Apresentação em tema: "Conceitos Nucleares no Marketing"— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 Conceitos Nucleares no Marketing FEPAM - RecifeFevereiro 2006
2 Conceitos Nucleares Necessidades Desejos, & Procuras Produtos Core ConceptsThis CTR relates to Figure 1-1 on p. 7 and the discussion on ppConceitos NuclearesValor, Custo,eSatisfaçãoIntercâmbios,Transações, &RelacionamentosDISCUSSIONNeeds - emerge from a state of felt deprivation. Ask students to distinguish among physical, social, and individual needs. You may wish to link the discussion to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.Wants - the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and individual experience. Have students provide examples for different wants based upon geographical differences, gender, age, wealth. Link culture to socio-economic standing, education.Demands - are wants backed by buying power. Discuss such popular items as dream vacations or favorite cars to illustrate the difference between wants and demands. You may want an Acura Legend but drive a Subaru Justy. Introduce the idea that demands are often for a bundle or group of benefits and may address a number of related needs and wants.Products- are anything offered for sale to satisfy a need or want. Have students discuss an extended view of products to include services and ideas. Discuss the role of value in distinguishing products.Exchanges - are the act of obtaining desired objects by offering something in return. Link to barter economies and promises to pay (i.e., credit, checks).Transactions - are an actual trade of value between at least two parties. Transaction marketing is part of the larger concept of relationship marketing in which parties build long-term, economic ties to enhance quality and customer-delivered value.Markets - are the set of actual and potential buyers of a product. Markets may be decentralized or centralized. Markets exist wherever something of value is desired, such as in the labor market, the money market, even the donor market - for human “products” such as blood or organs.Marketers- are people seeking a resource from someone else and willing to offer something of value in exchange. A prospect is the target of that effort.MercadosMarketingeMarketers
3 5 Filosofias de Marketing Five Marketing Philosophies:This CTR relates to the material on pp and overviews the topics on those pages. You may find it useful to leave this CTR showing while discussing each philosophy at length.5 Filosofias de MarketingProductionProductionProductProductThe Production Concept. One of the oldest concepts, it holds that consumers favor products that are widely available and low in cost. Management emphasizes production and distribution efficiency. Examples from the text include Texas Instruments.The Product Concept . This concept holds that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features.. May lead to marketing myopia or the tendency to too narrowly define the scope of one's business.The Selling Concept . This concept holds that consumers if left alone, will not buy enough of the organization’s products. It is most often used today for unsought goods. Most firms practice the selling concept in response to overcapacity: they sell what they make rather than make what the market wants.The Marketing Concept . This concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists in determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors. It links the company's success with the consumer's continuing satisfaction. Its "outside-in" approach starts with a well defined target market, an analysis of their needs and wants, and then builds the company's offering around meeting those needs better than the competition.The Societal Marketing Concept. This concept adds to the marketing concept the idea that the company should contribute to the betterment of society as a wholeSellingSellingMarketingMarketingSocietalSocietal
4 Marketing & Vendas Confrontação de Conceitos Marketing and Sales Concept ContrastedThis CTR corresponds to Figure 1-6 on p. 19 and relates to the material on ppMarketing & Vendas Confrontação de ConceitosO Conceito de VendaPonto dePartidaEnfoqueMeiosFinsFabricaProdutosExistentesVenda ePromoçãoBeneficios atravésdo VolumeComparisons and Contrasts:Levitt notes that selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of the buyer.The marketing concept rests on the four principles illustrated in CTR 1-3:Target Markets. Companies cannot serve everyone. They must identify and select a smaller group of clearly defined customers and develop a tailored marketing program.Customer Needs. Marketers must probe customer needs, which are often vaguely defined even to the customer. Five distinct need types include: Stated Needs - the most explicit. Real Needs - underlying requirements. Unstated Needs - usually assumed to be part of the product offer by the customer. Delight Needs - a surprise bonus of the purchase not expected. Secret Needs - often an unconscious motivator grounded in psychological states.Coordinated Marketing. Coordination requires (1) that the various marketing functions work as an integrated whole, and (2) that the marketing function must be well coordinated with the other departments.Profitability. The key to long-term company success is not to aim for profits as such but to achieve them as a by product of doing the job well. All employees must see the connection between their performance and the customer need satisfaction-profitability relationship.As the text notes, companies can let their own success lock them into a rigid selling structure. As times change, and they always do, those companies fail to see the need for meeting new and emerging consumer needs. The marketing concept helps companies focus on customer need satisfaction, leading to long-term success by customer retention.O Conceito de MarketingMercadoNecessidadesdo ClienteMarketingCoordenadoBeneficios atravésda Satisfacçao
5 O Conceito de Marketing Social The Societal Marketing ConceptThis CTR relates to the material on ppO Conceito de Marketing SocialSociedade(Bem-estar humano )The Societal Marketing Concept holds that the organization should determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets. In delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than the competition, the company should also maintain or improve both the consumer’s and society’s well being.In-class discussion topic: “Can leaving the determination of the “public good” to private business executives can create problems for both society and the company?”Discussion Note: You may wish to consider extra-textual class discussion identifying the pros and cons of the societal marketing concept.Pros: Reasons for adopting the societal marketing concept include:1. Public expectations. Social expectations of business have increased. 2. Long-run profits. Socially responsible marketing may lead to more secure long-run profits Ethical obligation. Business should recognize that responsible actions are right for their own sake Public image. A good public image helps firms gain more customers, better employees, access to money markets, and other benefits Better environment. Involvement by business can help solve difficult social problems, creating a better quality of life and a more desirable community in which to attract and hold skilled employees Balance of responsibility and power. Marketers have a large amount of power in society that requires an equally large amount of responsibility Stockholder interests. Socially responsible companies are considered less risky and safer investments 9. Possession of resources. Business has the financial resources, technical experts, and managerial talent to provide to support public causes.Cons: Reasons for not adopting the societal marketing concept include:1. Violation of profit maximization. 2. Dilution of purpose. The pursuit of social goals dilutes business’s primary purpose Costs. Many socially responsible activities don’t pay their way. 4. Too much power. Business is already one of the most powerful institutions in society Lack of skills. Marketers may be poorly qualified to deal with social issues Lack of accountability. There are no direct lines of social accountability from the business sector to the public Lack of broad public support. Even favorable attitudes are general and lack consensus on specific actions marketers should take on social issues.Consumidores(Satisfação de desejos)Empresa(Benefícios)
6 As 4 Ps do Marketing Marketing Mix Mercado Alvo Produto Distribuição The Four Ps of MarketingThis CTR corresponds to Figure 4-5 on p. 98 and the material on pp As the marginal note in the AIE points out, mix decisions are covered extensively in ChaptersAs 4 Ps do MarketingMercadoAlvoPreçoProdutoPromoçãoDistribuiçãoMarketingMixThe Marketing MixProduct. In the contemporary mix, product is the term for the "goods and service" offering sold by the company. As technology makes everything from stereos to computers more accessible to the average buyer, service increasingly makes the competitive difference, especially in creating brand loyalty and generating repeat customers.Place. Place refers as much to how the product arrives to the final outlet as where the customer actually buys it. Later in the course, when students distinguish between convenience, shopping, and specialty goods the logistics of getting the product to the "place" of purchase can be emphasized again. It may also be appropriate to discuss the role of infrastructure on placing decisions -- highway, rail, and waterway conditions and/or airfreight costs.Price. Price too is an excellent source of discussion content. Students will undoubtedly know about list and discount prices as many will have had shopping experiences in discount malls. The manipulation of price in the channel of distribution through allowances, credit, and payment arrangements may be new to them.Promotion. Promotion covers most of what students will stereotypically identify as "real marketing." While the role of promotion is important you may remind them the dangers of too much emphasis on a single component of the mix.
7 O Processo do Marketing The Marketing ProcessThis CTR corresponds to Figure 4-7 on p. 101 and summarizes the material on pp This material previews the focus on later chapters. The lecture information below is provided if you wish to cover the strategic background information prior to covering the details.O Processo do MarketingDistribuidoresFornecedoresPúblicosCompetidoresTecnológicoNaturalSocialCulturalPolíticoLegalDemográficoEconômicoThe Marketing ProcessThis begins an extended discussion of planning, organization, and specific-actions that includes slide transparencies on the 4 Ps, factors affecting marketing strategy decisions, and a general outline of the contents of a marketing plan. These topics are covered in more detail on subsequent CTR and TMs.Marketing Analysis (and Planning). Marketing must conduct a complete analysis of its situation and all relevant environmental influences. Further, marketing must provide each functional area of the company with the information from this analysis that affects their area-specific tasks.Selecting Target Markets. In evaluating analysis, it should become clear that the company cannot service each market opportunity equally well. Target market selection occurs by matching strengths and weaknesses identified in analysis to particular target markets.Marketing Implementation. Plans must be coordinated and launched with realistic logistical support if they are to succeed. Marketers must be able to translate plans into concrete action.Marketing Control. The need to measure, assess and evaluate performance all relate to control issues. Annual-plan control is the task of making sure that the company is meeting well-defined goals for each month or quarter and compares performance to the marketplace. Profitability control measures the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels, and order sizes. Strategic control evaluates the company’s marketing strategy to determine if it is still appropriate to market conditions.
8 Planos de Marketing Resumo Executivo Auditoría de Marketing Ameaças e Oportunidades/Pontos Fortes e FracosObjetivos e aspeitos a destaqueMarketing PlanningThis CTR relates to the material on pp If you are using a term marketing project in the course, you may wish to handout the assignment at this time.Planos de MarketingEstratégia de MarketingProgramas de MarketingOrçamentosMarketing Plan ComponentsExecutive Summary. This opening section provides a short summary of the main goals and recommendations for action. It should prepare the reader in anticipation of full explanations later. Hint for students: write this section after completing the plan.Current Marketing Situation. This section describes the market and the company's position in it. A product review should compare all market entries. A distribution section reports sales trends and channel developments.Threats and Opportunities. This section distills environmental scanning efforts into an appraisal of how those forces and trends affect the company. Marketing plans should both identify and rank threats and opportunities.Objectives and Issues. This section begins the process whereby the manager translates analysis into terms for action. Based upon the preceding two steps the manager can set goals that will successfully implement company strategy.Marketing Strategies. Just as the company has strategies for growth, the manager must define the marketing logic or "game plan" to be used in running the specific business or product. The marketing plan here must provide specific strategies for target markets, the marketing mix, expenditures, and how strategies complement and support overall marketing goals.Action Programs. This section tells the who, what , when, and how much of the plan.Budgets. This section is essentially a projected profit-and-loss statement. You may wish to use it as part of a diagnostic if student plans are used with a simulation.Controls. All marketing plans must specify the means for evaluating their effectiveness. Financial goals by market by quarter are common.Controles
9 Marketing para Segmentos Alvo (Target Marketing) This CTR corresponds to Figure 11-1 on p. 265 and serves as an overview to the chapter.Marketing para Segmentos Alvo (Target Marketing)Segmentação do Mercado1. Identificação de bases para asegmentação do mercado.2. Desenvolvimento dos perfis dossegmentos obtidos.Major Steps in Target MarketingMarket Segmentation. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into distinct groups of buyers who might require separate products or marketing mixes. All buyers have unique needs and wants. Still it is usually possible in consumer markets to identify relatively homogeneous portions or segments of the total market according to shared preferences, attitudes, or behaviors that distinguish them from the rest of the market. These segments may require different products and/or separate mixes.Market Targeting. Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter. Given effective market segmentation, the firm must choose which markets to serve and how to serve them. In targeting markets to serve the firm must consider its resources and objectives in setting strategy.Market Positioning. Market positioning he process of formulating competitive positioning for a product and a detailed marketing mix. Marketers must plan how to present the product to the consumer. The product's position is defined by how consumers view it on important attributes.Seleção de Mercados Alvo3. Desenvolvimento de medidas daatratividade dos segmentos.4. Seleção do(s) segmento(s)alvo(s).Buyer’s Black BoxPosicionamento no Mercado5. Desenvolvimento do posiciona-mento para cada segmento alvo.6. Desenvolvimento do marketing mixpara cada segmento alvo.
10 Segmentação do Mercado Market SegmentationThis CTR relates to the material on ppSegmentação do MercadoBases para Segmentar MercadosComporta-mentaisDemográficasBases for Segmenting MarketsGeographic Segmentation. Geographic segmentation divides the market into different geographic units based upon physical proximity. While location determines how geographic segmentation is done, it is also true that many consumer products have attribute differences associated with regional tastes.Demographic Segmentation. Dividing the market into groups based upon variables such as sex, age, family size, family life cycle, income, education, occupation, religious affiliation, or nationality are all demographic segmentations. Consumer needs often vary with demographic variables. Demographic information is also relatively easy to measure. Age and life-cycle stage, sex, and income are three major demographic bases for segmentation.Psychographic Segmentation. Psychographic Segmentation divides the market into groups based on social class, life style, or personality characteristics. Psychographic segmentation cuts across demographic differences. Social class preferences reflect values and preferences that remain constant even as income increases. Life style describes helps group markets around ideas such as health, youthful, or environmentally conscious. Personalities may transcend other differences in markets and may be transferred to products themselves.Behavior Segmentation. Behavior Segmentation divides markets into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a product. Types of of behavior segmentation are based upon occasions, benefits sought, user status, usage rates, loyalty, buyer readiness stage, and attitude.PsicográficasGeográficas
11 Segmentando os Mercados Organizacionais Segmenting Business MarketsThis CTR relates to the material on ppSegmentando os Mercados OrganizacionaisVariáveis de Segmentação principaispara os Mercados OrganizacionaisDemográficasMajor Segmentation Variables for Business MarketsDemographics. Industry segmentation focuses on which industries buy the product. Company size can be used. Geographic location may be used to group businesses by proximity.Operating Variables. Business markets can be segmented by technology (what customer technologies should we focus on?), user/nonuser status (heavy, medium, light), or customer capabilities (those needing many or few services).Purchasing Approaches. Five approaches are possible. Segmentation can be by purchasing function organization (centralized or decentralized), power structure (selecting companies controlled by a functional speciality), the nature of existing relationships (current desirable customers or new desirable customers), general purchase policies (focus on companies that prefer some arrangements over others such as leasing, related support service contracts, sealed bids), or purchasing criteria (focus on noncompensatory criteria such as price, service, or quality).Situational Factors. Situational segmentation may be based upon urgency (such as quick delivery needs), specific application (specific uses for the product) or size of order (few large or many small accounts).Personal Characteristics. Personal comparisons can lead to segmentation by buyer-seller similarity (companies with similar personnel and values), attitudes toward risk (focus on risk-taking or risk-avoiding companies), or loyalty (focus on companies that show high loyalty to their suppliers.Variáveis OperacionaisAproximações de AprovisionamentoFatores SituacionaisCaracterísticas Pessoais
12 Marketing para Segmentos Alvo Market TargetingThis CTR relates to the material on ppMarketing para Segmentos AlvoEvaluação dos Segmentos AlvoTamanho e Cres-cimento do Segmt.Atrativo Estruturaldo SegmentoObjetivos &Recursos daOrganizaçãoEvaluating Market SegmentsSegment Size and Growth. The company must collect and analyze data on current dollar sales, projected sales-growth, and expected profit margins for each market segment.Segment Structural Attractiveness. Long run attractiveness includes an assessment of current and potential competitors, the threats of substitutes, and the power of buyers and suppliers.Company Objectives and Resources. The company’s resources and core business strengths should also fit well with the market segment opportunities.Market Coverage StrategiesUndifferentiated Marketing. This strategy uses the same marketing mix for the entire market. This strategy focuses on the common needs of the market rather than differences in it. Undifferentiated marketing provides economies of scale on product costs but may be limited in application.Differentiated Marketing. This strategy targets several market segments and designs separate marketing mixes for each of them. Product and marketing variation also helps company image and may produce loyalty in consumers as they change segments.Concentrated Marketing. This strategy commits a company to pursue a large share of one or more submarkets. Economies and segment knowledge and service are strengths of this approach but risk due to smaller market size is greater.Estratégias de Cobertura do MercadoIn-diferenciaçãoDiferenciaçãoConcentrada