Apresentação em tema: "Administração de drogas por via endovenosa - bôlus"— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Administração de drogas por via endovenosa - bôlus DúvidasArquivoAdministração de drogas por via endovenosa - bôlusSolicitar aulas para:
2Importância de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos (RAM) 2 milhões de RAM anualmente nos EUACem mil mortes por anoQuarta causa de morte nos EUA (na frente de doenças pulmonares, diabetes, AIDS, acidentes automobilísticosRAM ambulatorial – incidência não estimadaRAM em clínicas para idosos – 350 mil por ano
3Custos associados a RAM 136 bilhões de US$ anualmenteMaior do que custos com moléstias cardiovasculares ou tratamento de diabetesRAM responsável por 20% de danos ou mortes por ano em pacientes hospitalizadosCusto hospitalar o dobro em relação a demais pacientes
4Por que há tantos RAM?Dois terços de consultas médicas geram uma receita2.8 bilhões de receitas no ano 2000 (10 por habitante dos EUA)RAM aumenta exponencialmente com 4 ou mais medicações
5Interações Medicamentosas Representam 3-5% das internações de RAM que podem ser evitadasImportante causa no número de atendimentos ambulatórios
6Por que há tantos RAM?Dois terços de consultas médicas geram uma receita2.8 bilhões de receitas no ano 2000 (10 por habitante dos EUA)RAM aumenta exponencialmente com 4 ou mais medicações
7Reported serious events vs outpatient prescriptions, 1998-2005. Serious Adverse Drug Events Reported to the Food and Drug Administration, ARCH INTERN MED/VOL 167 (NO. 16), SEP 10, 2007
8Estados Unidos - Idosos 12% da população31% das prescrições18% consomem pelo menos uma medicação considerada não apropriada para a idade
9Date: From: ######## ########## <############@yahoo. com Date: From: ######## ########## Subject: Parkinson - Unicamp To: Olá Professor,Meu nome é ########, sou alun ################ da Unicamp e fui alun do senhor.Há pouco tempo, falei com o senhor sobre minha avó de 81 anos que está usando alguns medicamentos para Parkinson entre outros.O senhor pediu para eu procurar saber a quanto tempo ela está usando tais medicamentos e dessa forma estou enviando os dados:* Mantidan (Cloridrato de amantadina): 100mg 9:00hs + 100mg 17:00hs anos de uso* Betaserc (Dicloridrato de betaistina): 16mg de manhã + 16mg no jantar ,5 anos de uso* Pantoprazol: 20mg de manhã mais de 3 anos de uso. Começou a usar devido ao efeito colateral de um medicamento (não sei o nome) que ela tomava para osteoporose. Hoje em dia, ela usa "Evista" para osteoporose.* Evista (Cloridrato de raloxifeno): 60mg no jantar anos de uso* Assert (Cloridrato de sertralina): 50mg no almoço anos de usoDevido aos efeitos colaterais (psicoses) do Mantidan, ela passou a usar:* Haldol (haloperidol-2mg/ml): 8 gotas à noite 2,5 semanas de uso* Risperidon (Risperidona): 1mg de manhã ,5 semana de uso
10Creatinine clearance and drug prescriptions for the elderly Creatinine clearance and drug prescriptions for the elderly. A study of 419 patients older than 70 years admitted through the emergency departmentViallon A, Guyomarch P, Marjollet O, Belin M, Robert F, Berger C, Guyomarch S, Bertrand JC. Service d'Urgence et de Reanimation, Hopital Bellevue, Saint-Etienne.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of drug-related adverse events increases with age. In approximately 20% of cases, these events necessitate hospitalization. By taking into account the physiological changes associated with aging when prescribing drugs, physicians can prevent some of these events. The objective of this study was to analyze the prescriptions written by general practitioners for elderly patients admitted to the emergency department in relation to the patient's creatinine clearance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 968 consecutive patients older than 70 years, 419 underwent a plasma creatinine assay on admission and were included in this study. Creatinine clearance was calculated with Cockcroft's formula. The patients were classified into two groups according to creatinine clearance:<30 mL/min (group I) and >or=30 mL/min (group II). RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was<30 mL/min in 84 of the 419 patients (group I) and >or=30 mL/min in 335 (group II). Mean age was significantly higher in group I than in group II (87 +/- 6 vs 81 +/- 6 years, p<0.001), as was mean plasma creatinine concentration (113 +/- 23 vs 83 +/- 19 mmol/L, p<0.001), while mean weight was significantly lower (57 +/- 10 vs 69 +/- 13 kg, p< In group I, 82 drugs with precautions concerning renal function had been prescribed for 69 (82%) patients, and in group II, 331 such drugs for 174 (52%) patients. Of the 82 drugs prescribed in group I that required precaution, 47 (57%) were contraindicated or prescribed at an inappropriate dose in view of the creatinine clearance. Irrespective of pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean number of drugs taken per patient was 5 +/- 2 in group I and 6 +/-2 in group II. CONCLUSION: In prescribing drugs for elderly patients, especially those whose weight is low, careful attention should be paid to renal function.
11Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Jérôme Tourret, Isabelle Tostivint,1 Sophie Tézenas Du Montcel,2 Svetlana Karie,1 Vincent Launay-Vacher,1 Cécile Vigneau,3 Christel Bessette,1 Gilbert Deray,1 and Corinne Isnard Bagnis1 Nephrology and 2Biostatistics Departments, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, and 3Nephrology Department, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, and 4INSERM U722, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Site Xavier Bichat, Paris, FranceClinical Infectious Diseases 2007; 45:779–84
12Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Background. Several studies have revealed the frequency of antiretroviral (ARV) drug prescription errors. We nalyzed highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prescribing practices for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients undergoing hemodialysis in France.
13Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Methods. Prescribed ARV drug doses in our cohort (consisting of all HIV-infected patients who underwent hemodialysis from 1 January 2002 and were prospectively followed up until 1 January 2004) were compared with the recommended doses for patients undergoing hemodialysis. The log-rank test was used to compare the outcomes among different groups of treated patients.
14Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Results. One hundred seven of the 129 patients in our cohort received a total of 317 ARV drugs, 59% of which were improperly prescribed.
15Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis The dosing was too low for 18% of the patients and too high for 39% of the patients. Twenty-eight patients (26%) did not receive any of their ARV drugs at the recommended dose.
16Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Among the patients who received HAART, those who were prescribed an insufficient dose of a PI were not statistically distinguishable from the others in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, diabetic comorbidity, HIVassociated nephropathy diagnosis, hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus coinfections, duration of dialysis, and duration of HIV infection.
17Proportion of patients who survived Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing HemodialysisNo underprescribed PI1.000.750.500.250.00Underprescribed PIProportion of patients who survivedNo. Of patients at riskUnderprescribed PINo underprescribed PITime, monthsAntiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis - HIV/AIDS • CID 2007:45 (15 September)
18Antiretroviral Drug Dosing Errors in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis For dialyzable ARV drugs, the delay between ARV drug receipt by the patients and dialysis sessions was not respected in 9% of cases, and in 73% of cases, it was not known whether the patients took the ARV drugs before or after dialysis sessions.
19Inappropriate prescribing in an older ED population Fredric M. Hustey MD*, Nicole Wallis MD, Jonathan Miller MDDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USACleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44195, USADepartment of Emergency Medicine, MetroHealth MedicaAmerican Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25, 804–807
20Inappropriate prescribing in an older ED population The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIMs) use in older emergency department (ED) patients based on the updated 2002 Beers criteria. This was a retrospective analysis of 352 consecutive ED visits by patients aged 65 years and older. The mean number of medications taken was 8.4 per patient. In the study population, 111 (32%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27-36) of 352 patients were taking at least 1 PIM at ED presentation.
21Inappropriate prescribing in an older ED population Among 101 of 193 patients discharged home from the ED with a new prescription, 13 (13%; 95% CI, 6-19) were also given PIMs.
22Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2007) 32, 113–121
23Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications to older people is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe, ranging from 12% in community-dwelling elderly to 40% in nursing home residents.
24Incorrect use of orlistat and sibutramine in clinical practice To investigate how the antiobesity drugs orlistat and sibutramin are prescribed in relation to the approved indications and the Swedish subsidiary rules.Eur J Clin Pharmacol (2007) 63:205–209
25Incorrect use of orlistat and sibutramine in clinical practice Methods - Anonymous survey to prescribers of a random sample of 2000 out of 20,000 prescription of orlistat and sibutramin.
26Incorrect use of orlistat and sibutramine in clinical practice Results - The response rate was around 65%. About half of the patients were not treated in accordance with the approved indications and a fourth of the patients prescribed sibutramin had one or several contraindications to the drug. The subsidiary rules were not followed in the majority of cases.
27Incorrect use of orlistat and sibutramine in clinical practice Conclusion - Deviation from the approved indications and subsidiary criteria of orlistat and sibutramin is a question of waste of medical and economic resources. Prescribing of sibutramin to patients with contraindications is a serious health hazard.
28At 04:59 PM 1/1/2008, you wrote:Minha avó tem 72 anos, tem diabetes mellitus tipo 2 há aproximadamente quatro anos.Atualmente, tal doença está controlada, sendo os níveis glicêmicos da minha avó normais (ela submete-se a controle periódico mensal). Não apresenta distúrbios hepáticos ou renais. Ela tem um histórico de depressão e, há alguns anos, teve um episódio de “relatar” certas histórias que, com o tempo, mostraram-se inverídicas. Nesta época, ela fazia um tratamento para emagrecer, e tomava fórmulas manipuladas pelo seu médico. Após certa resistência, ela concordou em ir a um psiquiatra, que lhe comunicou serem tais fórmulas as causadoras de sua “confusão” mental. Descontinuou o seu uso, administrando drogas desintoxicantes. Após esse tratamento com o psiquiatra, não houve mais problemas.Os medicamentos que ela toma:* Xenical (Orlistat) comprimido com 120 mg. Toma antes das refeições. Inibidor da lípase intestinal.* Fluoxetina (manipulada) - cápsula de 30 mg. Toma uma vez ao dia.* Vazy (cloridrato de sibutramina) comprimidos de 15 mg. Toma uma cápsula ao dia.* Oroxadin comprimidos de 100 mg. Toma um comprimido ao dia.* Caldê para osteoporose.* Cloridrato de metformina comrpimidos de 500 mg. Toma antes das refeições.* Miosan (cloridrato de ciclobenzaprina) comprimidos de 5 mg, uma vez ao dia. Tomou faz pouco tempo, porque apresentou dor nas costas.* norfloxacino 400mg. Tomou faz pouco tempo, pois apresentou cistite
29Medication dosing errors in hospitalized patients with renal impairment: a study in Palestine Background and Aim Reduced renal function requires dose adjustment for certain drugs to avoid toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether appropriate dosage adjustments were made for drugs that are nephrotoxic, excreted, or metabolized (TEM medications) by the kidney in patients with renal impairment. Results A total of 78 patients had calculated creatinine clearance 59 ml/min. Those patients were prescribed a total of 1001 lines of prescription medication. Dosage adjustment was necessary for 193 TEM medications. Analysis of TEM medications with guidelines for adjustment indicated that 73.58% (142) were found to be inappropriate and 26.42% (51) were found to be appropriate.Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety 2007; 16: 908–912
30Medication dosing errors in hospitalized patients with renal impairment: a study in Palestine Conclusion In our study, a wide range of dosing errors was common among patients with renal impairment that was common during hospitalization. Continued medical education in the field of clinical pharmacokinetics is important for physicians.