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1 UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM PSICOLOGIA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO GRUPO DE PESQUISA EM PSICOLOGIA COMUNITÁRIA Brazilian adolescents’ says on their well-being and quality of life Ângela Carina Paradiso, Fabiane Friedrich Schütz, Maíne Alves Prates, Anelise Lopes Rodrigues, Livia Bedin Prof. Dr. Jorge Castellá Sarriera

2 Quality of life is defined as an individual’s perception on it’s position in life, culture and value systems in which one lives in, and in relation to their goals, expectations, patterns and worries (WHOQOL – World Health Organization, 1995) The Quality of Life concept includes the feeling of well-being. Individual’s evaluation towards the reality one’s participate is considered (Ríos, 1994). INTRODUCTION

3 The well-being concept, although, has no unique definition on the academic research field (Rees, Goswami & Bradshaw, 2010). According to Diener, Suh, Lucas and Smith (1999), Subjective Well-Being is a wide category that incorporates people’s emotional responses, domain satisfactions and global judgments on life satisfactions. INTRODUCTION

4 Young people do not produce scientific knowledge by themselves. It is up to the researchers to give voice to their perceptions on their well being and quality of life, acknowledging their citizen condition (Casas, 2010; Sarriera et al, 2007; UNESCO, 2004).

5 OBJECTIVE To understand adolescent’s perceptions on their Well- Being and Quality of Life and identify it’s meanings and expressive categories.

6 METHOD The focus groups technique was applied and discussions were recorded, transcribed and uploaded into the data analysis software Atlas Ti. The obtained content was analysed through Content Analysis (Bardin, 1977).

7 METHOD Participants: – 55 adolescents of both sexes: 32 private school students (3 schools) 23 public school students (2 schools) 8 focus groups with approximately 6 participants each. – Schools are located in three cities in the south of Brazil

8 RESULTS Interpersonal Aspects Personal Aspects Contextual Aspects Well-Being Friends Parents Family Community World View Satisfaction with oneself Life Styles Material Conditions Formal Education Social Pressure CATEGORYCONCEPT CONCEPTUAL AXES

9 RESULTS Interpersonal Aspects includes – Relationships with parents, family, friends, and community are valued. – Social Support is perceived as a substantial aspect in these relationships. – The main aspect perceived regarding friendship is emotional support, while considering relation with their parents “communication”, “attention” and “presence” are also highlighted.

10 RESULTS Interpersonal Aspects’ quotes: “It’s a person that will be there anytime...(...) It’s the one that is there to whether good or bad times, like they say, but in fact it’s true, because if you’re feeling bad, the person will be there for you and if you’re feeling well the person will also be there”. “É uma pessoa que ta ali pra toda hora né (...) É uma que ta sempre para as horas boas e para as ruins, coisa que sempre dizem, mas que na realidade é a verdade porque se tu vai ta mal ele ta contigo, se tu ta bem também ta contigo. Então acho que é uma questão de companheirismo”.

11 RESULTS Interpersonal Aspects’ quotes: “Our parents are very important when we are young. While we’re young, while we’re growing, learning and all, they are very important to give us instructions, to lift us up, to comfort us. And to those who lose their parents very young it’s hard to manage how to get through it, even for their children, when becoming adults”. “Os pais são muito importantes assim principalmente quando a gente é mais jovem. Enquanto a gente é jovem, que a gente tá crescendo, aprendendo e tal eles são muito importantes pra dar instrução, pra erguer, pra confortar a gente. E quem perde os pais, muito jovem é meio difícil conseguir passar isso para os seus filhos quando virar adulto”..

12 RESULTS Personal Aspects includes: – Satisfaction with oneself in physical and psychological terms – Life styles: attitudes and activities aiming healthcare and/or pleasure – World view: values importantly related to well-being (empathy, faith, and harmony) constructed by their living experiences

13 RESULTS Personal Aspects quotes: “(...) involve things that we appreciate doing, things that are good for us, that are pleasant. Through our actions we set up the concepts that will make our personalities.” “envolve coisas que a gente gosta de fazer, coisas que pra nós é bom, é prazeroso. A partir de nossas ações a gente vai construindo conceitos que vão construir nossa personalidade, né”.

14 RESULTS Personal Aspects quotes: “(…) If we don’t care and close ourselves into a bubble, it won’t be quality of life, it’ll be something fake. Sometimes not just the quality of life, but it’s important to suffer for somebody that doesn’t have the opportunities you have… let’s say compassion or help, being solidary, it’s also part of our quality of life.” “se a gente não se importar e se fechar numa bolha não vai ser qualidade de vida vai ser uma coisa falsa. Às vezes não só a qualidade de vida mas também é importante sofrer por alguma pessoa que não tem a oportunidade que tem, digamos compaixão né ou ajudar ser solidário também faz parte da nossa qualidade de vida.”

15 RESULTS Contextual Aspects includes: – Material conditions: attends basic needs concerning social indicators and provides access to better opportunities. – Formal Education: relevant aspect to the future concerning social inclusion and carrer opportunities.

16 RESULTS Contextual Aspects quotes: “It’s like when you got money, the more you have the better is the college you get… like in the future you’ll have quality of life and will also provide it to your children”. “Que nem quando tu tem dinheiro, tu pode receber uma educação melhor, mais dinheiro pra uma faculdade melhor... que nem futuramente tu vai ter uma qualidade de vida de vida e vai proporcionar pro teus filhos uma qualidade de vida melhor também.”

17 AMBIVALENCES In the categorization process some ambivalences were found: – Health-Risk Behaviours: relationship with friends offer support, but can also lead to risky behaviours such as drugs and alcohol abuse. – Money: it brings more opportunities, but can also lead to a distorted world view. – Social pressure: adolescents felt pressured by social patterns to act in ways which they don’t feel comfortable with.

18 The conceptual axes (interpersonal, personal and contextual aspects) suggest that adolescents comprehend well-being from a global, holistic perspective, not transitory, situational. Ryff e Keyes (1995) already postulate that well-being is a multidimensional concept. The authors described it as an evaluative perspective based on an individual’s comprehension on it’s life experiences. DISCUSSION

19 Adolescent’s perceptions on their well-being are influenced by multiple aspects (personal, psychosocial and contextual), such as perceptions, opinions, attitudes, representations and evaluations concerning different scopes (Casas et al, 2004; González, 2005).

20 Adolescents attribute as much importance to friends as to their parents. Family support, communication between parents and children, and limits are perceived as sensibility towards their feelings, positive involvement and capability to maintain discipline in a consistent way (Silveira et al, 2005). DISCUSSION

21 Adolescents’ references to Well-Being are described in terms of pleasure or happiness referring to Hedonic Well- Being(Ryan & Deci, 2001). Participants also made references to value and world vision development through social acquaintanceship, considering those aspects as relevant to well-being promotion. Those references are understood based on Eudemonic Well-Being perspective which evolves meaning and self-realization of human potential (Ryan & Deci, 2001).

22 DISCUSSION Today’s life conditions and the access to opportunities are considered the way to achieve future goals on professional careers. However, the access to quality education and work opportunities are not the same to all (Blustein et al 2002). Adolescents value education as a way to obtain a high-degree level profession. Brazilian adolescents tend to have a good evaluation on the idea of college admission (Sparta & Gomes, 2005), despite of their social class.

23 FINAL COMMENTS Adolescents understand reality in a reflexive, critical way, and comprehend that their well-being depends on attitudes, behaviours, showing their ability to take responsibility on promoting their well-being.

24 REFERENCES Antunes, C., & Fontaine, A. M. (2005). Percepção de apoio social na adolescência: Análise fatorial confirmatória da Escala Social Support Appraisals. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 15(32), 355-366. Bardin, L. (1977). Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70. Blustein, D. L., Chaves, A. P., Diemer, M. A., Gallagher, L. A., Marshall, K. G., Sirin, S., Bhati, K. S. (2002). Voices of the forgotten half: The role of social class in the school-to-work transition. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(3), 311-323. Casas, F. (2010). El bienestar personal: Su investigación en la infancia y la adolescencia. Encuentros en Psicología Social, 5(1), 85-101. Casas, F., Conenders, G., Cummins, R. A., González, M., Figuer, C. & Malo, S. (2007). Does subjective well-being show a relationship between parents and their children? Journal of Happiness Studies, DOI 10.1007/s10902-007-9044-7. Casas, F.; Estrada, M. R. B.; Ramírez, C. F.; Carrasco, M. G.; Teijón, A. T.; Pigem, N. E.; Rodríguez, J. M. R. (2004). Los valores y su influencia em la satisfacción vital de los adolescentes entre los 12 y los 16 años: estúdio de algunos correlatos. Apuntes de Psicología, 22 (1), 3-23. Cummins, R.A. & Lau, A.L.D. (2005). Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children. 3 rd Edition. Australian Centre on Quality of Life, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Melbourne. Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R. & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-302. González, M (2005). Una metodología para el análisis no lineal del bienestar psicológico en la adolescencia. Encuentros en Psicología Social, 3(2), 59-70.

25 Pratta, E. M. M. & Santos, M. A. (2007). Família e adolescência: A influência do contexto familiar no desenvolvimento psicológico dos seus membros. Psicologia em Estudo, 12(2), 247-256. Puig, J. M.; Trilla, J.(2000) La pedagogía del ocio. Editorial Alertes. Ríos, L. F. (1994). Manual de psicologia preventiva: teoria e prática. Madrid: Siglo XXI. Rees, G., Goswami H., & Bradshaw, J. (2010). Developing an index of children’s subjective well-being in England. Full report. Disponível em http://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/tcs/research_docs/Developing%20an%20Index%20of%20Chi ldren%27s%20Subjective%20Well-being%20in%20England.pdf Sarriera, J. C., Paradiso, Â. C., Mousquer, P. N., Marques, L. F., Hermel, J. S. & Coelho, R P. S. (2007). Significado do tempo livre para adolescentes de classe popular. Psicologia: Ciência e Profissão, 27 (4), 718-729. Silveira, L.M.O.B, Pacheco, J, Cruz, T., & Schneider, A. M. A. (2005) Estratégias Educativas desejáveis e indesejáveis: uma comparação entre a percepção de pais e mães de adolescentes. Aletheia, 21, 31-42. Sparta, M. & Gomes, W. B. (2005). Importância atribuída ao ingresso na educação superior por alunos do ensino médio. Revista Brasileira de Orientação Profissional, 6(2),45-53. Teixeira, M A P; Oliveira, A M; Wottrich, S H. (2006) Escalas de Práticas Parentais (EPP): avaliando dimensões de práticas parentais em relação a adolescentes. Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica, 19(3), 433-441. UNESCO (2004). Políticas públicas de/para/com juventudes. Brasília: UNESCO. WHOQOL Group (1995). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Social Science and Medicine, 41(10), 1.403-1.409.

26 UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL INSTITUTO DE PSICOLOGIA PÓS GRADUAÇÃO EM PSICOLOGIA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO GRUPO DE PESQUISA EM PSICOLOGIA COMUNITÁRIA Brazilian adolescents’ says on their well-being and quality of life Ângela Carina Paradiso, Fabiane Friedrich Schütz, Maíne Alves Prates, Anelise Lopes Rodrigues, Livia Bedin Prof. Dr. Jorge Castellá Sarriera


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