Apresentação em tema: "Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans."— Transcrição da apresentação:
Everything, but … testing A company and process focused approach of usability Rita almendra Henri Christiaans
Innovation, but on what level? Key themes and references In search of excellence (Peters & Waterman, 1982) Total Quality Management (TQM) Taguchi methods Just in time manufacturing (JIT) Downsizing Restructuring Globalised manufacturing economies of scale Time to Market (TIM) processes Extended enterprise / virtual organisations (Davidow&Marlone,) Concurrent engineering Strategic information management Corporate Re-engineering (Hammer, 1993) Employee empowerment Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Mass customisation (Davidow& Malone,1992;Zell,97) User focus Cultural and social context Value added Differentiation Source: Les Wynn, DMI Cost Quality Delivery Design Customer first Customer focus Production focus Time frame
Changing Role of Design Emotion product Innovative product Styled product The Doing and Thinking designer The Doing designer
Specialization Sustainability User CenteredStrategic RoleCompelling ExperienceMass CustomizationStandardization Artificial Obsolence Profit CenteredPassive RoleEnriching FunctionMass Production Emerging Tendencies
What Is Usability? Usefulness Degree to which users can successfully achieve goals/complete tasks Effectiveness Ability of users to accomplish goals with speed & ease Learnability Ability to operate the system to some defined level of competence after some predetermined amount of training Satisfaction Attitude of users, including perceptions, feelings and opinions of the product *Booth, Paul. An Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989
USABILITY THEORY & METHODS USABILITY PRACTICE ISO Jordan (1998) Nielsen (1999) Bevan (1991) Keinonen (1998) Shackel (1984) Norman (1988) GAP
Overall research design of PhD project
User-centered design: not just testing
Testing: just do it
product development = multidisciplinary Product Development Actors Interaction Designer designs user interface Development Engineer technology and production Market Intelligence collects market information defines marketing strategy Product Manager Coordinates development Sets priorities for product Usability Specialist evaluates and improves usability Industrial Designer designs physical appearance
10 (hands on) tips for user-centered product development
What means usability to us ? 1
Why do we actually want this? (define the value of usability) 2
Dont let designers just ride their hobbyhorse 3
Safe what has been proved to be good (UI paradigm, product generations, knowledge management) 4
Innovate when it makes sense 5
Implement understanding (from user research and user testing) 6
Let designers learn (user tests and after-sales feedback) 7
Give designers rich information 8
Think concept AND product 9
Making the right product, making the product right. (Bill Buxton)
Design for Consumer AND User 10
(bron: creating passionate users)
Before and after… Consumer - functionality - results - aesthetics - brand - price User - results - reliability - user friendliness
Market research or usability ?
Consumer demands ActivityConsumer DemandsInformation / questions research buyingWhat, where, how, price etc. target groups, law and standards, distribution Market research transportingWhen, how, whousergroupsMarket- & usability research usingPreparing, using, storing, cleaning, … usergroupsUsability research pleasurePhysio, Socio, Psycho, Ideo cultural differencesMarket- & usability research safetystandardsUsability- & technical research maintenanceUsability- & technical research ….
Facilitating human-centred design: the Ping-pong model Brief: from management questions to research questions Communication results: conclusions and recommendations
Monitoring Monitoring of products available in the market to get a clear picture of the context of use and performance of a product or product group..
Inspiration is capturing the context of product use; by using context mapping tools deeper insight in peoples aspirations and needs is gained. Inspiration.
(Tuuli Matelmaki, 2005)
Exploration is searching for what interaction and/or relation can or should take place in using the product and what aspects are relevant for this interaction and/or relation. Exploration.
Evaluation of the concept(s) of the product. This is testing the way the different interactions/relations work out in a qualitative way. Evaluation.
Verification Verification will take place in a quantitative research to verify if the, expected, interactions work in the right way..
Communication Designers timescales are often pressured, due to commercial pressures, so if research is not presented in an usable format, it will be discarded or ignored.
Why early evaluation and testing? Source: Hawksmere - ISO seminar material $ 1,000$ 6,000$ 60,000 Analysis & Design Implementation Maintenance phases costs The costs to repair mistakes:
When evaluating? AnalysisConstructionTransition User Involvement Expert Involvement Maintenance Expert Review Surveys Focus Group Sessions Active Usability Testing Intermediate Usability Testing Remote Usability Testing DiscoveryElaboration Concept Testing Continuous Usability Evaluation Target Group Analysis
Sample Usability Methods User and Task Analyses Contextual Inquiry Observations of users in their natural setting Focus Groups Interviews Expert Reviews Usability Tests
Script method (based on Alan Coopers Personnas, 1998) is a clear and detailed visualisation of the (future) usage in a way that the designer can imagine what the impact of the design will be. Based on objective research material and observations a cast of archetypes of users and a context of use (physical and social environment) is described. All interactions, events and dialogues are described and visualised in scenes and story boards. Scripts
Scripts in practice Development of a new combination of products that should lead to a new coffee experience. Client is convinced that the coffee quality in combination with the machine convenience will lead to customers satisfaction. Client is focussed on building a strong positive corporate and brand image. After product release the call rates and product failures must be almost zero. Fictive case
Coffee Script Research: Usability and market research. Synopsis: Visualisation of interactions and relations. Target group: Interdisciplinary design team. Script and Storyboard: Visualisation of the impact of the design.
The script the client had in mind
Cast Coffee Lover: the perfect consumer Coffee Drinker: the inconstant consumer Mr. Murphy: what can go wrong
Coffee Lover Personal goal: enjoy family life Practical goal: make a high quality coffee at home Characteristics: perfectionist, always reads instructions, careful and patient
Coffee Drinker Personal goal: impress Practical goal: have a coffee at the office Characteristics: sceptic, always in a hurry, never reads instructions, rude
Mr. Murphy Personal goal: enjoy without effort Practical goal: efficiency when working at home Characteristics: clumsy, impatient, never reads instructions
Context Based on consumer demands: Coffee LoverCoffee DrinkerMr. Murphy EnvironmentHome with family OfficeHome, living alone Buying Transporting PlacingScene 1 StorageScene 2 DispensingScene 3 Coffee Quality Cleaning Standby Maintenance
Scene 1: Coffee Lover gets a Senseo Crema The family surprised Coffee Lover with the Senseo Crema. After opening the box she carefully reads the users manual. She checks if the system is complete and not damaged. She installs the Senseo Crema in their large kitchen, cleans it and puts it on to see if it works. Within some minutes she manages (with the help of the quick reference card) to have her first Mild Roast.
Scene 2: Coffee Drinker's assorti Of course Coffee Drinker has the whole assorti of tastes at the office. Right after lunch, just before he has to leave for a meeting, he needs a quick strong coffee. Unfortunately he mixed up the tops of the boxes. Taking his first sip he is annoyed to taste the very mild one … he immediately wants to have another but when he notices there is too little water in the machine he leaves the office in a hurry … unsatisfied.
Scene 3: Mr. Murphy gets a coffee He likes large coffees, longer satisfaction with less effort. When he makes his regular large he cant find his mock … well the cup seems big enough. He notices too late that the cup is not big enough, not knowing what to do he just takes the cup away … just lucky he didnt burn his hands!
Scripts: a powerful tool Strong visualisation of (real) interactions and consequences on relations. Tool for inspiration and decision making. Opens discussion on diversity of user- and target group. Pitfall: objective information becomes subjective.
Brief Definir as especificações de um novo produto – barbecue tendo em consideração os perfis dos utilizadores (à frente apresentados) Ter particular atenção relativamente aos problemas leves Considerar aspectos de usabilidade que vão além das questões técnicas de uso e abarquem questões cognitivas Definir os descritores da análise a ser feita Fazer análise SWOT Antecipar problemas/soluções no uso dos produtos pensados Mapear produto na sua complexidade de relações internas e com o exterior Identificar factores chave que podem potenciar/reduzir usabilidade e subsequente satisfação dos utilizadores
Procedimentos 3 grupos (pelo menos 2 pessoas cada) De preferência 1 designer e 1 ergonomista em cada Cada grupo trabalha um dos perfis dos utilizadores Depois de feita a análise esta é apresentada à audiência (5 minutos) Discussão dos trabalhos
Grupo AGrupo BGrupo C. Família classe média. Idades à volta 35 anos. Educação universitária. Filhos com idades inferiores a 12 anos. Residência em apartamento com áreas de exterior – varandas, páteos. Rede de amigos com perfil idêntico.Aptência para relação com a natureza mediada pela tecnologia. Hábitos rituais de convívio com família alargada. Família nuclear – 2 membros.Idade superior a 60 anos. Nível instrução médio. Com filhos e netos. Funcionamento de rede de suporte à família – rectaguarda no apoio às crianças e outras actividades. Prática de reuniões regulares com grupos de amigos – jogos, almoços, viagens etc.. Habitação unifamilar – vivenda com espaço exterior diferenciado. Estudantes universitários. Residência comunitária. Rendimento baixo/médio. Idas muito espaçadas a casa. Espaço comum para realização de festas/convívio Perfis dos utilizadores
Perfil A Perfil B Perfil C DESIGN Perfil A Perfil B Perfil C ERGONOMIA CENÁRIOS (VISÃO INTEGRADA) ELABORAÇÃO DE GUIÕES constrangimentos Ideias/potencial... constrangimentos Ideias/potencial... (SWOT) C B A