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BRASIL 1945 - 2004 MIGRATION POLICIES AND MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL – 1945 to the present Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros (IUPERJ/UFRJ) – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil.

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Apresentação em tema: "BRASIL 1945 - 2004 MIGRATION POLICIES AND MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL – 1945 to the present Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros (IUPERJ/UFRJ) – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 BRASIL MIGRATION POLICIES AND MANAGEMENT IN BRAZIL – 1945 to the present Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros (IUPERJ/UFRJ) – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil Presentation at Freie Universität – Lateinamerika Institut Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros (IUPERJ/UFRJ) – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil Presentation at Freie Universität – Lateinamerika Institut

2 BRASIL Managing the official numbers of immigrant arrivals till 1972 Fonte: LEVY, M. S. F. O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira ( ). Revista de Saúde Pública, São Paulo, v.8, supl. p.49-90, 1974

3 BRASIL General Overview of the immigrants motivations in the beginning of 20 th century The Brazilian coffee culture had received many immigrants as colognes from the end of the 19 th century to the beginning of the 20 th. Since that, immigrants were received and registered by Colonizations Institutes, which were held to organize those flows, directed to the rural and recent industry labor in Sao Paulo region. The propose of their coming usually is connected to the I and II war periods, the fascism movements, economic crisis after the 1929´s Crash, and motivations for having a better life and work in the new land, even though Brazilian Government till the 30´s restricts the entrance up to 2% for each nationality.

4 BRASIL Brazilians Governments and its greater Democracys transitions Brazilian had suffered two long dictatorship periods between 1937 and 1945 and between 1964 and Populist Democracy Period Military Dictatorship 2 nd. Democratization and the Begin of Liberal Democracy Democratic Constitutions (1946 and 1988) Getulio Vargas 1 st Gov Revolution + Provisory Government + Estado Novo Dictatorship So, the Democratic government was established completely (including secrets vote right, for example) since 1945, when Getulio Vargass initiates direct elections and a Constitution Process, stopped because of the Military Dictatorship since 1964.

5 BRASIL The Populist Years for Immigration Enrico G. Dutra ( ) - responsable for redemocratization, he had put things in order. Getulio Vargas ( ) - trying to clean up his image as a dictator, he has done a populist worker governmet as well as he promotes immigration only for special qualified workes – Transforms DNI into CIC. Jucelino Kubstcheck (* ) - With a mixed Economy propose, he was the first to refuse to catch communists, even if he tried to control Brazil´s receiving policy, reflecting Brazil´s opening to IR agreements. Janio Quadros (1961) - As the less popular president, he became a moralist and conservative governant, even though he was being close to Fidel Castro. Joao Goulart ( ) - The leftist government, he is a reformer on the rural issues, including regularization of immigrants inthis and urban sectors, amplifieng their civil rights. * as Getulio Vargas suicide, there was a provisory government to hold elections.

6 BRASIL Copy of the Getulio Vargas Original Document on Migration Issues, from the National Department of Immigration (1939) and Dutra´s Document about DNI.

7 BRASIL Copy of the Getulio Vargas Original Documents from de Institute for Immigration and Colonization Issues (1952 and 1954).

8 BRASIL Copy of Jucelino Kubitschek´s original government´s document on Migration Issues, from the National Institute of Immigration and Colonization (1956).

9 BRASIL Copy of Janio Quadros´ original government´s document on Migration Issues, from the National Institute of Immigration and Colonization (1961).

10 BRASIL Copy of Joao Goulart´s Speech (1961).

11 BRASIL The Dictatorship Years for Immigration Castelo Branco ( ) – As the first to help the Dictartorship, he begins the Legislative Reform in favor of the regime, treating the blow as Revolution. Costa e Silva ( ) – He wins the elections against the opposite candidate which had to be approved by the Military forces. He had imposed the AI-5 repressive law. Medice ( ) – He uses all the effectiveness law against those who opposite the regime. Ernesto Geisel ( ) – Supposed to be the one to held the open process, he had a contradictory mandate, suspending the Congress and continuing to repress opposition movements. Joao B. Figueiredo ( ) – As a former Ministry of SNI – National Service on Information -, he had held a Conservative open process.

12 BRASIL The Dictatorship Period Documents Min. da Justica – Costa e Silva 1969 Intern. Relations – Medice

13 BRASIL Some other Documents Jose Sarney and the first civil government Document Intern. Relations – Medice

14 BRASIL The Democratization and the dismiss in Regulating Flows The Brazilian Last Legislation on Immigrant´s LEI Nº 6.815, DE 19 DE AGOSTO DE 1980 Define a situação jurídica do estrangeiro no Brasil, cria o Conselho Nacional de Imigração, e dá outras providências. Art. 1° Em tempo de paz, qualquer estrangeiro poderá, satisfeitas as condições desta Lei, entrar e permanecer no Brasil e dele sair, resguardados os interesses nacionais. Art. 2º Na aplicação desta Lei atender-se-á precipuamente à segurança nacional, à organização institucional, aos interesses políticos, sócio-econômicos e culturais do Brasil, bem assim à defesa do trabalhador nacional. Art. 3º A concessão do visto, a sua prorrogação ou transformação ficarão sempre condicionadas aos interesses nacionais. (...) Art. 7º Não se concederá visto ao estrangeiro: I - menor de 18 (dezoito) anos, desacompanhado do responsável legal ou sem a sua autorização expressa; II - considerado nocivo à ordem pública ou aos interesses nacionais; III - anteriormente expulso do País, salvo se a expulsão tiver sido revogada; IV - condenado ou processado em outro país por crime doloso, passível de extradição segundo a lei brasileira; ou V - que não satisfaça às condições de saúde estabelecidas pelo Ministério da Saúde. (...) Art. 9º O visto de turista poderá ser concedido ao estrangeiro que venha ao Brasil em caráter recreativo ou de visita, assim considerado aquele que não tenha finalidade imigratória, nem intuito de exercício de atividade remunerada. (...) Art. 15. Ao estrangeiro referido no item III ou V do artigo 13 só se concederá o visto se satisfizer às exigências especiais estabelecidas pelo Conselho Nacional de Imigração e for parte em contrato de trabalho, visado pelo Ministério do Trabalho, salvo no caso de comprovada prestação de serviço ao Governo brasileiro. (...) Parágrafo único. A imigração objetivará, primordialmente, propiciar mão-de-obra especializada aos vários setores da economia nacional, visando à Política Nacional de Desenvolvimento em todos os aspectos e, em especial, ao aumento da produtividade, à assimilação de tecnologia e à captação de recursos para setores específicos. (Redação dada pela Lei nº 6.964, de 09/12/81) Art. 57. Nos casos de entrada ou estada irregular de estrangeiro, se este não se retirar voluntariamente do território nacional no prazo fixado em Regulamento, será promovida sua deportação. (Renumerado pela Lei nº 6.964, de 09/12/81)

15 BRASIL The Democratization Period and It´s Numbers of Foreign People Foreigners in Brazil Europa = or 24.05% América del Norte = or 13.70% América del Sur = or 44 % América Central = or 2.01% África = or 2.82% Asia = or 16.91% Oceanía = 317 or 0.50% Sin especificación = 453 or 0.71% Total or 100% Font: IBGE. Censo Demográfico de 1991; Tabulaciones especiales, NEPO/UNICAMP.

16 BRASIL Some problems concerning the changes on actual flows

17 BRASIL Immigration Panorama in Brazil (1996-today)

18 BRASIL Briefing and Conclusions In resume, Immigrations Policies were defined into the States necessities: Before the Vargas Provisory and Dictatorship Governments for coffee and commodities production; During its period, for the formation of a national identity view of qualified workers; on 1945 for the workers organizations on the defense of the national market; On the Populist Period, also to confirm International Agreements to Reforce the Cold War. during the Military Dictatorship to avoid different ideology that could put in risk the government status; and after this (post-1985), it remains to be organized in time to the regionalization process and Democratization experiences on Social and Civil Rights, occurring nowadays.


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