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NANOPARTICULAS MATÁLICAS QF-435-AULA-8 Prof. Nelson Durán-IQ-UNICAMP.

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Apresentação em tema: "NANOPARTICULAS MATÁLICAS QF-435-AULA-8 Prof. Nelson Durán-IQ-UNICAMP."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 NANOPARTICULAS MATÁLICAS QF-435-AULA-8 Prof. Nelson Durán-IQ-UNICAMP

2 Chem. Eur. J. 2004, 10, 5570 – 5579 Drechsler, Erdogan, and Rotello Elechiguerra et al. J. Nanobiotechnol. 396) 2005

3 METALLIC NANOPARTICLES AS CARRIERS

4 Gimenez et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 1, 1-7 (2005) Lewin et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 410 (2000) HAuCl4 + NaHB4 Ho et al. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, Li et al. nnotechnology 2005, 16, METALLIC NANOPARTICLES AS CARRIERS

5 Alves et al. Patente Braz. PIBr (2005).

6

7

8 Lewin et al. Nat Biotechnol. 18, 410 (2000)

9

10

11

12 Mixed Monolayer Protected Gold Clusters (MMPCs)

13

14 Exemplo: Np's de Au funcionalizadas com anti-câncer para Leucemia. Preparação: –Redução de Ácido tetracloroáurico(III) com Borohidreto de Sódio. –Funcionalização após 30s da adição do agente redutor Podsiadlo et al. Langmuir. 24, 568, mercaptopurine

15 PRATA EM PRODUTOS

16 Pasta de Dente

17 Que fazem as nanopartículas? Escova de dentes

18 Refrigerador Purificador de Ar

19 Que fazem as nanopartículas? Sem comentários

20

21 MATERIAS PARA FERIMENTOS Área superficial grande de partículas de prata tamanho nano melhora a efetividade antibacteriana -melhora os tempos de recuperação -mata bactéria mais rápido com nanoparticulas que outras formas de prata

22 Como preparar as nanopartícula? Nanopartículas de prata Sal do metal + agente redutor E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland

23 Como preparar as nanopartícula? Nanopartículas de Au e Pd Arredondadas, lisas de 18 nm de partículas de Au por redução de citrato Hexagonal de 30 nm de partículas de Pd preparada por redução de uma sal de Pd com baixa concentração de ácido ascórbico E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland

24 Como preparar as nanopartícula? Nanopartículas de metais E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland Conhecidas da antiguidade Ouro coloidal usada para vidros tingido com vermelho e púrpura dos tempos medievais até agora

25 Sintese de nanoparticulas metalicas 85 o C FeCl 3 + 6H 2 O + FeCl 2. 4H 2 O + NH 4 OH HAuCl 4 + NaBH [Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]+ Ac. ascorbico/1 h r.t

26 PREPARATION Chemical Synthesis of silver nanoparticles

27 Como preparar nanopartículas? Nanocubos de prata E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland

28 Como preparar as nanopartícula? Nanopartículas de óxidos metálicos E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland

29 Caracterização de nanopartículas de TiO 2 por TEM E.C. Constable, Depart. Chemistry, University of Basel, Switzerland

30 Como caracterizar as nanopartículas?

31 BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGI

32 Fusarium oxysporum Ahmad et al. Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces 2003, 28, Mukherjee et al. ChemBioChem. 2002, 3, Pune-India Aspergillus fumigatus Bhaisa and D´Souza, Colloids Surf. B. Bio- interfaces 2006, 47, Munbai-India BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGI

33 Phanerochaete chrysoporium Vigneshwaran et al. Colloids Surf. B. Biointerfaces, 2006, 53, Munbai-India Aspergillus flavus Vigneshwaran et al. Mat. Lett. 2007, 61, Munbai-India Pleurotus sajor-caju Vigneshwaran et al. Indian Pat. Appl. 2007: Phoma sp Chen et al. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2003, 37, Beijing, China

34 Fusarium oxysporum Durán et al. J. Nanobiotechnol :8, 1-7. Campinas-SP-Brazil Durán et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2007, 3, Campinas, SP-Brazil BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGI

35 BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY BACTERIA AND YEAST

36 Enterobacter clocae Shahverdi et al. Process Biochem. 2007, 42, Teheran-Iran Aeromonas sp. Fu et al. Chin.J. Chem. Eng. 2006, 14, Xiamen, China Yeast strain Kowshik et al. Nanotechnology 2003, 14, Berlin, Germany BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY BACTERIA AND YEAST

37 Bacterial Biosynthesis of Cadmium Sulfide Nanocrystals Sweeney et al. Chem. Biol. 11, 1553 ()2004)

38 SC NP Fe Cd O

39 Sulfeto de Cadmio assistido por Lactobacillus sp. Jha et al. NANO: Brief Reports and Reviews Vol. 2, No. 4 (2007) 239–242

40 Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by Shewanella sp. strain HN-41. Lee et al., PNAS, 104, 20410–20415 (2007)

41

42

43 BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY PLANT EXTRACTS

44 Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) Shankar et al. Biotechnol Prog. 2003, 19, Pune, India Neem leaf broth Shankar et al.J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2004, 275, Pune,India BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY PLANT EXTRACTS

45 Cinnamomum camphora leaf Huang et al. Nanotechnology, 2007, 18, 1-11 Xiamen, China Alfalfa grass Gardea-Torresdey, Langmuir 2003, 19, Texas, USA/Mexico, Mexico Aloe vera plant extract Chandran et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2006, 22, Pune, India Emblica Officinalis Ankamwar et al., J. Nanosc. Nanotechnol. 5, Pune, India BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY PLANT EXTRACTS

46 MECHANSTIC ASPECTS OF BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

47 The silver-binding peptides from Pseudomonas stutzeriAG259 cells were obtained by using a combinatorial approach to identify these peptides from a phage display library of random peptides. The interaction of peptide with the metal clusters provides a chemically reducing environment around the cluster, thereby allowing further accelerated reduction of silver ions at the interface between peptide and metal. Naik et al. Nature Mater. 2002, 1, Ohio, USA MECHANSTIC ASPECTS OF BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

48 Si and Mandal, Chem Eur. J. 2007, 13, Kolkata, India Similar results with tryptophan and gold Selvakannan et al. J. Colloids Interf. Sci. 2004, 269, Bhattacharjee et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2005, 5, MECHANSTIC ASPECTS OF BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

49 Selvakannan et al. Langmuir, 2004, 20, Pune, India Specific for Au Stacik et al. J. Mater Chem. 2005, 15,

50 Fusarium oxysporum Durán et al. J. Nanobiotechnol :8, 1-7. Campinas-SP-Brazil Durán et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 2007, 3, Campinas, SP-Brazil Fusarium moniliforme was negative in quinone production MECHANSTIC ASPECTS OF BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

51 SILVER NANOPARTICLES AGAINST PATHOGENS

52 Without any antibiotics 5 ug/mL of silver nanoparticles 150 ug/mL of amoxicillin 150 ug/mL of amoxicillin + 5 ug/mL of silver nanoparticles P. Li, J. Li, C. Wu, Q. Wu,J. Li. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology 16, 1912–1917 (2005) SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

53 E. coli 5 x 10 6 cfu bac., a) 5 ug mL -1 silver nanoparticles b) ug mL -1 antibiotic, c) ug mL -1 antibiotic + a), d) b) + 10 ug mL -1 silver nanoparticles SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

54 AMOXICILLIN MECHANISM Li et al., Nanotechnology 16, 1912 (2005) SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

55 CLINDAMYCIN SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

56 CLIN Chemical and fungal synthesis Brocchi et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., submitted (2008) SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

57 MINIMUM INHIBITION CONCENTRATION (MIC) Durán et al., Crit. Rev. Microbiol. Submitted (2008) SILVER NANOPARTICLES AS ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS

58 VANCOMICINA EM NANOPARTICULAS PARA AUMENTAR SUA ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA Gu et al. Nano Lett. 3, (2003)

59

60 SINTESE DE NANOPARTICULAS DE OURO COM VANCOMICINA

61

62

63 SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND NEGLECTED DISEASES

64 Goal Cutaneous leishmaniasis SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND NEGLECTED DISEASES

65 CLIN Clindamycin associated to silver nanoparticles could be effective in these neglected diseases SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND NEGLECTED DISEASES

66 SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND ITS TOXICITY

67 Mitochondrial function through MTS Membrane leakage though lactate dihydrogenase ( LDH) Ag nanoparticles 15 nm Silver nanoparticles (15 nm) reduced mitochondrial function drastically and increased membrane leakage. Our data show that the C18-4 cells are more sensitive than the BRL 3A cells in that respect (Braydich-Stolle et al. ToxSci Advance Access published July 13, 2005). C18-4 spermatogonial stem cells

68 Pal et al., 73, 712 (2007)

69

70 SKIN PERMEATION IN VITRO Human abdominal skin The nanoparticles did not reach the receptor compartment SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND NEGLECTED DISEASES nm

71 ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES Silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger Gade et al., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., submitted (2008) (Amravati-India/Campinas SP-Brazil) SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND NEGLECTED DISEASES

72

73 PREPARATION Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles Fusarium oxysporum was grown by 7 days Absorptions were measured in UV-Vis The biomass was filtrated and AgNO 3 (10 mM) was added in the fungal liquid The biomass was filtrated and resuspended in sterile water Durán et al. 2005,2007,2008

74 Coleção de 20 linhagens de Fusarium Culturas de Fusarium spp Cultura em meio líquido (YM) 0,017/10 -3 M de AgNO 3 Caldo fungal Biomassa em água destl. 12 Horas 72 Horas Espectro UV-vis MEV - nanopartículas MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS Solução coloidalde reação Durán et al. J. Nanobiotechnol. 3, 1-7 (2005).

75 Para seleção da linhagem com melhor eficiência, levamos em consideração os dois métodos de biossíntese, tanto usando a biomassa quanto usando o líquido fungal AB No caldo, foram introduzindo,017/10 -3 M de AgNO 3 Após ser separada a biomassa da água destilada. Este peso úmido foi adicionada em uma solução de 0,017/10 -3 M de AgNO 3. Nanopartículas de prata. Métodos Souza et al. 58 º SBPC, Florianopolis (2006)

76 Staphylococcus aureusKlebisiela pneumoniae Algodão 100% Poliéster Nanopartículas Impregnação em tecido têxtil para atividade biocida Teste oligodinâmica Utilizando as nanopartículas da melhor linhagem Durán et al. Patente Braz. PIBr (2006)

77 PRÉ-ENSAIO E RECUPERAÇÃO DAS NANOPARTÍCULAS EM EFLUENTES A água de lavagem do tecido têxtil impregnado com nanopartículas de prata, foi submetida ao tratamento C. violaceum. 100mL/100mL 100mL/60mL 100mL/20mL 48 Horas sob agitação Aeração (0,5 L/mim) Ausência de ar Análise espectro UV-vis Durán et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 3, (2007).

78 RESULTADOS Espectro UV-vis de linhagens de Fusarium produtoras de nanopartículas de prata. Souza et al. 58 º SBPC, Florianopolis, S.C. (2006)

79 Silver nanoparticles Size: 1,6 nm (biosynthesis) Durán et al. J. Nanobiotechnol Silver nanoparticles Size: 175 nm (Chemical synthesis)

80 Espectro UV-VÍS MEV do extrato líquido Impregnação das nanopartículas em a) algodão e b) polyester a b Amostras centrifugadas

81 1) Algodão 100% e 2) polyester 100% 3) Cultura de Staphylococus aureus e 4) Teste com tecido algodão impregnado com nanopartículas de prata frente à cultura bacteriana e 5) teste do tecido polyester impregnado com nanopartículas de prata frente à cultura bacteriana

82 ATIVIDADE BIOCIDA DO TECIDO IMPREGNADO (ALGODÃO) COM NANOPARTÍCULAS DE PRATA frente a bactéria S. aureus

83 MICROSCOPIA ELETRÔNICA DE VARREDURA DO TRATAMENTO DE ALGODÃO COM NANOPARTICULAS DE PRATA Durán et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 3, (2007). Tecido Controle (sem nanopartículas de prata) Tecido com nanopartículas de prata

84 ATIVIDADE BIOCIDA DO TECIDO IMPREGNADO (POLIÉSTER) COM NANOPARTÍCULAS DE PRATA frente a bactéria S. aureus M.O do Poliéster impregnado com nps. M.O das amostras não impregnadas

85 Os tecidos impregnados com nanopartículas, após sucessivas lavagens, perdem gradativamente sua atividade biocida, uma vez que as nanopartículas são liberadas durante este processo. Para evitar o descarte de nanopartículas no ambiente, foram realizados ensaios com diferentes concentrações de inóculo da bactéria, Chromobacterium violaceum. POSSÍVEL RECUPERAÇÃO

86 Espectros A e B, correspondentes às amostras controle (A, sem diluição e B, diluição de 10 vezes). (C, D e E submetidas à aeração). (F, G e H submetidas à ausência de ar) todas tratadas com Chromobacterium violaceum.

87 EDS: Espectro de nanopartículas de prata em bactéria Chromobacterium violaceum.

88 CONCLUSÃO Todas as 20 linhagens de Fusarium utilizadas neste trabalho apresentaram capacidade de produ ç ão de nanopart í culas de prata, entretanto, foram as três mais eficientes separadas (dados apresentados no Relat ó rio Parcial). Destas, foi selecionada a linhagem 07SD. Avaliaram-se dois m é todos de bioss í ntese: um empregando diretamente a biomassa do fungo e outro apenas o l í quido fungal. Este ú ltimo mostrou melhores resultados. Logo, deu-se continuidade ao trabalho empregando este m é todo. Os tecidos impregnados com as nanopart í culas de prata apresentaram atividade biocida frente a Staphylococcus aureus e Klebsiella pneunomiae. A possibilidade de recupera ç ão das nanopart í culas de prata ap ó s lavagens sucessivas dos tecidos utilizando Chromobacterium violaceum foi comprovada, podendo ser empregada no reaproveitamento cont í nuo dessas nanopart í culas (ainda em teste) Durán et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 3, (2007).

89 Jun Tian, Kenneth K. Y. Wong, Chi-Ming Ho, Chun-Nam Lok, Wing-Yiu Yu,] Chi-Ming Che, Jen-Fu Chiu, and Paul K. H. Tam. Topical delivery of silver nanoparticles promotes wound healing.ChemMedChem.(2007)2, Preparation of the dressings: Nanosilver-coated dressing: Initial experiments were carried out by using silver nanoparticle grafted dressing (silver content: 2.75 mgg1, Anson Nanotechnology Group Co., Ltd. Hong Kong). A piece of silver nanoparticle-coated dressing (4H3 cm2) weighed g. This corresponds to mg of silver nanoparticles on each piece. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were spherical, with diameters of nm based on 750 particle measurements on five sites of interest. Subsequently experiments were performed with silver nanoparticles (1 mm) synthesized by borohydride reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of citrate as a stabilizing agent, as previously described.[45] Similar efficacy with silver nanoparticle dressing was confirmed (data not shown).

90 SSD NT ND Silver Nano Silver sulfadiazine E:epidermid HF: hair follicles

91 CULTURA DE MICRORGANISMOS NO PANO DA FERIDA NOS DIAS 1, 3, 5, 7 E 10 NOS ANIMAIS TRATADOS COM ND (GRIS), SSD (BRANCO E NÃO TRATADO (GRIS ESCURO)

92 silver nanoparticles can modulate local and systemic inflammatory response following burn injury by cytokine modulation. ND No treatment SSD IL-6 TGF-betaIL-10 VGEFIFN-gama IL-6 aumenta inflamação TGF-beta auenta inflamação Il-10regula citokinas VGEF (vascular endotelial growth factor) promove cicatrização IFN-gama aumenta colageno

93 PATENTES EM COSMÉTICOS Facial mask comprising a nanometer metal coating. Ko, Chuan Tao. (Taiwan). U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2007), 5pp. CODEN: USXXCO US Silver-containing an antimicrobial body care product. Hanke, Bernhard. (Procter and Gamble Company, USA). PCT Int. Appl. (2000), 22 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO Antimicrobial gel formulation containing silver nanoparticles for treating female genital infections, its preparation method and uses. Chen, Hu. (Shenzhen Agt Pharm. Co., Ltd., Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 16pp. CODEN: CNXXEV CN A Manufacture of cosmetics containing silver nanoparticles and Carbopol. Liu, Baning; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Xi. (Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2004), No pp. given. CODEN: CNXXEV CN A Formulation of UV absorbers by incorporation in solid lipid nanoparticles. Herzog, Bernd. (Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, USA). U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2003), 16 pp. CODEN: USXXCO US A1 Pharmaceutical compositions for treating allergic dermatitis comprising nano-gold solution. Han, Sang Pil; Yoo, Eui Jae; Choi, Paeck Hi; Choi, Young Deuk. (Hanssem Health Co., Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Hair preparations containing silver nanoparticle colloids for the treatment of bacteria-caused hair depilation. Han, Sang Pil; Yoo, Eui Jae; Choi, Paeck Hi; Choi, Young Deuk. (Hanssem Health Co., Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Vaginal adhesive preparation containing silver nanoparticles and its preparation method. Gu, Maojian; Ren, Fuzheng; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Zongrun. (Shanghai Jnj Modern Pharmaceutical Technologies Inc., Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2006), 14pp. CODEN: CNXXEV CN Anti-microbial condom containing silver nanoparticles, capable of preventing various adult diseases and pregnancy. Yang, Won Dong. (S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2005), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Antiaging cosmetics containing gold nanoparticles and silk fibroin for maintaining antioxidant activity. Hur, Won; Lim, Kun Bin; Ahn, Hyo Soon; Shin, Hwa Sook. (Fineco. Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR

94

95 SINTESE DE NANOPARTICULAS DE OURO ASSOCIADA A IgG IgG de soro humano HAuCl4 + NaBH4

96

97 BACTERIA

98

99 Imã SEPARAÇÃO ANALISE

100 MLDI Analysis: (H. Steen and M. Mann. The abcs (and xyzs) of peptide sequencing. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, (2003)).

101 Staphylococcus saprophyticus were collected from patients at the Hospital, Streptococcus pyogenes JRS 75 and JRS 4 were from collections S. pyogenes JRS 75 was obtained by mutating M protein from the strain of S. pyogenes JRS 4.29 The lowest cell concentration that was detected for both Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus aureus in aqueous sample solutions (0.5 mL) was 3 x 10(5) cfu/mL, while the detectable cell concentration for S. saprophyticus in a urine sample was 3 x 10(7) cfu/mL

102 Absorption and desorption of chemotherapeutic drugs from a magnectically targeted carrier (MTC). Rudger et al. J. Control. Releae 74, (2001).

103 Doxorubicin follows the Langmuir theory for milling, particles are resuspended and dispersed, adsorption to MTCs. The Langmuir theory holds that the solute adsorbs to sites on the carbon surface in a discrete one to one correspondence. ACTIVATED CARBON MAGNETICALLY TARGETED CARRIER (MTC)

104 Rudger et al. J. Control. Releae 74, (2001) ALVOS NAO ESPECIFICOS

105 Treatment of a hepatocellular carcinoma by MTCs in clinical human trials As shown in the left panel following the treatment of a HCC tumor with MCT-DOX the hepatic arteries Remain patent, demonstrating particles toletaribility as evidenced by the lack of trombosis and/or embolization of the arteries. Localization and retention of the particles in the target tumor are showed in the the righ papel by magnetic resonant imagins (MIR) (the particles were in the local after 28 days)

106 PATENTES EM COSMÉTICOS Facial mask comprising a nanometer metal coating. Ko, Chuan Tao. (Taiwan). U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2007), 5pp. CODEN: USXXCO US Silver-containing an antimicrobial body care product. Hanke, Bernhard. (Procter and Gamble Company, USA). PCT Int. Appl. (2000), 22 pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO Antimicrobial gel formulation containing silver nanoparticles for treating female genital infections, its preparation method and uses. Chen, Hu. (Shenzhen Agt Pharm. Co., Ltd., Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2005), 16pp. CODEN: CNXXEV CN A Manufacture of cosmetics containing silver nanoparticles and Carbopol. Liu, Baning; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Xi. (Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2004), No pp. given. CODEN: CNXXEV CN A Formulation of UV absorbers by incorporation in solid lipid nanoparticles. Herzog, Bernd. (Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, USA). U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2003), 16 pp. CODEN: USXXCO US A1 Pharmaceutical compositions for treating allergic dermatitis comprising nano-gold solution. Han, Sang Pil; Yoo, Eui Jae; Choi, Paeck Hi; Choi, Young Deuk. (Hanssem Health Co., Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Hair preparations containing silver nanoparticle colloids for the treatment of bacteria-caused hair depilation. Han, Sang Pil; Yoo, Eui Jae; Choi, Paeck Hi; Choi, Young Deuk. (Hanssem Health Co., Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Vaginal adhesive preparation containing silver nanoparticles and its preparation method. Gu, Maojian; Ren, Fuzheng; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Zongrun. (Shanghai Jnj Modern Pharmaceutical Technologies Inc., Peop. Rep. China). Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2006), 14pp. CODEN: CNXXEV CN Anti-microbial condom containing silver nanoparticles, capable of preventing various adult diseases and pregnancy. Yang, Won Dong. (S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2005), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR Antiaging cosmetics containing gold nanoparticles and silk fibroin for maintaining antioxidant activity. Hur, Won; Lim, Kun Bin; Ahn, Hyo Soon; Shin, Hwa Sook. (Fineco. Ltd., S. Korea). Repub. Korean Kongkae Taeho Kongbo (2006), No pp. given. CODEN: KRXXA7 KR

107 REDE NANOTUB0S DE CARBONO CNPq/MCT AGRADECIMENTOS CNPq/MCT


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