Apresentação em tema: "Novembro, 2002 B-REED Introdução Brazil Rural Energy Enterprise Development Desenvolvimento de Empresas de Energia Rural no Brasil."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Novembro, 2002B-REED Introdução Brazil Rural Energy Enterprise Development Desenvolvimento de Empresas de Energia Rural no Brasil
2O que é o B-REEDParceria do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Meio Ambiente (PNUMA) e a E+Co ($$ da Fund. Nações Unidas)Surgiu do A-REED (UNF) na África; FENERCA (USAID)BRASUS e do Instituto Eco-Engenho (parceiros locais)Procuramos desenvolver e financiar empresas que usem tecnologias de energia limpas, eficientes e/ou renováveisProjetos com potencial para expansão ou replicaçãoFoco no nordeste (e.x. Bahia e Alagoas, Ceará)Objetivos: Fomentar empresas de ER e EE que são economicamente viáveis para:Reduzir consequências negativas sobre o meio-ambiente e a saúde derivadas das padrões energéticos em vigorEstimular crescimento econômico local com energia
3O que o B-REED tem a oferecer – 5 Componentes 1) Serviços de Desenvolvimento Empresarial (EDS) +Treinamento e instrumentos para auxiliar a iniciar e desenvolver negócios (eg. planejamento, estruturação, etc.)2) Capital inicial (empréstimo, patrimônio, mezzanine, fundo de aval), geralmente até US$ (máximo $ )Parcerias com varios tipos de instituições financeiras co-fiParcerias com outros atores interessados em desenvolvimento sustentável, tais como ONGs, instituições governamentais, e o setor privado:Facilitar desenvolvimento de projetos integrados (eg. reflorestamento, créditos de carbono, educação) sinergiasIntervenções na pólitica para promover legislação prática
4Empresas de Energia Sustentável Nossa abordagem é focada na empresa, mas abrange vários atores interessadosPNUMA / UCCEEE+Co / BRASUS & IEEGoverno/ PolíticasUsos Produtivos/Geração de RendaFerramentas/ TrenamentoServiços de DesenvolvimentoEmpresarialEmpresas de Energia SustentávelClientes RuraisEmpreendedoresCapital inicial (B-REED / E+Co)Capital para estágios futuros (Instituições financeiras e E+Co)Micro-finanças
5ENERGIA MODERNA é o fator chave para eliminar a pobreza (círculos virtuosos sinergísticas) Benefícios SociaisSaude melhorTempo para educaçãoOportunidades para mulheres e criançasMeio AmbienteQualidade do arLocal (terra, ar, agua)Global (emissções de gases de efeita estufa)EnergiaDesenvolvimento EconômicoGeração de empregoMaior produtividadeAumenta geração de renda
6A Guia de Ferramentas (Toolkit) ajuda os empreendedors fazer um plano de negócios EMPREENENDEDORBREDIdéiaColeta de dadosEDSViabilidadePlano de NegócioImplementaçãoExpansão
7O que é serviços de desenvolvimento empresarial (EDS) Assistência na elaboração do plano de negócios / expansãoDisenho de Estudo de Mercado e do Projeto PilotoCriação do Modelo de Negócios Análise dos Riscos e medidas para reduzí-losEDSSuporte com Assuntos Regu- latórios e LegaisContatos e Negocia- ção com ParceriasAnálise de Viabilidade e FinanceiraFormalização de parcerias / alianças estaté- gicas chavesPreparação e contatos para conseguir co- financiamentoEstruturação e Assess. Financeira
8B-REED tem um conceito de empresa bastante abrangente Organização de qualquer natureza jurídica, geralmente de direito privado, cujo projeto:Enquadra-se nos propósitos do programa B-REEDApresente viabilidade econômica e financeiraAberto a financiar empreendedores:Com capacidades diferentesDesde só com planos de negócios até aqueles expandirão seu uso de ER ou reduzir / limpar seu uso de energiaUtizando várias tecnologias (geralmente provadas)Tipos de empresasMicro, pequenas e médias empresasCooperativas, OSCIPs, associações, etc.Instituições sem fins lucrativos
9O que tipo de empreendimento podemos financiar Abrange: 1) eletrifição rural, 2) geração de ER ligado a rede, 2) fabricação, montagem, ou distribuição de equipamentos, 3) usos produtivos, 4) eficiência energética, e 5) subsituição de combustível mais limpaPara pequenos e médios empreendimentos capital pode lançar / provar modelos de negócios, facilitar expansão / profissionalizaçãoPara projetos de grande porte capital catalizador pode ser crucial no estágio de pré-investimento (eg. para financiar os estudos ambientais e de viabilidade, projeto básico, etc.)
10B-REED oferece uma filosofia diferenciada, mais próximo a um parceiro Fornecer EDS (vs. só due diligence) facilita nosso financiamento no estágio inicial, com maior riscoNão temos necessidades de retornos de 20%+ em dólaresEntretanto, não financiaremos a taxas reais negativasProduto financeiro diferenciado; não tentamos concorrerAbordagem mais flexível; desenhamos estruturas financeiras, avaliando cada oportunidade caso por casoNão temos regras rígidas ou categorias como bancoFinanciaríamos com dívida, mezzanine ou patrimônioObjetivo é criar estruturas apropriados com flexibilidade para antecipar a possibilidade de eventos externosAvaliamos os benefícios ambientais e sociais tambémMais flexível em termos de garantias exigidas
11B-REED utiliza uma abordagem de financiamento flexível, mais próximo a um parceiro Nosso papel: fornecer capital de estágio cedo a um custo razoável, quando não seria disponívelTentamos financiar o projeto em estágios (eg. estudo de mercado, de viabilidade, ou um projeto piloto)Estamos dispostos a aceitar risco, mas acreditamos em compartilhar o risco e o sucesso do empreendimentoUsamos criteria de analisis sistemático (eg. documentação legal adequada)Empreendedor deve investir proprio capital (eg. 30% num novo negócio)
12B-REED oferece capital a um custo mais razoável, considerando os riscos que aceitamos Capital de RiscoStart-UpB-REEDEstagio Inicial/ Alto crecimentoParticipação(Mezzanine)Ordem de financiamentoFluxo de Caixa +Dívida5152535US$ Retorno (%)
13Passos do processo de investimento Preparação e elaboração do cadastro e proposta preliminarElaboração do plano de negócio usando as ferramentasFormalização do processo de EDSProcesso de diligênciaNegociação do termos de investimentoAprovação e liberação do financiamento
15The “Energy Poor” spend an exorbitant amount of resources to obtain inefficient forms of energy keeping them trapped in the vicious poverty cycleThe harsh reality2.4 billion people lack clean, safe cooking fuels and depend on traditional biomass sources; 1.7 billion lack electricity1Time spent gathering wood and water prevent education developmentTraditional infrastructure has ignored themTheir basic energy sources are being depleted, slowly worsening their livelihoodHence, their ability to escape from the poverty cycle is limited, making increases in quality of life and economic impossibleThe resulting environmental degradation has both local and global consequences1 World Energy Assessment (2000). Chapter 2, Energy and Social Issues, edited by Amulya Reddy
16Not only could they afford to pay for modern energy Not only could they afford to pay for modern energy but the poor are paying more for crude energy todayDispelling the myths – they would payThe poor spend much more time and effort obtaining energyThe poor pay more per unit of energy (eg. light from a kerosene lamp costs 100 times more than from electricity)The poor spend a substantial portion of their household income on energy just for basic survival (cooking, heating, etc.)Energy poverty is not merely a ruralInadequate technology is not the problem
17E+Co promove a visão de um mundo onde todo mundo tem direito a energia moderna, confiável e limpa MissãoFornecer financiamento de primer estagagio a empresas de ER, mostrando a viabililidade e eficiência desta abordagem, estimulando o fluxo de mais capital para este setorO resultadoDesenvolvimento social via a criação de oportunidades econômicas, melhorando a padrão de vida e elimando a pobrezaPreservação ambientalReturno razoável sobre o capital investido reinvestmento
18O que significa ser um “non-profit” O que significa ser non-profit / 501-C3 ( “empresa” sem fins lucrativos)?Isenção de impostos EUA; facilita conseguir fundos de fundações para cubrir custosNo existe dono da empresa; nossos lucros seria reciclados crescer e para financiar outras empresasNão operamos fundos não-reembolsáveis; procuramos retornos para cubrir custos operacionais
19Mais do que um financiador de ER; promovemos o crecimento do setor Valorizamos os retornos ambientais e sociais tambémEstimular co-financiamento de IF’s e estratégicosCompartilhar experiência via seminarios; disseminar materiaisIntervenções na pólitica para promover legislação práticaAdaptar o modelo aos vários países (ONGs locais), compartilhando experiências, conhecimentos e tecnologias
20E+Co: Os resultados durante uma década . . . Currently invested in 60+ enterprises in 30+ developing countries. Over 80 investments (~$9 million) since 1995 in 37 countries24 investments now delivering clean energy services to more than 200,000 peopleE+Co investment has leveraged $40 million of investment from other public and private sources 500 jobsExemplos3 hydro facilities – 23 MW of new clean electricity in Bolivia, Guatemala and the Philippines12 Rural Energy Services Cos – serving 29,000 previously unelectrified households in Bangladesh, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, The Gambia, Honduras, India, Lesotho, Morocco, Nepal, and Vietnam~1.4 MW of new renewable electricity
21E+Co: Os resultados . . .Exemplos cont.1 small wind turbine manufacturing facility in China3 biomass plants – 6 MW of new clean electricity in Bolivia, Thailand and the PhilippinesA biogas manufacturing company in Vietnam - 2,900 household biogas digestors; 2.2 million m3 of biogasA treadle pump manufacturing company in Bangladesh – selling more than 200,000 pumps/year, displacing previously used diesel and generating ~$100 more per year per farmer30 brick production micro-enterprises converted from a sawdust-based and used lubrication oil fuel to clean, efficient natural gas – Bolivia
24E+Co Case Study: Soluz Honduras – Project overview Soluz Honduras S.A. de C.V (“Soluz Honduras”) is a Honduran corporation and a majority-owned subsidiary of SOLUZ Inc. Soluz Honduras began operations in 1998, seeking to leverage experience gaining from the operations of Soluz Dominicana, which began operating in 1995.It is a pioneer in the implementation o rural photovoltaic (PV) solar home system (SHS) delivery through the rental (“fee for service” model) of different-sized PV SHS systems. By maintaining ownership of the systems, Soluz is able to provide energy at affordable monthly rents and deliver its product to a greater penetration of the population. These prices are equivalent to what villagers would pay for kerosene, dry cell batteries, or recharging car batteries for TV usage.Soluz Honduras’ strategy has been to attain sufficient scale in order to cover fixed costs; the company is also looking to diversify into other products in order to accelerate reaching a cash flow positive state.Company overview and strategyPhoto of a PV SHS in HondurasIn June 1998, E+Co granted the first US$100,000 loan to Soluz Honduras. The second US$100,000 loan was subject to the compliance of certain covenants, including conducting a market development study and securing additional funding (either equity or debt) amounting to at least US$500,000.Despite the fact that at the time when the second disbursement was approved the two last covenants were pending, E+Co decided to approve the second loan on June This was due to the fact that Soluz Honduras needed these funds for working capital to cover its inventory and operating expenses.Due to E+Co’s timely financing, Soluz Honduras in 2000 was able to secure several loans and equity investments from IFC, CFA and the SIF. These loans totalized US$525,000 and the equity investments US$225,000.E+Co relationshipSocial and environmental impactHonduras has an estimated population of 2.2 million rural residents, of which 40,000 households have no electricity; it is also estimated that approximately 80% of these households have monthly incomes of less than US$137, with current energy expenditures of about $4.50.The alternative of obtaining energy services on a “fee-for-service” is in the short-term the only option available for these families, where there is no alternative for them to get connected to the grid and where the households cannot afford credit or cash sales of such PV energy systems.PV solar home systems have neutral environmental impact, creating electricity from sunlight and producing no emissions. The use of PV substitutes the use of dry cell batteries, kerosene and in some other cases, the use of diesel generators from rural electrical energy services.
25Soluz Honduras – Investment overview Type: Senior DebtAmount: US$200,000Tenor and payment schedule: The total loan was made through two disbursements. The first was for $100,000 with a grace period for loan amortizations of 12 months; the second disbursement had a grace period of 6 months. The average loan term was of six years, elapsing 5.5 years after the second disbursement.Guarantee: First pledge over Soluz Honduras shares; indirect pledge on SHSKey covenants: Test market installation of 100 SHS units ($50,000), market development ($50,000) and installation of 200 SHS units ($100,000).Interest rate: 7% per annumSponsor equity contributed at time of investment: US$55,296Key terms of financingFinancial highlightsStatistics on as of September :Operational metricsManagement & Ownership[Ownership table]
26E+Co Case Study: Red Ceramics – Project overview The “Red Ceramics” natural gas fuel substitution project, initiated in 1995, was developed by the Red Ceramics Association (“ACR”) in Alpacoma, La Paz. The Association consisted of 40 members, each with a kiln for the manufacture of construction bricks. ACR is located, on the western ledge of La Paz, close to the poorest residential areas.The fuels used in the ovens, before the fuel substitution, were sawdust, used lubrication oil and scrap wood. However, the severe air pollution caused by using these materials and the incompliance with local environmental regulations implied the risk of closure of the business.ACR hired an engineering consulting firm to design a new system using natural gas that would comply with environmental regulations.After obtaining the municipal and environmental permits, implementation of the project began in October This was particularly arduous given that most of the ACR members, as rural emigrants to La Paz and of indigenous descent, have only minimal education; they hence experienced some cultural barriers in dealing with local authorities.Company overview and strategyPhoto of brick manufacturersDue to the cultural and socioeconomic background of the ACR members, E+Co’s role extended beyond that of a typical lender; it included advisory to assure that the proper legal, administrative and technical decisions were made, as well as help securing the supply and construction contracts.After receiving a financing request, E+Co contacted Caja Los Andes (“CLA”), a local micro credit bank, to be a co-financier. CLA extended credit on the basis of the technical and economical evaluation performed by E+Co.In September 1999, the loan was made by E+Co for US$ 160,534, together with a debt service collection service contract with CLA.In September 2000, the loan amount was increased by US$ 41,625, given unforeseen additional costs to complete the project.Due to lower brick demand and prices in 2001, E+Co granted a 10 month debt service reduction, lowering monthly payments by 40%. In 2002, a term extension of 12 months was also granted. As of March 2002, 30% of the debt had been repaid and ACR continues on debt payment schedule.E+Co relationshipSocial and environmental impactThe social benefits targeted in this project were primarily focused on preserving the jobs of 30 families facing closure due to the threat of environmental restrictions on use of sawdust and used lubrication oil in the manufacturing process.Another objective of the project was to increase the income of the families and improve their working and living conditions around the project zone, with the reduction of noxious gas emissions.The environmental impacts associated with the use of clean fuel not only benefit the local neighborhood of the Red Ceramics Association, but also the large and densely populated urban areas of La Paz, where air pollution is a significant problem.
27Red Ceramics – Investment overview Type: DebtAmount: US$202,160Interest rate: 9% per annumTenor and payment schedule: 64 month tenor with 12 month grace for interest payments and loan amortizationsGuarantee: Each debtor registered the mortgage of his real estate in to E+Co. In addition, ACR committed itself to take disciplinary measures in case of default of any of its members.Sponsor equity contributed at time of investment: Of the total investment of US$260,000, ACR contributed US$57,840 as in-kind equity through the provision of labor for the excavation and filling of ditches, as well as for other masonry works.Key terms of financingFinancial highlightsThe most remarkable quantitative impact was the decrease in brick losses due to overcooking and smelting of bricks; production losses were reduced from 14% to 5%.Another efficiency gain was the 14.6% increase in total net loading of each batch, due to reduction of unused space in the new ovens. These advantages afforded by the new fueling system were important in maintaining the viability of the business, as in 2001 there was an unexpected decline in brick demand and a fall in local brick prices.The total production increased from an estimated 15.8 million bricks in 2000 to about 20 million bricks in 2001.The total pollution, mainly from the use of sawdust and used lubrication oil, was reduced by more than 80%. Moreover, the bricks manufactured with natural gas are of higher quality and hence more competitive than the ones that had been produced with traditional fuels.Operational benefitsManagement & OwnershipACR is equally owned by its 40 membersThe ownership of the natural gas distribution system, from the main gas pipeline to each member’s property gates, belongs to the ACR, which contributed with in-kind labor for its construction and installation.The assets installed on the property of each associate member belong entirely to that individual.The maintenance of the civil works and the maintenance of the distribution system is the responsibility ACR.The Natural Gas Distribution Company (YPFB) is responsible for the main gas connection feeding ACR, the distribution system, as well as for gas provision, pressure regulation, measurement, and billing and collection.
28E+Co Case Study: Kanata Hidroelectric Plant – Project overview In 1993, SYNERGIA S.R.L., a small Bolivian company, was founded to develop a 7.5 MW hydropower plant, using an existing water supply reservoir located at an altitude of 4,350m on a mountain watershed above the historic town of Cochabamba on the edge of Lake Titicaca.For over 40 years, these waters had been channeled through an open canal to a reservoir located at the mountain pass and, from there, to the bottom of the mountain through a gully along 7.5 km. However, this existing viaduct system resulted in water losses of about 30% (about 2.38 million m3), hence limiting the potable water supply of the town.The Kanata plant sought not only to provide an important source of on-grid electricity to the local community, but also to increase the amount of potable water to the community.From 1995 and 1997, SYNERGIA obtained the legal concession, obtained the necessary land and corresponding rights of way, secured project partners, and raised the necessary financing. The construction of the project started in 1997 and was completed in April 1999.Company overview and strategyPower house and lower reservoirIn August 1995 SYNERGIA S.R.L. initially requested a US$ 250,000 financing from E+Co, contingent upon the availability to find other co-financing sources to fully fund the project. The loan contract was signed on September 19, 1997.E+Co early financing commitment was crucial in helping the project demonstrate its viability and consequently successful raise the additional debt and equity financing needed.The loan has since been fully repaid.E+Co relationshipSocial and environmental impactThe original water conveyance through the gully of Thola Pujro, due to its steep slope (1,350 m in 7 km), provoked significant erosion for more than 40 years, causing occasional landslides and polluting the water, both physically and bacteriologically; the new water conveyance through the penstock eliminated such erosion and pollution.The water losses (by evaporation, infiltration and pulverization along the gully) were significant, representing about 30% of the total flow. As this was the main source of potable water for the growing town, this was a detrimental loss. The project resulted in savings of 2.4 million m3 of water per year, supplying another 40,000 inhabitants (at 150 liters per inhabitant per day). SYNERGIA provides this additional water at no cost.The electricity production, incorporated in the distribution grid, is sufficient to provide enough electricity to about 50,000 households. Moreover, the hydro energy does not produce any greenhouse gasses.
29Kanata – Investment overview Type: DebtAmount: US$250,000Interest rate: 9% per annumTenor and payment schedule: 18 month grace period followed by three year repayment period (with bimonthly payments)Key covenants: Use of an escrow account receiving the monthly payments from the power sales to the interconnected system (with E+Co debt service payment as as primary obligation for the account)Sponsor equity contributed at time of investment: US$ 1.86 millionKey terms of financingFinancial highlightsAnnually, the project produces 20.4 to 24 GWh and a net capacity output of 7.4 MW, not including the consumption for the internal operation of the plant.From May 1999 to March 2002, the plant operated during about 12,000 hours, with only a 0.01% outage rate.Besides this performance reaching 99.99% reliability, the plant provides 7.94 million m3 of clean water per year to the town of Cochabamba, delivered via the local water supply and distribution company (SEMAPA).Operational metricsOwnership