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ATSI 2006/2007 Aula prática Introdução ao BPMN. Índice Conceitos Modelação de BP em UML... Modelação de BP em BPMN.

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Apresentação em tema: "ATSI 2006/2007 Aula prática Introdução ao BPMN. Índice Conceitos Modelação de BP em UML... Modelação de BP em BPMN."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 ATSI 2006/2007 Aula prática Introdução ao BPMN

2 Índice Conceitos Modelação de BP em UML... Modelação de BP em BPMN

3 Conceitos Um Processo de Negócio representa um conjunto de actividades cujo objectivo geral é criar valor num determinado contexto (empresa, organização, grupo, etc.). A descrição de um Processo de Negócio consiste assim na especificação do seu início e fim, na definição ou definição dos seus inputs e outputs (que devem ser mensuráveis), e na descrição das suas actividades, incluindo a forma como estas se coordenam entre si no tempo e no espaço. Um Levantamento de Processos de Negócio consiste na identificação dos processos de negócio de um dado contexto de problema, assim como das actividades que os compõem. NOTA: Num Levantamento de Processos de Negócio os processos devem ser tipicamente descritos na perspectiva dos stackholders (o cliente, o dono do negócio/processo,...), pois devem poder ser entendidos e validados por estes.

4 Modelação de Processos de Negócio A Modelação de Processos de Negócio (BPM - Business Process Modeling) tem como objectivo a definição e a descrição esquemática de Processos de Negócio. A Modelação de Processos de Negócio necessita assim de recorrer a notações, podendo para isso ser usada a notação da UML – Unified Modeling Language (através de perfiz adequados), ou mais especificamente a BPMN – Business Processing Modeling Notation.

5 Caracterização de um Processo de Negócio Um Processo de Negócio: 1.Tem um objectivo (goal) 2.Tem entradas concretas (inputs) 3.Tem saídas concretas (outputs) 4.Usa recursos (resources) 5.Tem um número de actividades que são executadas sempre da mesma forma 6.Tem um impacto horizontal no contexto geral (podendo assim, num contexto de um sistema de informação, afectar mais do que um componente, ou subsistema). 7.Cria valor para um cliente (cliente do processo).

6 Uma notação informal clássica de representação de alto nível (sem detalhes internos) um processo de negócio... Retirado de:

7 Goal: A business process has some well defined goal. This is the reason the organization does this work, and should be defined in terms of the benefits this process has for the organization as a whole and in satisfying the business needs. Information: Business processes use information to tailor or complete their activities. Information, unlike resources, is not consumed in the process - rather it is used as part of the transformation process. Information may come from external sources, from customers, from internal organizational units and may even be the product of other processes. Output: A business process will typically produce one or more outputs of value to the business, either for internal use or to satisfy external requirements. An output may be a physical object (such as a report or invoice), a transformation of raw resources into a new arrangement (a daily schedule or roster) or an overall business result such as completing a customer order. An output of one business process may feed into another process, either as a requested item or a trigger to initiate new activities. Resource: A resource is an input to a business process, and, unlike information, is typically consumed during the processing. For example, as each daily train service is run and actuals recorded, the service resource is 'used up' as far as the process of recording actual train times is concerned. Retirado de:

8 Goal: A business process has some well defined goal. This is the reason the organization does this work, and should be defined in terms of the benefits this process has for the organization as a whole and in satisfying the business needs. Information: Business processes use information to tailor or complete their activities. Information, unlike resources, is not consumed in the process - rather it is used as part of the transformation process. Information may come from external sources, from customers, from internal organizational units and may even be the product of other processes. Output: A business process will typically produce one or more outputs of value to the business, either for internal use or to satisfy external requirements. An output may be a physical object (such as a report or invoice), a transformation of raw resources into a new arrangement (a daily schedule or roster) or an overall business result such as completing a customer order. An output of one business process may feed into another process, either as a requested item or a trigger to initiate new activities. Resource: A resource is an input to a business process, and, unlike information, is typically consumed during the processing. For example, as each daily train service is run and actuals recorded, the service resource is 'used up' as far as the process of recording actual train times is concerned. Retirado de:

9 Goal: A business process has some well defined goal. This is the reason the organization does this work, and should be defined in terms of the benefits this process has for the organization as a whole and in satisfying the business needs. Information: Business processes use information to tailor or complete their activities. Information, unlike resources, is not consumed in the process - rather it is used as part of the transformation process. Information may come from external sources, from customers, from internal organizational units and may even be the product of other processes. Output: A business process will typically produce one or more outputs of value to the business, either for internal use or to satisfy external requirements. An output may be a physical object (such as a report or invoice), a transformation of raw resources into a new arrangement (a daily schedule or roster) or an overall business result such as completing a customer order. An output of one business process may feed into another process, either as a requested item or a trigger to initiate new activities. Resource: A resource is an input to a business process, and, unlike information, is typically consumed during the processing. For example, as each daily train service is run and actuals recorded, the service resource is 'used up' as far as the process of recording actual train times is concerned. Retirado de:

10 Goal: A business process has some well defined goal. This is the reason the organization does this work, and should be defined in terms of the benefits this process has for the organization as a whole and in satisfying the business needs. Information: Business processes use information to tailor or complete their activities. Information, unlike resources, is not consumed in the process - rather it is used as part of the transformation process. Information may come from external sources, from customers, from internal organizational units and may even be the product of other processes. Output: A business process will typically produce one or more outputs of value to the business, either for internal use or to satisfy external requirements. An output may be a physical object (such as a report or invoice), a transformation of raw resources into a new arrangement (a daily schedule or roster) or an overall business result such as completing a customer order. An output of one business process may feed into another process, either as a requested item or a trigger to initiate new activities. Resource: A resource is an input to a business process, and, unlike information, is typically consumed during the processing. For example, as each daily train service is run and actuals recorded, the service resource is 'used up' as far as the process of recording actual train times is concerned. Retirado de:

11 Supply link from object Information. A supply link indicates that the information or object linked to the process is not used up in the processing phase. For example, order templates may be used over and over to provide new orders of a certain style - the templates are not altered or exhausted as part of this activity. Supply link from object Resource. An input link indicates that the attached object or resource is consumed in the processing procedure. As an example, as customer orders are processed they are completed and signed off, and typically are used only once per unique resource (order). Goal link to object Goal. A goal link indicates the attached object to the business process describes the goal of the process. A goal is the business justification for performing the activity. Stateflow link to object Output Stateflow link from event Event. A stateflow link indicates some object is passed into a business process. It captures the passing of control to another entity or process, with the implied passing of state or information from activity to activity. Retirado de:

12 Supply link from object Information. A supply link indicates that the information or object linked to the process is not used up in the processing phase. For example, order templates may be used over and over to provide new orders of a certain style - the templates are not altered or exhausted as part of this activity. Supply link from object Resource. An input link indicates that the attached object or resource is consumed in the processing procedure. As an example, as customer orders are processed they are completed and signed off, and typically are used only once per unique resource (order). Goal link to object Goal. A goal link indicates the attached object to the business process describes the goal of the process. A goal is the business justification for performing the activity. Stateflow link to object Output Stateflow link from event Event. A stateflow link indicates some object is passed into a business process. It captures the passing of control to another entity or process, with the implied passing of state or information from activity to activity. Retirado de:

13 Supply link from object Information. A supply link indicates that the information or object linked to the process is not used up in the processing phase. For example, order templates may be used over and over to provide new orders of a certain style - the templates are not altered or exhausted as part of this activity. Supply link from object Resource. An input link indicates that the attached object or resource is consumed in the processing procedure. As an example, as customer orders are processed they are completed and signed off, and typically are used only once per unique resource (order). Goal link to object Goal. A goal link indicates the attached object to the business process describes the goal of the process. A goal is the business justification for performing the activity. Stateflow link to object Output Stateflow link from event Event. A stateflow link indicates some object is passed into a business process. It captures the passing of control to another entity or process, with the implied passing of state or information from activity to activity. Retirado de:

14 Supply link from object Information. A supply link indicates that the information or object linked to the process is not used up in the processing phase. For example, order templates may be used over and over to provide new orders of a certain style - the templates are not altered or exhausted as part of this activity. Supply link from object Resource. An input link indicates that the attached object or resource is consumed in the processing procedure. As an example, as customer orders are processed they are completed and signed off, and typically are used only once per unique resource (order). Goal link to object Goal. A goal link indicates the attached object to the business process describes the goal of the process. A goal is the business justification for performing the activity. Stateflow link to object Output Stateflow link from event Event. A stateflow link indicates some object is passed into a business process. It captures the passing of control to another entity or process, with the implied passing of state or information from activity to activity. Retirado de:

15 Supply link from object Information. A supply link indicates that the information or object linked to the process is not used up in the processing phase. For example, order templates may be used over and over to provide new orders of a certain style - the templates are not altered or exhausted as part of this activity. Supply link from object Resource. An input link indicates that the attached object or resource is consumed in the processing procedure. As an example, as customer orders are processed they are completed and signed off, and typically are used only once per unique resource (order). Goal link to object Goal. A goal link indicates the attached object to the business process describes the goal of the process. A goal is the business justification for performing the activity. Stateflow link to object Output Stateflow link from event Event. A stateflow link indicates some object is passed into a business process. It captures the passing of control to another entity or process, with the implied passing of state or information from activity to activity. Retirado de:

16 Modelação de BP em UML UML provides activity, state, object and class diagrams to capture important business processes and artifacts. More detailed BPM models can easily be built using UML Profiles.activitystateobjectclassUML Profiles Sparx Systems has available for download a detailed UML Profile for Business Process Modeling based on the extensions defined by Hans-Erik Eriksson and Magnus Penker in their book, "Business Modeling with UML". This profile is used to define a set of stereotypes for working with Business Activities, Processes, Objects and Information flows.UML Profile for Business Process Modeling

17 Modelação de Processos em UML Podem ser definidos perfiz da UML para capturar a representação visual de processos de negócio, recorrendo a actores e casos de utilização e ainda a diagramas de actividade, estado, classe e objecto. Business Use Cases podem suportar a modelação de processos de negócio, ao nível da organização, em analogia aos (System) Use Cases na modelação ao nível dos sistemas. A descrição de um Business Use Case, estando ao nível do negócio, refere assim os processos de negócio. O resultado da modelação de processos de negócio pode ser usado para o levantamento de requisitos de um sistema!!!

18 Um perfil de Business Use Cases (versus System Use Cases) Exemplo de um perfil UML para processos de negócio (estereótipos de business actor e business use case)

19 Conceitos em Modelação de Processos com UML Actor do Negócio (Business Actor) – Actor exterior ao processo, que com ele interage! Trabalhador do Negócio (Business Worker) – Abstracção de algo que representa um papel activo no caso de utilização do negócio (pode ser um sistema ou um humano)! Entidade do Negócio (Business Entity) – Qualquer entidade relevante para o negócio!

20 Exemplos de diagramas de Business Use Case

21 Diagramas de actividade UML detalham os processo de negócios (workflows na perspectiva Business Use Case)...

22 UML Business Object Model: Diagramas de Classes Entidades do Processo Business Workers

23 UML Business Object Model: Diagramas de Classes (outro exemplo)

24 UML Business Object Model: Diagramas de actividade, com streamlines realçando os papéis dos business workers

25 UML Business Object Model: Diagramas de Sequência Business Actor Business Worker

26 Do modelo do negócio para o modelo do sistema Uma modelação de negócio pode ser aproveitada para a modelação de um sistema: –Cada business use case pode vir a corresponder a um sub-sistema –Cada processo de negócio pode vir a corresponder a um caso de utilização do sistema (sub-sistema) –Cada entidade do negócio (business entity) pode vir a corresponder a uma classe (entidade) do sistema

27 BPMN: Contexto de Definição The Object Management Group (OMG) - Unified Modeling Language (UML) –UML 2.0 (Junho 2005) –UML (início de 2007) –www.uml.orgwww.uml.org Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) –BPMN 1.0 Specification (Maio 2004) –Adopçao formal do BPMN 1.0 pelo OMG (Fev. 2006) –www.bpmi.org.www.bpmi.org

28 BPMN Tutorial Introduction to BPMN - (PDF 359K) –Stephen A. White - IBM, May NOTA: Após a data de publicação desta introdução confirmou-se o acordo formal entre o BPMI e o OMG, sendo a BPMN adoptada pelo OMG: –http://www.omg.org/news/releases/pr2005/ htm

29 Business Process Diagram BPMN defines a Business Process Diagram (BPD), which is based on a flowcharting technique tailored for creating graphical models of business process operations. A Business Process Model, then, is a network of graphical objects, which are activities (i.e., work) and the flow controls that define their order of performance.

30 Exemplo

31 BPMN Basics A BPD is made up of a set of graphical elements. These elements enable the easy development of simple diagrams that will look familiar to most business analysts (e.g., a flowchart diagram). The elements were chosen to be distinguishable from each other and to utilize shapes that are familiar to most modelers. For example, activities are rectangles and decisions are diamonds. It should be emphasized that one of the drivers for the development of BPMN is to create a simple mechanism for creating business process models, while at the same time being able to handle the complexity inherent to business processes The approach taken to handle these two conflicting requirements was to organize the graphical aspects of the notation into specific categories. This provides a small set of notation categories so that the reader of a BPD can easily recognize the basic types of and information can be added to support the requirements for complexity without dramatically changing the basic look-and-feel of the diagram. The four basic categories of elements are: –Flow Objects –Connecting Objects –Swimlanes –Artifacts

32 Elementos Base da Notação

33 Event An Event is represented by a circle and is something that happens during the course of a business process. These Events affect the flow of the process and usually have a cause (trigger) or an impact (result). Events are circles with open centers to allow internal markers to differentiate different triggers or results. There are three types of Events, based on when they affect the flow: –Start –Intermediate –End

34 Acontecimentos (Events)

35 Activity An Activity is a generic term for work that a company performs. An Activity can be atomic or nonatomic (compound). The types of Activities are: –Task –Sub-Process (the Sub-Process distinguished by a small plus sign in the bottom center of the shape).

36 Tipos de Actividades (Processos e Sub-Processos)

37 Tipos de Actividades (sub-processos)

38 Gateway A Gateway is used to control the divergence and convergence of Sequence Flow. Thus, it will determine traditional decisions, as well as the forking, merging, and joining of paths. Internal Markers will indicate the type of behavior control.

39 Decisões (Gateways)

40 Connecting Objects Sequence Flow: Show the order (the sequence) that activities will be performed in a Process. Note that the term control flow is generally not used in BPMN. Message Flow: Show the flow of messages between two separate Process Participants (business entities or business roles) that send and receive them. In BPMN, two separate Pools in the Diagram will represent the two Participants. Association: Used to associate data, text, and other Artifacts with flow objects. Associations are used to show the inputs and outputs of activities.

41 Ligações (Sequências, Mensagens e Associações)

42 Exemplo de um BP...

43 Outro Exemplo de um BP... Fluxo sequencial Fluxo paralelo (fork) Actividade ou Processo Junção (join) Estado final Estado inicial Decisão

44 Já agora, o mesmo exemplo como um Diagrama de Actividade em UML

45 Exemplo de um segmento de um processo com mais detalhes...

46 Exemplo com eventos de compensação (acções de restauro do sistema para o estado anterior a uma transacção) Eventos de compensação Actividades de compensação

47 Swimlanes Many process modeling methodologies utiliz the concept of swimlanes as a mechanism to organize activities into separate visual categories in order to illustrate different functional capabilities or responsibilities. BPMN supports swimlanes with two main constructs: –Pool: Represents a Participant in a Process. It is also acts as a graphical container for partitioning a set of activities from other Pools, usually in the context of B2B situations. –Lane: A sub-partition within a Pool and will extend the entire length of the Pool, either vertically or horizontally. Lanes are used to organize and categorize activities.

48 Exemplo Interacção Médico-Paciente I Mensagens Pools

49 Exemplo Interacção Médico-Paciente II Lanes

50 Artefactos BPMN was designed to allow modelers and modeling tools some flexibility in extending the basic notation and in providing the ability to additional context appropriate to a specific modeling situation. Any number of Artifacts can be added to a diagram as appropriate for the context of the business processes being modeled. The current version of the BPMN specification pre-defines only three types of BPD Artifacts, which are: –Data Object: A mechanism to show how data is required or produced by activities. They are connected to activities through Associations. –Group: The grouping can be used for documentation or analysis purposes, but does not affect the Sequence Flow. –Annotation: Annotations are a mechanism for a modeler to provide additional text information for the reader of a BPMN Diagram.

51 Exemplo com Swimlanes, Artefactos,... Participante (Actor) Fluxo de dados Data Object Indicação de decomposição funcional (i.e. contém sub- processos) Indicação de decomposição funcional (i.e. contém sub- processos) Nota (explicação,..)

52 Exemplo de Validação de Crédito

53 Exemplo de Leilão

54 Sobre mapeamento de BPMN para BPEL...

55 Mais exemplos no site da BPMN....


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