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Sistemas Distribuídos Sincronização de Processos Alex Borges Vieira.

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Apresentação em tema: "Sistemas Distribuídos Sincronização de Processos Alex Borges Vieira."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Sistemas Distribuídos Sincronização de Processos Alex Borges Vieira

2 Objetivos Apresentar ao aluno os principais conceitos de sistemas distribuídos e suas aplicações. Discutir problemas e técnicas relacionados à implementação de sistemas distribuídos. Capacitar o aluno a implementar sistemas distribuídos simples utilizando arquitetura cliente servidor e P2P. Apresentar aos alunos tendências e desafios na área de sistemas distribuídos.

3 AVALIAÇÃO DE APRENDIZAGEM - CRONOGRAMA AvaliaçãoDataValorTipo de Avaliaçã o Conteúdo Programático TVC109/05100ProvaUnidades de 1 a 5 TVC204/07100ProvaUnidades de 6 a 10 TVC311/07100Trabalho em grupo Trabalho de caractere multidisciplinar envolvendo todas as unidades da disciplina (1 a 12). Cálculo da Nota Média: (4 * Primeira Nota + 4 * Segunda Nota + 2 * Terceira Nota)/10. Aprovado se média maior/igual a 60. Observações a) PROVAS INDIVIDUAIS E SEM CONSULTA b) Grupos compostos por 3 a 4 pessoas.

4 Cronograma para o Mês 1Apresentação da disciplina -objetivos e critérios de aprovação Introdução aos Sistemas Distribuídos -definição, Metas e Tipos 14/03/11 216/03/11 3Arquiteturas de Sistemas Distribuídos (Estilos Arquitetônicos, Arquiteturas de Sistemas, Arquiteturas versus Middleware, Autogerenciamento) 21/03/11 4Processos em Sistemas Distribuídos (Threads, Virtualização, Clientes) 23/03/11 5 Processos em Sistemas Distribuídos (Servidores, Migração de Código) 28/03/11

5 BIBLIOGRAFIA Bibliografia Básica COULOURIS, G.; DOLLIMORE, J.; KINDBERG, T. Distributed systems - concepts and design. Third Edition, Addison-Wesley, LYNCH, N. A. Distributed algorithms. Morgan Kauffmann, Bibliografia Complementar CHOW, R.; JOHSON, T. Distributed operating systems & algorithms. Addison- Wesley, GALLI, D. Distributed operating systems. Prentice-Hall HENNING, M.; VINOSKI, S. Advanced CORBA Programming with C++. Addison-Wesley, MULLENDER, S. (ed.). Distributed systems. Addison-Wesley, TANENBAUM, A.S. Distributed operating systems. Prentice-Hall, 1995.

6 Idioma???? Inglês! –Livros mais novos –Livros mais baratos –Artigos de verdade

7 Characterization of Distributed Systems From Coulouris, Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design Edition 3, © Addison-Wesley 2001

8 Distributed Systems WTH is this?

9 Distributed Systems WTH is this?

10 Networking and Parallel Computing Computer networking –Hardware that connects computers –Software that sends/receives messages from one computer to another, which might be on different networks (end to end delivery) –Goal is to transmit messages reliably and efficiently Parallel Computing –Multiple homogeneous processors in one computer –Shared or distributed memory –Goal is to execute a program faster by division of labor

11 Distributed Computing Networked computers that could be far apart –rely on computer networking Communicate and coordinate by sending messages Goal is to share (access/provide) distributed resources Issues: –Concurrent execution of processes –No global clock for coordination –More components, more independent failures

12 Coulouris, Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design Edn. 4 © Pearson Education 2005 Examples of Distributed Systems Global Internet Organizational Intranets--behind router/firewall Mobile Computing -- computers move Ubiquitous Computing -- computers embedded everywhere Issues: –discovery of resources in different host environments –dynamic reconfiguration –limited connectivity –privacy and security guarantees to the user and the host environment

13

14 % server: network link: % % % A typical portion of the Internet

15 A typical intranet

16 Portable and handheld devices in a distributed system

17 Web servers and web browsers Internet Browsers Web servers Protocols Activity.html File system of

18 Computers in the Internet Date Computers Web servers 1979, Dec , July130, , July56,218,0005,560,866

19 Computers vs. Web servers in the Internet DateComputersWeb serversPercentage 1993, July 1,776, , July6,642,00023, , July19,540,0001,203, , July56,218,0006,598,69712

20 Computers vs. Web servers in the Internet DateComputersWeb serversPercentage 1993, July 1,776, , July6,642,00023, , July19,540,0001,203, , July56,218,0006,598,69712

21 What happened with the Internet in 2009? How many websites were added? How many s were sent? How many Internet users were there?

22 90 trillion – The number of s sent on the Internet in billion – Average number of messages per day. 1.4 billion – The number of users worldwide. 100 million – New users since the year before. 81% – The percentage of s that were spam. 92% – Peak spam levels late in the year. 24% – Increase in spam since last year. 200 billion – The number of spam s per day –assuming 81% are spam

23 Websites 234 million – The number of websites as of December million – Added websites in 2009.

24 Websites 234 million – The number of websites as of December million – Added websites in DateComputersWeb serversPercentage 1993, July 1,776, , July6,642,00023, , July19,540,0001,203, , July56,218,0006,598,69712

25 Domain Names 81.8 million –.COM domain names at the end of million –.NET domain names at the end of million –.ORG domain names at the end of million – The number of country code top-level domains (e.g..CN,.UK,.DE, etc.). 187 million – The number of domain names across all top- level domains (October 2009). 8% – The increase in domain names since the year before.

26 Internet Users 1.73 billion – Internet users worldwide (September 2009). –18% – Increase in Internet users since the previous year. 738,257,230Internet users in Asia. 418,029,796Internet users in Europe. 252,908,000Internet users in North America. 179,031,479Internet users in Latin America/Caribbean. 67,371,700 Internet users in Africa. 57,425,046 Internet users in the Middle East. 20,970,490 Internet users in Oceania / Australia.

27 Social Net. 126 million – The number of blogs on the Internet –as tracked by BlogPulse 84% – Percent of social network sites with more women than men million – Number of tweets on Twitter per day 57% – Percentage of Twitters user base located in the USA 4.25 million – People –Ashton Kutcher, Twitters most followed user 350 million – People on Facebook. 50% – Percentage of Facebook users that log in every day. 500,000 – The number of active Facebook applications.

28 Images 4 billion – Photos hosted by Flickr (October 2009). 2.5 billion – Photos uploaded each month to Facebook. 30 billion – At the current rate, the number of photos uploaded to Facebook per year.

29 Videos 1 billion – videos YouTube serves in one day billion – Videos viewed per month on YouTube in the US 924 million – Videos viewed per month on Hulu in the US 182 – The number of online videos the average Internet user watches in a month (USA). 82% – Percentage of Internet users that view videos online (USA). 39.4% – YouTube online video market share (USA). 81.9% – Percentage of embedded videos on blogs that are YouTube.

30 Malicious ,000 – New zombie computers created per day –used in botnets for sending spam, etc. 2.6 million – Amount of malicious code threats at the start of 2009 –viruses, trojans, etc. 921,143 – The number of new malicious code signatures added by Symantec in Q

31 Challenges and Issues (1) Heterogeneity –networks, hardware, os, languages... –middlewarecorba – mobile code, virtual machines Openness –extended and re-implemented in various ways –standard published interfaces –RFC, request for comments Security –confidentiality –integrity –availability

32 Challenges and Issues (2) Scalability –effective with significant increase in resources –cost –performance Failure handling –detecting –maskinghide, less severe (retransmit) –tolerating--ignore, timeout –recovery--logs, rollback –Redundancy Concurrency

33 Transparencies Access transparency: enables local and remote resources to be accessed using identical operations. Location transparency: enables resources to be accessed without knowledge of their location. Concurrency transparency: enables several processes to operate concurrently using shared resources without interference between them.

34 Transparencies Replication transparency: enables multiple instances of resources to be used to increase reliability and performance without knowledge of the replicas by users or application programmers. Failure transparency: enables the concealment of faults, allowing users and application programs to complete their tasks despite the failure of hardware or software components. Mobility transparency: allows the movement of resources and clients within a system without affecting the operation of users or programs.

35 Transparencies Performance transparency: allows the system to be reconfigured to improve performance as loads vary. Scaling transparency: allows the system and applications to expand in scale without change to the system structure or the application algorithms.


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