Apresentação em tema: "Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans
2Innovation, but on what level? Time frame19801985199019952000Key themes and referencesIn search of excellence (Peters & Waterman, 1982)Total Quality Management (TQM)Taguchi methodsJust in time manufacturing (JIT)DownsizingRestructuringGlobalised manufacturing economies of scaleTime to Market (TIM) processesExtended enterprise / virtual organisations (Davidow&Marlone,)Concurrent engineeringStrategic information managementCorporate Re-engineering (Hammer, 1993)Employee empowermentQuality Function Deployment (QFD)Mass customisation (Davidow& Malone,1992;Zell,97)User focusCultural and social contextValue addedDifferentiationSource: Les Wynn, DMI 2000ProductionfocusQualityCostDeliveryCustomer firstCustomerfocusDesign
3Changing Role of Design The Doing and Thinking designerEmotion productInnovative productStyled productThe Doing designer
6What Is Usability? Usefulness Effectiveness Learnability Satisfaction Degree to which users can successfully achieve goals/complete tasks Effectiveness Ability of users to accomplish goals with speed & ease Learnability Ability to operate the system to some defined level of competence after some predetermined amount of training Satisfaction Attitude of users, including perceptions, feelings and opinions of the product *Booth, Paul. An Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction.London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989
7GAP ISO-9241-11 Shackel (1984) Jordan (1998) Nielsen (1999) Bevan (1991)Keinonen (1998)Norman (1988)USABILITY THEORY &METHODSUSABILITY PRACTICE
15Product Development Actors Product ManagerCoordinates developmentSets priorities for productMarket Intelligencecollects market informationdefines marketing strategyIndustrial Designerdesigns physical appearanceProduct Development Actorsproduct development = multidisciplinaryInteraction Designerdesigns user interfaceDevelopment Engineertechnology and productionUsability Specialistevaluates and improvesusability
1610 (hands on) tips for user-centered product development
46ExplorationExploration is searching for what interaction and/or relation can or should take place in using the product and what aspects are relevant for this interaction and/or relation..
47Evaluation.Evaluation of the concept(s) of the product. This is testing the way the different interactions/relations work out in a qualitative way.
48Verification.Verification will take place in a quantitative research to verify if the, expected, interactions work in the right way.
49CommunicationDesigners’ timescales are often pressured, due to commercial pressures, so if research is not presented in an usable format, it will be discarded or ignored.
50Why early evaluation and testing? The costs to ‘repair’ mistakes:Analysis & Design Implementation Maintenancephases$ 1,000$ 6,000$ 60,000costsSource: Hawksmere - ISO seminar material
51When evaluating? Discovery Analysis Elaboration Construction TransitionMaintenanceTarget Group AnalysisFocus Group SessionsConcept TestingIntermediate Usability TestingActive Usability TestingUser InvolvementRemote Usability TestingExpert InvolvementExpert ReviewSurveysContinuous Usability Evaluation
52Sample Usability Methods User and Task Analyses “Contextual Inquiry” Observations of users in their natural setting Focus Groups Interviews Expert Reviews Usability Tests
53Research-Led Critical Design Design-Led Design-Led Design and Emotion Probesgenerative toolsDesign and EmotionUser-centeredDesignParticipatoryDesignExpert mindsetParticipatory mindsetcontextual enquiryLead-user inovationDutch/Scandinavian designUsability testingappliedethnographyHuman factors and ergonomicsSanders, 2002Research-LedResearch-Led
54Research-Led Critical Design Design-Led Design-Led Design and Emotion Probesgenerative toolsDesign and EmotionUser-centeredDesignParticipatoryDesignExpert mindsetParticipatory mindsetcontextual enquiryLead-user inovationDutch/Scandinavian designUsability testingappliedethnographyHuman factors and ergonomicsSanders, 2002Research-LedResearch-Led
55ScriptsScript method (based on Alan Cooper’s Personnas, 1998) is a clear and detailed visualisation of the (future) usage in a way that the designer can imagine what the impact of the design will be.Based on objective research material and observations a cast of ‘archetypes of users’ and a context of use (physical and social environment) is described.All interactions, events and dialogues are described and visualised in scenes and story boards.
56Fictive case Scripts in practice Development of a new combination of products that should lead to a new ‘coffee experience’.Client is convinced that the ‘coffee quality’ in combination with the ‘machine convenience’ will lead to customers satisfaction.Client is focussed on building a strong positive corporate and brand image.After product release the call rates and product failures must be almost zero.
58Coffee Script Research: Usability and market research. Synopsis: Visualisation of interactions and relations.Target group:Interdisciplinary design team.Script and Storyboard:Visualisation of the impact of the design.
60Cast Coffee Lover: the perfect consumer Coffee Drinker: the inconstant consumerMr. Murphy:what can go wrong
61Coffee Lover Personal goal: enjoy family life Practical goal: make a high quality coffee at homeCharacteristics: perfectionist, always reads instructions, careful and patient
62Coffee Drinker Personal goal: impress Practical goal: have a coffee at the officeCharacteristics: sceptic, always in a hurry, never reads instructions, rude
63Mr. Murphy Personal goal: enjoy without effort Practical goal: efficiency when working at homeCharacteristics: clumsy, impatient, never reads instructions
64Based on consumer demands: ContextBased on consumer demands:Coffee LoverCoffee DrinkerMr. MurphyEnvironmentHome with familyOfficeHome, living aloneBuyingTransportingPlacingScene 1StorageScene 2DispensingScene 3Coffee QualityCleaningStandbyMaintenance
65Scene 1: Coffee Lover gets a Senseo Crema The family surprised Coffee Lover with the Senseo Crema.After opening the box she carefully reads the users manual. She checks if the system is complete and not damaged.She installs the Senseo Crema in their large kitchen, cleans it and puts it on to see if it works.Within some minutes she manages (with the help of the quick reference card) to have her first Mild Roast.
66Scene 2: Coffee Drinker's assorti Of course Coffee Drinker has the whole assorti of tastes at the office.Right after lunch, just before he has to leave for a meeting, he needs a quick strong coffee. Unfortunately he mixed up the tops of the boxes.Taking his first sip he is annoyed to taste the very mild one … he immediately wants to have another but when he notices there is too little water in the machine he leaves the office in a hurry … unsatisfied.
67Scene 3: Mr. Murphy gets a coffee He likes ‘large’ coffees, longer satisfaction with less effort.When he makes his regular large he can’t find his mock … well the cup seems big enough.He notices too late that the cup is not big enough, not knowing what to do he just takes the cup away … just lucky he didn’t burn his hands!
68Scripts: a powerful tool Strong visualisation of (real) interactions and consequences on relations.Tool for inspiration and decision making.Opens discussion on diversity of user- and target group.Pitfall: objective information becomes subjective.
70BriefDefinir as especificações de um novo produto – barbecue tendo em consideração os perfis dos utilizadores (à frente apresentados)Ter particular atenção relativamente aos problemas “leves”Considerar aspectos de usabilidade que vão além das questões técnicas de uso e abarquem questões cognitivasDefinir os descritores da análise a ser feitaFazer análise SWOTAntecipar problemas/soluções no uso dos produtos pensadosMapear produto na sua complexidade de relações internas e com o exteriorIdentificar factores chave que podem potenciar/reduzir usabilidade e subsequente satisfação dos utilizadores
71Procedimentos 3 grupos (pelo menos 2 pessoas cada) De preferência 1 designer e 1 ergonomista em cadaCada grupo trabalha um dos perfis dos utilizadoresDepois de feita a análise esta é apresentada à audiência (5 minutos)Discussão dos trabalhos
72Perfis dos utilizadores Grupo AGrupo BGrupo C. Família classe média. Idades à volta 35 anos. Educação universitária. Filhos com idades inferiores a 12 anos. Residência em apartamento com áreas de exterior – varandas, páteos. Rede de amigos com perfil idêntico.Aptência para relação com a natureza mediada pela tecnologia. Hábitos rituais de convívio com família alargada. Família nuclear – 2 membros.Idade superior a 60 anos. Nível instrução médio. Com filhos e netos. Funcionamento de rede de suporte à família – rectaguarda no apoio às crianças e outras actividades. Prática de reuniões regulares com grupos de amigos – jogos, almoços, viagens etc.. Habitação unifamilar – vivenda com espaço exterior diferenciado. Estudantes universitários. Residência comunitária. Rendimento baixo/médio. Idas muito espaçadas a casa. Espaço comum para realização de festas/convívio
73DESIGN ERGONOMIA C B A (SWOT) Perfil APerfil BPerfil CDESIGNERGONOMIAconstrangimentosconstrangimentosPerfil CIdeias/potencialIdeias/potencialC......BPerfil BA(SWOT)Perfil ACENÁRIOS (VISÃO INTEGRADA) ELABORAÇÃO DE GUIÕES