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Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans.

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Apresentação em tema: "Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans

2 Innovation, but on what level?
Time frame 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Key themes and references In search of excellence (Peters & Waterman, 1982) Total Quality Management (TQM) Taguchi methods Just in time manufacturing (JIT) Downsizing Restructuring Globalised manufacturing economies of scale Time to Market (TIM) processes Extended enterprise / virtual organisations (Davidow&Marlone,) Concurrent engineering Strategic information management Corporate Re-engineering (Hammer, 1993) Employee empowerment Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Mass customisation (Davidow& Malone,1992;Zell,97) User focus Cultural and social context Value added Differentiation Source: Les Wynn, DMI 2000 Production focus Quality Cost Delivery Customer first Customer focus Design

3 Changing Role of Design
The Doing and Thinking designer Emotion product Innovative product Styled product The Doing designer

4 Compelling Experience
Emerging Tendencies Standardization Specialization Mass Production Mass Customization Enriching Function Compelling Experience Passive Role Strategic Role Profit Centered User Centered Artificial Obsolence Sustainability


6 What Is Usability? Usefulness Effectiveness Learnability Satisfaction
Degree to which users can successfully achieve goals/complete tasks   Effectiveness   Ability of users to accomplish goals with speed & ease   Learnability   Ability to operate the system to some defined level of competence after some predetermined amount of training   Satisfaction   Attitude of users, including perceptions, feelings and opinions of the product   *Booth, Paul. An Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989  

7 GAP ISO-9241-11 Shackel (1984) Jordan (1998) Nielsen (1999)
Bevan (1991) Keinonen (1998) Norman (1988) USABILITY THEORY & METHODS USABILITY PRACTICE

8 Project Overview

9 Overall research design of PhD project

10 User-centered design

11 User-centered design

12 User-centered design: not just testing

13 Testing: just do it

14 User-centered design

15 Product Development Actors
Product Manager Coordinates development Sets priorities for product Market Intelligence collects market information defines marketing strategy Industrial Designer designs physical appearance Product Development Actors product development = multidisciplinary Interaction Designer designs user interface Development Engineer technology and production Usability Specialist evaluates and improves usability

16 10 (hands on) tips for user-centered product development

17 1 What means usability to us ?


19 do we actually want this?
2 Why do we actually want this? (define the value of usability)


21 3 Don’t let designers just ride their hobbyhorse


23 Safe what has been proved to be
4 Safe what has been proved to be good (UI ‘paradigm’, product generations, knowledge management)

24 3/26/2017

25 5 Innovate when it makes sense


27 6 Implement understanding (from user research and user testing)


29 7 Let designers learn (user tests and after-sales feedback)


31 8 Give designers rich information

32 Information

33 9 Think concept AND product


35 Making the right product, making the product right.
(Bill Buxton)

36 Design for Consumer AND User
10 Design for Consumer AND User

37 (bron: creating passionate users)

38 (bron: creating passionate users)

39 Before and after… Consumer User functionality results results
aesthetics brand price User results reliability user friendliness

40 Market research or usability ?

41 Information / questions
Consumer demands Activity Consumer Demands Information / questions research buying What, where, how, price etc. target groups, law and standards, distribution Market research transporting When, how, who usergroups Market- & usability research using Preparing, using, storing, cleaning, … Usability research pleasure Physio, Socio, Psycho, Ideo cultural differences safety standards Usability- & technical research maintenance ….

42 Facilitating human-centred design: the ‘Ping-pong’ model
Brief: from management questions to research questions Communication results: conclusions and recommendations

43 Monitoring Monitoring of products available in the market to get a clear picture of the context of use and performance of a product or product group. .

44 Inspiration . Inspiration is capturing the context of product use; by using context mapping tools deeper insight in peoples aspirations and needs is gained.

45 (Tuuli Matelmaki, 2005)

46 Exploration Exploration is searching for what interaction and/or relation can or should take place in using the product and what aspects are relevant for this interaction and/or relation. .

47 Evaluation . Evaluation of the concept(s) of the product. This is testing the way the different interactions/relations work out in a qualitative way.

48 Verification . Verification will take place in a quantitative research to verify if the, expected, interactions work in the right way.

49 Communication Designers’ timescales are often pressured, due to commercial pressures, so if research is not presented in an usable format, it will be discarded or ignored.

50 Why early evaluation and testing?
The costs to ‘repair’ mistakes: Analysis & Design Implementation Maintenance phases $ 1,000 $ 6,000 $ 60,000 costs Source: Hawksmere - ISO seminar material

51 When evaluating? Discovery Analysis Elaboration Construction
Transition Maintenance Target Group Analysis Focus Group Sessions Concept Testing Intermediate Usability Testing Active Usability Testing User Involvement Remote Usability Testing Expert Involvement Expert Review Surveys Continuous Usability Evaluation

52 Sample Usability Methods
User and Task Analyses     “Contextual Inquiry”    Observations of users in their natural setting   Focus Groups   Interviews   Expert Reviews   Usability Tests  

53 Research-Led Critical Design Design-Led Design-Led Design and Emotion
Probes generative tools Design and Emotion User-centered Design Participatory Design Expert mindset Participatory mindset contextual enquiry Lead-user inovation Dutch/Scandinavian design Usability testing applied ethnography Human factors and ergonomics Sanders, 2002 Research-Led Research-Led

54 Research-Led Critical Design Design-Led Design-Led Design and Emotion
Probes generative tools Design and Emotion User-centered Design Participatory Design Expert mindset Participatory mindset contextual enquiry Lead-user inovation Dutch/Scandinavian design Usability testing applied ethnography Human factors and ergonomics Sanders, 2002 Research-Led Research-Led

55 Scripts Script method (based on Alan Cooper’s Personnas, 1998) is a clear and detailed visualisation of the (future) usage in a way that the designer can imagine what the impact of the design will be. Based on objective research material and observations a cast of ‘archetypes of users’ and a context of use (physical and social environment) is described. All interactions, events and dialogues are described and visualised in scenes and story boards.

56 Fictive case Scripts in practice
Development of a new combination of products that should lead to a new ‘coffee experience’. Client is convinced that the ‘coffee quality’ in combination with the ‘machine convenience’ will lead to customers satisfaction. Client is focussed on building a strong positive corporate and brand image. After product release the call rates and product failures must be almost zero.


58 Coffee Script Research: Usability and market research. Synopsis:
Visualisation of interactions and relations. Target group: Interdisciplinary design team. Script and Storyboard: Visualisation of the impact of the design.

59 The script the client had in mind

60 Cast Coffee Lover: the perfect consumer Coffee Drinker:
the inconstant consumer Mr. Murphy: what can go wrong

61 Coffee Lover Personal goal: enjoy family life
Practical goal: make a high quality coffee at home Characteristics: perfectionist, always reads instructions, careful and patient

62 Coffee Drinker Personal goal: impress
Practical goal: have a coffee at the office Characteristics: sceptic, always in a hurry, never reads instructions, rude

63 Mr. Murphy Personal goal: enjoy without effort
Practical goal: efficiency when working at home Characteristics: clumsy, impatient, never reads instructions

64 Based on consumer demands:
Context Based on consumer demands: Coffee Lover Coffee Drinker Mr. Murphy Environment Home with family Office Home, living alone Buying Transporting Placing Scene 1 Storage Scene 2 Dispensing Scene 3 Coffee Quality Cleaning Standby Maintenance

65 Scene 1: Coffee Lover gets a Senseo Crema
The family surprised Coffee Lover with the Senseo Crema. After opening the box she carefully reads the users manual. She checks if the system is complete and not damaged. She installs the Senseo Crema in their large kitchen, cleans it and puts it on to see if it works. Within some minutes she manages (with the help of the quick reference card) to have her first Mild Roast.

66 Scene 2: Coffee Drinker's assorti
Of course Coffee Drinker has the whole assorti of tastes at the office. Right after lunch, just before he has to leave for a meeting, he needs a quick strong coffee. Unfortunately he mixed up the tops of the boxes. Taking his first sip he is annoyed to taste the very mild one … he immediately wants to have another but when he notices there is too little water in the machine he leaves the office in a hurry … unsatisfied.

67 Scene 3: Mr. Murphy gets a coffee
He likes ‘large’ coffees, longer satisfaction with less effort. When he makes his regular large he can’t find his mock … well the cup seems big enough. He notices too late that the cup is not big enough, not knowing what to do he just takes the cup away … just lucky he didn’t burn his hands!

68 Scripts: a powerful tool
Strong visualisation of (real) interactions and consequences on relations. Tool for inspiration and decision making. Opens discussion on diversity of user- and target group. Pitfall: objective information becomes subjective.

69 Assignment

70 Brief Definir as especificações de um novo produto – barbecue tendo em consideração os perfis dos utilizadores (à frente apresentados) Ter particular atenção relativamente aos problemas “leves” Considerar aspectos de usabilidade que vão além das questões técnicas de uso e abarquem questões cognitivas Definir os descritores da análise a ser feita Fazer análise SWOT Antecipar problemas/soluções no uso dos produtos pensados Mapear produto na sua complexidade de relações internas e com o exterior Identificar factores chave que podem potenciar/reduzir usabilidade e subsequente satisfação dos utilizadores

71 Procedimentos 3 grupos (pelo menos 2 pessoas cada)
De preferência 1 designer e 1 ergonomista em cada Cada grupo trabalha um dos perfis dos utilizadores Depois de feita a análise esta é apresentada à audiência (5 minutos) Discussão dos trabalhos

72 Perfis dos utilizadores
Grupo A Grupo B Grupo C . Família classe média . Idades à volta 35 anos . Educação universitária . Filhos com idades inferiores a 12 anos . Residência em apartamento com áreas de exterior – varandas, páteos . Rede de amigos com perfil idêntico .Aptência para relação com a natureza mediada pela tecnologia . Hábitos rituais de convívio com família alargada . Família nuclear – 2 membros .Idade superior a 60 anos . Nível instrução médio . Com filhos e netos . Funcionamento de rede de suporte à família – rectaguarda no apoio às crianças e outras actividades . Prática de reuniões regulares com grupos de amigos – jogos, almoços, viagens etc. . Habitação unifamilar – vivenda com espaço exterior diferenciado . Estudantes universitários . Residência comunitária . Rendimento baixo/médio . Idas muito espaçadas a casa . Espaço comum para realização de festas/convívio

Perfil A Perfil B Perfil C DESIGN ERGONOMIA constrangimentos constrangimentos Perfil C Ideias/potencial Ideias/potencial C ... ... B Perfil B A (SWOT) Perfil A CENÁRIOS (VISÃO INTEGRADA) ELABORAÇÃO DE GUIÕES


75 Muito Obrigado! product usability weblog

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