in 1890.

42 Carne e Doença “Próximo ao fumo e álcool, a carne é siplesmente a maior causa de doença e incapacidade no mundo ocidental.” Scharffenberg, JA. Problems With Meat, 1979. Years ago I made this statement. But at that time I included the word probably in the sentence. Today I can leave that out. We know this to be true.

43 O Testemunho de Jesus “A possibilidade de adquirir moléstias é dez vezes aumentada pelo uso da carne.” CRA 386, 1868. The major disease in the world are related to the use of meat. Ellen White told us even tuberculosis may be due to the use of meat. This we know to be true. She has told us that the use of pork in hot climates is a factor in leprosy also. But heart disease and cancer everyone is agreed are increased by use of meat.

44 Aptidão Física Há maior resistência em uma dieta alta em carboidrato tal como a vegetariana Nutr Today 1968;3(No.2):9-11. Alta dieta de gordura saturada vs. poliinsaturada resulta em mais alto difosfoglicerato (DPG) J. Blankenship Personal communication. Isto significa mais oxigênio disponível. DPG is depressed about 20% with a diet high in saturated fat as in a diet with much meat. The polyunsaturated fats don’t do this. We have more of those in things such as corn, safflower, or sunflower seed oils.

45 Exercício e Dieta Nutr Today 1968;3 (No2):9-11.
Alta proteína e dieta de gordura 0,63 g glicogênio/g músculo Máx. tempo de trabalho - 57 min. Alta Dieta CHO 3,53 g glicogênio/g músculo Máx. tempo de trabalho min. All marathon runners know about this study that was done and at least for one week before the race they are vegetarians. If it is good for one week why not one month, or one year, or a lifetime. I am told the winners of the races each year to the top of Pike’s Peak in Colorado are usually vegetarians.

46 O Testemunho de Jesus “. . . ossos e músculos encontravam-se em condição doentia, porque viviam de carne de animais mortos. . .” CRA 387, 1896. “É erro supor que a força muscular dependa do uso de alimento animal.” CRA 396, 1905. It is not protein or meat that gives us energy but it is the carbohydrates in the plant foods. The standard cientific recommendation in the United States today is that the Americans should double their intake of complex carbohydrates. Meat doesn’t have any of that. That is the way of saying get off your meat diet and eat more fruits and vegetables.

47 O Testemunho de Jesus “Cereais, frutas, nozes e verduras constituem o regime dietético escolhido por nosso Criador. Estes alimentos, preparados da maneira mais simples e natural possível, são os mais saudáveis e nutritivos. Produzem uma força, um poder de resistência e vigor intelectual, que não são promovidos por uma alimentação mais complexa e estimulante.” CRA 310, 1905. Why was God pleased to tell us all this many years ago? Because He wants us to be happy and in health as as our soul prospereth. It was the Greeks who divided the body from the intellectual aspect of man and from the spiritual part of him. You can’t divide him. He is a whole. What affects the one aspect will affect the other. There God wants all aspects to be peerfectly whole.

48 Economias Muito mais nutrição é provida pelo $$$$$$$$$$
gasto em alimentos que vêm das plantas, quando comparados aos alimentos que vêm dos animais! We were in a country one time where the mission president said to us, “You must remember our people here are poor. They have to eat meat.” He didn’t understand the economics of nutrition.

49 Ácido Ascórbico Comprado Por 1 Dólar
Ácido Ascórbico Comprado Por 1 Dólar USDA 1962, Home Economics Research Report No. 20 In the United States years ago the USDA did a study to see which food groups would give us the most of each of the nutrients for the dollar spent. Here it is for vitamin C.

50 Riboflavina Comprada/$

51 Proteína, gr.

52 Tiamina, mg.

53 Niacina, mg equivalentes

54 Vitamina A, UI

55 Cálcio, gm.

56 Ferro, mg.

57 Melhores Compras com Dólar
The housewife is now all confused. She can’t go out to the market today and buy vitamin C and next week iron, etc. She has to buy them all at one time. So I gave 6 points to any food group that was on the top of the list for any of these nutrients, then 5 points for the next one and so on down and then totalled them. Here’s how it turned out. The Best Buys for the $ are potatoes and grains, then came the beans and peanut group, and then the yellow leafy and dark green vegetables. This is exactly how people eat when they are poor. Beans and tortillos in Mexico, rice and cabbage in China, beans and potatoes in the U.S. when we were poor. That is the best way to eat when you are poor and even when you are wealthy.

58 Piores Compras com Dólar
Sugar was the poorest buy for the dollar. But what really surprised me was to find that meat and fish was the next worst buy for the dollar. This is not to say there is not some good nutrition in meat but for the dollar you get very little of the need nutrients. It is a relatively expensive food. You would think some Seventh-day Adventist made this chart. And you are right, he did. But you say that is only for the United States. That wouldn’t apply to other countries. We’ve tested it out in four different countries and it always turns out the same.

59 Custo de Doenças Devido à Carne
O custo para os EUA em 1992 tem sido estimado entre $28,6 e $61,4 bilhões das doenças produzidas como resultado de consumir carne. De: Hipertensão, Doença do coração, Câncer, Diabetes, Obesidade relacionada à desordens da estrutura muscular, Doenças vindas pela alimentação, etc Prev Med Dec “As the urban elite (e.g., government civil servants and other professional groups) in the developing world experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer, there is an inevitable increase in the demand for medical therapy of the kind found in affluent societies. The provision of high-technology, hospital-based medical care within the cities of deveoping countries both distorts the pattern, and escalates the costs, of health care. “Hypertension and heart disease are already major health problems in many African cities and are of rapidly increasing concern in Asia. For example, the prevalence of high blood pressure in both men and women is at least four times as high in urban as in rural areas of Ghana.” “A study of 12 cities (2 “western” and 10 Latin American) showed that inall the cities, whether “developed” or “developing”, the leading causes of death after childhood were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.” “In developed countries, diseases related to life-style (including diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, and the level of physical activity) account for most morbidity and mortality.” WHO Study Goup, Diet, Nutriton, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases WHO Technical Report Series 797.

60 Ecologia e Ambiente Um acre usado para plantar trigo produzirão kcal. Mas se os animais são alimentados por grãos e nós consumimos o alimento de animais nós ganhamos apenas kcal. Beber leite dá-nos somente 15% de calorias. Comer ovos dá em retorno somente 7%. Comer bife dá em retorno somente 4%.

61 Perda de Proteína Animais são pobres convertedores de proteína.
Leite produz somente 23% da proteína que a vaca ingere Porco provê somente 12%. Bife provê somente 10%.

62 Uso de Água É preciso 25X mais de água para produzir 500g de carne do que para produzir o mesmo tanto de vegetais 500g de carne conterá 4X tantas calorias como os vegetais mas a proporção é ainda fortemente em favor dos vegetais.

63 Recomendações de um Congresso
Mais fácil encontrar recomendações nutricionais de fontes científicas pelo uso de alimentação vegetariana. Não terá de calcular como baixar seu colesterol ingerido. Como aumentar a fibra ingerida. Como aumentar alfa e beta caroteno. Como baixar gordura de animal ingerida. Como evitar adquirir demasiada proteína.

64 Alimentos Designados para o Homem
E Deus disse: “Eis que vos tenho dado todas as ervas que dão semente e se acham na superfície de toda terra, e todas as árvores em que há fruto que dê semente; isso vos será para alimento”. Gênesis 1:29 Isto é: frutas, cereais, nozes, vegetais e legumes.

65 Alimentação Original de Deus e Gordura
Assim, a dieta original foi ideal no seguinte: 1. Não contém gordura animal 2. Tem suficientes gorduras essenciais dos recursos das plantas

66 Ácidos Gordurosos Essenciais
Ácidos gordurosos essenciais (gorduras requeridas tais como linoleicas) vêm primariamente das plantas Linoleica reduz o risco de: Hipertensão Viscosidade de Plaquetas Alto colesterol sangüíneo Ataque do coração Fibrilação ventricular

67 Fibra Dietética Há 2 tipos de fibras em nossa alimentação
Fibra Solúvel Ajuda a baixar o colesterol e triglicerídeos Melhores fontes são: aveia, feijões, maçãs, cevada e trigo integral Fibra Insolúvel Reduz o risco de câncer de cólon Melhor fonte é farelo de trigo

68 Fibra Dietética Na dieta original e na dieta vegetariana não-refinada há uma abundância de fibras. Não há fibras em produtos animais e muito pouco no pão branco, açúcar, gorduras e outros produtos refinados. Fibra/alimento gr carne, ovos, leite , pão branco, 1 fatia 0,6 maçã, 1 média ,0 pera, 1 média ,5 batata, 1 média ,9 ervilha, ½ xícara ,0 brócolis, 1 xícara ,4 feijão cozido, 1 xíc. 11,0

69 Fibra e Estudo de Saúde Adventista
Câncer de cólon diminuído quando se aumentam as fibras na alimentação Homens que comiam pão de trigo integral tinham somente: 56% da expectativa da taxa de ataque cardíaco 89% da expectativa de mortes de ataques cardíacos

70 De que Grupos de Alimento Deveríamos Selecionar nossa Dieta?
Melhor prevenir: Frut. Veget. Cereal Feijão Noz Leite Ovo Câncer X X X X Doença Cardíaca X X X X X Osteoporose X X X X X Obesidade X X X X Alimento c/ veneno X X X X Diabetes X X X X Falha nervosa X X X X Melhor para: Resistência física X X X X Custo X X X Ecologia X X X X Save You Money Because They: 1. Provide more protein for the dollar. 2. Provide more iron for the dollar. 3. Reduce your risk of high medical bills. Improve the environment and help us ecologically because: 1. They don’t take so much water to grow. 2. They provide more calories and nutrients in a much smaller space. 3. They are less expensive to grow.

71 O Testemunho de Jesus “Os estudantes efetuariam muito mais em seus estudos se nunca provassem carne.” CRA 389, 1896. “Se as coisas fossem como elas deveriam ser nas casas que compõem nossas igrejas, nós poderíamos fazer duplo serviço para o Senhor… Eles fazem da alimentação cárnea uma parte de sua dieta.” Test. Studies on D & F. 66, 1903. Are you a student? Would you like to accomplish more? Would you like to do double service for the Lord in the time you have?

72 O Testemunho de Jesus “O poder dominante do apetite demonstrar-se-á a ruína de milhares quando, se houvessem triunfado nesse ponto, teriam força moral para ganhar a vitória sobre qualquer outra tentação de Satanás.” CRA 59, 1875. Is what we are talking about important spiritually?

73 O Testemunho de Jesus “…condescender com o apetite constitui o maior embaraço ao cultivo da mente e à santificação da alma.” CRA 45, 1909 What is the greatest hindrance to sanctification?

74 O Testemunho de Jesus “Deus requer que o apetite seja dominado. . . É esta uma obra que tem de ser feita antes que o povo de Deus possa ser apresentado diante dEle perfeito.” CRA 381, 1909. “Entre os que estão aguardando a vinda do Senhor, o comer carne será afinal abandonado; a carne deixará de fazer parte de sua alimentação.” CRA 380-1, 1890. Is it important that we as Adventists do something about this?

75 O Testemunho de Jesus “Os que estão em condições de seguir o regime vegetariano, mas atêm-se às suas preferências, comendo e bebendo o que lhes apraz, e pouco a pouco se tornarão descuidosos das instruções que o Senhor lhes deu no tocante às outras verdades e serão por fim incapazes de discernir a verdade, colhendo o que semearam.” CRA 403, 1909.

76 O Testemunho de Jesus “Porventura os ministros do evangelho, que estão a proclamar a verdade mais solene já enviada aos mortais, devem constituir-se exemplo no regresso às panelas de carne do Egito?” CRA 404, 1909. Is this subject of importance especially to ministers and the leaders of our work?

77 Apelo a Meus companheiros Crentes
Deus deseja que você seja feliz e saudável. 3 João 2; Êxo. 15:26. Ele deseja que você seja santo (1 Ped. 1:15, 16; Lev. 19:2) ou totalmente de Deus. Hoje, não deveríamos todos nos consagrar completamente à Deus?

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