Apresentação em tema: "Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra 2004/2005 6. Multi-Processamento."— Transcrição da apresentação:
Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra email@example.com 2004/2005 6. Multi-Processamento 6.1. Introdução
2 Nota Importante A apresentação desta parte da matéria é largamente baseada num curso internacional leccionado no DEI, em Set/2003 sobre Cluster Computing and Parallel Programming. Os slides originais podem ser encontrados em: http://eden.dei.uc.pt/~pmarques/courses/best2003/pmarques_best.pdf Para além desses materiais, é principalmente utilizado o Cap. 6 do [CAQA] e o Cap. 9 do Computer Organization and Design
3 Motivation I have a program that takes 7 days to execute, which is far too long for practical use. How do I make it run in 1 day? Work smarter! (i.e. find better algorithms) Work faster! (i.e. buy a faster processor/memory/machine) Work harder! (i.e. add more processors!!!)
4 Motivation We are interested in the last approach: Add more processors! (We dont care about being too smart or spending too much $$$ in bigger faster machines!) Why? It may no be feasible to find better algorithms Normally, faster, bigger machines are very expensive There are lots of computers available in any institution (especially at night) There are computer centers from where you can buy parallel machine time Adding more processors enables you not only to run things faster, but to run bigger problems
5 Motivation Adding more processors enables you not only to run things faster, but to run bigger problems?! 9 women cannot have a baby in 1 month, but they can have 9 babies in 9 months This is called the Gustafson-Barsis law (informally) What the Gustafson-Barsis law tell us is that when the size of the problem grows, normally theres more parallelism available
Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra firstname.lastname@example.org 2004/2005 6. Multi-Processamento 6.2. Arquitectura das Máquinas
7 von Neumann Architecture Based on the fetch-decode-execute cycle The computer executes a single sequence of instructions that act on data. Both program and data are stored in memory. Flow of instructions Data A B C
8 Flynn's Taxonomy Classifies computers according to… The number of execution flows The number of data flows Number of data flows Number of execution flows SISD Single-Instruction Single-Data SIMD Single-Instruction Multiple-Data MISD Multiple-Instruction Single-Data MIMD Multiple-Instruction Multiple-Data
9 Single Instruction, Single Data (SISD) A serial (non-parallel) computer Single instruction: only one instruction stream is being acted on by the CPU during any one clock cycle Single data: only one data stream is being used as input during any one clock cycle Most PCs, single CPU workstations, …
10 Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) A type of parallel computer Single instruction: All processing units execute the same instruction at any given clock cycle Multiple data: Each processing unit can operate on a different data element Best suited for specialized problems characterized by a high degree of regularity, such as image processing. Examples: Connection Machine CM-2, Cray J90, Pentium MMX instructions 134521335 324324687654332 V1 V2 V3 ADD V3, V1, V2
11 The Connection Machine 2 (SIMD) The massively parallel Connection Machine 2 was a supercomputer produced by Thinking Machines Corporation, containing 32,768 (or more) processors of 1-bit that work in parallel.
12 Multiple Instruction, Single Data (MISD) Few actual examples of this class of parallel computer have ever existed Some conceivable examples might be: multiple frequency filters operating on a single signal stream multiple cryptography algorithms attempting to crack a single coded message the Data Flow Architecture
13 Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) Currently, the most common type of parallel computer Multiple Instruction: every processor may be executing a different instruction stream Multiple Data: every processor may be working with a different data stream Execution can be synchronous or asynchronous, deterministic or non-deterministic Examples: most current supercomputers, computer clusters, multi-processor SMP machines (inc. some types of PCs)
14 IBM BlueGene/L DD2 Department of Energy's, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (California, USA) Currently the fastest machine on earth (70TFLOPS) Some Facts - 32768x 700MHz PowerPC440 CPUs (Dual Processors) - 512MB RAM per node, total = 16TByte of RAM - 3D Torus Network; 300MB/sec per node.
15 IBM BlueGene/L DD2
16 What about Memory? The interface between CPUs and Memory in Parallel Machines is of crucial importance The bottleneck on the bus, many times between memory and CPU, is known as the von Neumann bottleneck It limits how fast a machine can operate: relationship between computation/communication
17 Communication in Parallel Machines Programs act on data. Quite important: how do processors access each others data? Shared Memory Model Message Passing Model MemoryCPUMemoryCPU MemoryCPUMemoryCPU network CPU Memory
18 Shared Memory Shared memory parallel computers vary widely, but generally have in common the ability for all processors to access all memory as a global address space Multiple processors can operate independently but share the same memory resources Changes in a memory location made by one processor are visible to all other processors Shared memory machines can be divided into two main classes based upon memory access times: UMA and NUMA
19 Shared Memory (2) Fast Memory Interconnect UMA: Uniform Memory Access Single 4-processor Machine CPU Memory CPU Memory CPU Memory CPU Memory NUMA: Non-Uniform Memory Access A 3-processor NUMA Machine
20 Uniform Memory Access (UMA) Most commonly represented today by Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) machines Identical processors Equal access and access times to memory Sometimes called CC-UMA - Cache Coherent UMA. Cache coherent means if one processor updates a location in shared memory, all the other processors know about the update. Cache coherency is accomplished at the hardware level. Very hard to scale
21 Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) Often made by physically linking two or more SMPs. One SMP can directly access memory of another SMP. Not all processors have equal access time to all memories Sometimes called DSM – Distributed Shared Memory Advantages User-friendly programming perspective to memory Data sharing between tasks is both fast and uniform due to the proximity of memory and CPUs More scalable than SMPs Disadvantages Lack of scalability between memory and CPUs Programmer responsibility for synchronization constructs that ensure "correct" access of global memory Expensive: it becomes increasingly difficult and expensive to design and produce shared memory machines with ever increasing numbers of processors
22 UMA and NUMA The Power MAC G5 features 2 PowerPC 970/G5 processors that share a common central memory (up to 8Gbyte) SGI Origin 3900: - 16 R14000A processors per brick, each brick with 32GBytes of RAM. - 12.8GB/s aggregated memory bw (Scales up to 512 processors and 1TByte of memory)
23 Distributed Memory (DM) Processors have their own local memory. Memory addresses in one processor do not map to another processor (no global address space) Because each processor has its own local memory, cache coherency does not apply Requires a communication network to connect inter- processor memory When a processor needs access to data in another processor, it is usually the task of the programmer to explicitly define how and when data is communicated. Synchronization between tasks is the programmer's responsibility Very scalable Cost effective: use of off-the-shelf processors and networking Slower than UMA and NUMA machines
24 Distributed Memory CPU Memory Computer CPU Memory Computer CPU Memory Computer network interconnect TITAN@DEI, a PC cluster interconnected by FastEthernet
25 Hybrid Architectures Today, most systems are an hybrid featuring shared distributed memory. Each node has several processors that share a central memory A fast switch interconnects the several nodes In some cases the interconnect allows for the mapping of memory among nodes; in most cases it gives a message passing interface fast network interconnect Memory CPU Memory CPU Memory CPU Memory CPU
26 ASCI White at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Each node is an IBM POWER3 375 MHz NH-2 16-way SMP (i.e. 16 processors/node) Each node has 16GB of memory A total of 512 nodes, interconnected by a 2GB/sec network node-to-node The 512 nodes feature a total of 8192 processors, having a total of 8192 GB of memory It currently operates at 13.8 TFLOPS
27 Summary ArchitectureCC-UMACC-NUMADistributed/ Hybrid Examples- SMPs - Sun Vexx - SGI Challenge - IBM Power3 - SGI Origin - HP Exemplar - IBM Power4 - Cray T3E - IBM SP2 Programming- MPI - Threads - OpenMP - Shmem - MPI Scalability<10 processors<1000 processors~1000 processors Draw Backs- Limited mem bw - Hard to scale - New architecture - Point-to-point communication - Costly system administration - Programming is hard to develop and maintain Software Availability- Great - Limited
28 Summary (2) Plot of top 500 supercomputer sites over a decade
Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra email@example.com 2004/2005 6. Multi-Processamento 6.3. Modelos de Programação e Desafios
30 Warning We will now introduce the main ways how you can program a parallel machine. Dont worry if you dont immediately visualize all the primitives that the APIs provide. We will cover that latter. For now, you just have to understand the main ideas behind each paradigm. In summary: DONT PANIC!
31 The main programming models… A programming model abstracts the programmer from the hardware implementation The programmer sees the whole machine as a big virtual computer which runs several tasks at the same time The main models in current use are: Shared Memory Message Passing Data parallel / Parallel Programming Languages Note that this classification is not all inclusive. There are hybrid approaches and some of the models overlap (e.g. data parallel with shared memory/message passing)
32 Shared Memory Model Process or Thread A Process or Thread B Process or Thread C Process or Thread D double matrix_A[N]; double matrix_B[N]; double result[N]; Globally Accessible Memory (Shared)
33 Shared Memory Model Independently of the hardware, each program sees a global address space Several tasks execute at the same time and read and write from/to the same virtual memory Locks and semaphores may be used to control access to the shared memory An advantage of this model is that there is no notion of data ownership. Thus, there is no need to explicitly specify the communication of data between tasks. Program development can often be simplified An important disadvantage is that it becomes more difficult to understand and manage data locality. Performance can be seriously affected.
34 Shared Memory Modes There are two major shared memory models: All tasks have access to all the address space (typical in UMA machines running several threads) Each task has its address space. Most of the address space is private. A certain zone is visible across all tasks. (typical in DSM machines running different processes) Memory B Memory (all the tasks share the same address space) Memory A ABCAB Memory B Shared memory
35 Shared Memory Model – Closely Coupled Implementations On shared memory platforms, the compiler translates user program variables into global memory addresses Typically a thread model is used for developing the applications POSIX Threads OpenMP There are also some parallel programming languages that offer a global memory model, although data and tasks are distributed For DSM machines, no standard exists, although there are some proprietary implementations
36 Shared Memory – Thread Model A single process can have multiple threads of execution Each thread can be scheduled on a different processor, taking advantage of the hardware All threads share the same address space From a programming perspective, thread implementations commonly comprise: A library of subroutines that are called from within parallel code A set of compiler directives imbedded in either serial or parallel source code Unrelated standardization efforts have resulted in two very different implementations of threads: POSIX Threads and OpenMP
37 POSIX Threads Library based; requires parallel coding Specified by the IEEE POSIX 1003.1c standard (1995), also known as PThreads C Language Most hardware vendors now offer PThreads Very explicit parallelism; requires significant programmer attention to detail
38 OpenMP Compiler directive based; can use serial code Jointly defined and endorsed by a group of major computer hardware and software vendors. The OpenMP Fortran API was released October 28, 1997. The C/C++ API was released in late 1998 Portable / multi-platform, including Unix and Windows NT platforms Available in C/C++ and Fortran implementations Can be very easy and simple to use - provides for incremental parallelism No free compilers available
39 Message Passing Model The programmer must send and receive messages explicitly
40 Message Passing Model A set of tasks that use their own local memory during computation. Tasks exchange data through communications by sending and receiving messages Multiple tasks can reside on the same physical machine as well as across an arbitrary number of machines. Data transfer usually requires cooperative operations to be performed by each process. For example, a send operation must have a matching receive operation.
41 Message Passing Implementations Message Passing is generally implemented as libraries which the programmer calls A variety of message passing libraries have been available since the 1980s These implementations differed substantially from each other making it difficult for programmers to develop portable applications In 1992, the MPI Forum was formed with the primary goal of establishing a standard interface for message passing implementations
42 MPI – The Message Passing Interface Part 1 of the Message Passing Interface (MPI), the core, was released in 1994. Part 2 (MPI-2), the extensions, was released in 1996. Freely available on the web: http://www.mpi-forum.org/docs/docs.html MPI is now the de facto industry standard for message passing Nevertheless, most systems do not implement the full specification. Especially MPI-2 For shared memory architectures, MPI implementations usually dont use a network for task communications Typically a set of devices is provided. Some for network communication, some for shared memory. In most cases, they can coexist.
43 Data Parallel Model Typically a set of tasks performs the same operations on different parts of a big array
44 Data Parallel Model The data parallel model demonstrates the following characteristics: Most of the parallel work focuses on performing operations on a data set The data set is organized into a common structure, such as an array or cube A set of tasks works collectively on the same data structure, however, each task works on a different partition of the same data structure Tasks perform the same operation on their partition of work, for example, add 4 to every array element On shared memory architectures, all tasks may have access to the data structure through global memory. On distributed memory architectures the data structure is split up and resides as "chunks" in the local memory of each task
45 Data Parallel Programming Typically accomplished by writing a program with data parallel constructs calls to a data parallel subroutine library compiler directives In most cases, parallel compilers are used: High Performance Fortran (HPF): Extensions to Fortran 90 to support data parallel programming Compiler Directives: Allow the programmer to specify the distribution and alignment of data. Fortran implementations are available for most common parallel platforms DM implementations have the compiler convert the program into calls to a message passing library to distribute the data to all the processes. All message passing is done invisibly to the programmer
46 Summary Middleware for parallel programming: Shared memory: all the tasks (threads or processes) see a global address space. They read and write directly from memory and synchronize explicitly. Message passing: the tasks have private memory. For exchanging information, they send and receive data through a network. There is always a send() and receive() primitive. Data parallel: the tasks work on different parts of a big array. Typically accomplished by using a parallel compiler which allows data distribution to be specified.
47 Final Considerations… Beware of Amdahl's Law!
48 Load Balancing Load balancing is always a factor to consider when developing a parallel application. Too big granularity Poor load balancing Too small granularity Too much communication The ratio computation/communication is of crucial importance! time Work Wait Task 1 Task 2 Task 3
49 Amdahl's Law The speedup depends on the amount of code that cannot be parallelized: n: number of processors s: percentage of code that cannot be made parallel T: time it takes to run the code serially
50 Amdahl's Law – The Bad News!
51 Efficiency Using 30 Processors
52 What Is That s Anyway? Three slides ago… s: percentage of code that cannot be made parallel Actually, its worse than that. Actually its the percentage of time that cannot be executed in parallel. It can be: Time spent communicating Time spent waiting for/sending jobs Time spent waiting for the completion of other processes Time spent calling the middleware for parallel programming Remember… if s is even as small as 0.05, the maximum speedup is only 20
53 Maximum Speedup If you have processors this will be 0, so the maximum possible speedup is 1/s non-parallel (s)maximum speedup 0% (linear speedup) 5%20 10%10 20%5 25%4
54 On the Positive Side… You can run bigger problems You can run several simultaneous jobs (you have more parallelism available) Gustafson-Barsis with no equations:9 women cannot have a baby in 1 month, but they can have 9 babies in 9 months
Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra firstname.lastname@example.org 2004/2005 6. Multi-Processamento 6.4. Hardware
56 Problema da Coerência das Caches (UMA)
57 Mantendo a Coerência: Snooping
58 Snooping Leituras e Escritas de Blocos As múltiplas cópias de um bloco, quando existem leituras, não são um problema No entanto, quando existe uma escrita, um processador tem de ter acesso exclusivo ao bloco que quer escrever Os processadores, quando fazem uma leitura, têm também de ter sempre o valor mais recente do bloco em causa Nos protocolos de snooping, o hardware tem de localizar todas as caches que contêm uma cópia do bloco, quando existe uma escrita. Existem então duas abordagens possíveis: Invalidar todas caches que contêm esse bloco (write-invalidate) Actualizar todas as caches que contêm esse bloco
59 Protocolo de Snooping (Exemplo)
60 Problema da Coerência das Caches (NUMA) A abordagem de Snooping não é escalável para máquinas com dezenas/centenas de processadores (NUMA) Nesse caso utiliza-se um outro tipo de protocolos – baseados em Directorias Uma Directoria é um local centralizado que mantém informação sobre quem é que tem cada bloco
Arquitectura de Computadores II Paulo Marques Departamento de Eng. Informática Universidade de Coimbra email@example.com 2004/2005 5. Multi-Processamento 5.4. Aspectos Recentes e Exemplos
62 Tendências Neste momento torna-se extremamente complicado escalar os processadores em termos de performance individual e clock-rate O futuro é o MULTI-PROCESSAMENTO!!! A Intel, à semelhança de outros fabricantes introduz o Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT), na sua terminologia, chamado HyperThreading Um aumento de desempenho potencialmente razoável (max=30%) à custa de um pequeno gasto de transístores (5%) Atenção: pode levar a uma performance pior! Prepara os programadores para a programação concorrente!!! (a opinião generalizada é que o Hyperthreading serviu apenas para tal) Os dual-core (dois processadores no mesmo die e/ou pacote) irão ser banais nos próximos 2/3 anos Os servidores multi-processador (SMP – Symmetrical Multi- Processing) estão neste momento banalizados Os clusters estão neste momento banalizados
64 Como é que funciona o HyperThreading (1)? Processador super-escalar normal Dual Processor (SMP)
65 Como é que funciona o HyperThreading (2)? Time-sliced Multithreaded CPU (Super-Threaded CPU) Hyper-Threaded CPU
66 Motivações para o uso de Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) Normalmente existem mais unidades funcionais disponíveis do que aquelas que estão a ser utilizadas Limitações do tamanho dos blocos básicos e/ou paralelismo disponível a nível das instruções (ILP) Os computadores actuais estão constantemente a executar mais do que um programa/thread Existe trabalho disponível, independente, para fazer. Não se encontra é na mesma thread! Um dos aspectos em que esta abordagem é muito útil é a esconder latências inevitáveis de acesso a memória ou previsões erradas de saltos E.g. uma thread que tenha de ler dados de memória pode ficar bastante tempo à espera enquanto os dados não chegam. Nessas alturas, tendo SMT, é possível outra thread executar.
67 Implementação (Ideia Básica) Replicar o Front-end do processador e tudo o que seja visível em termos de ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) e.g. Registos, Program Counters, etc. Desta forma, um processador físico torna-se dois processadores Particionam-se alguns recursos (e.g. filas de issue de instruções) e Partilham-se outros (e.g. Reorder-Buffers)
68 Para terminar... Exemplo de um cluster! Cluster da GOOGLE Tem de servir 1000 queries/segundo, cada query não demorando mais de 0.5s! 8 biliões de páginas indexadas (8.058.044.651, 01/Maio/2005) Técnica para manter a indexação: Tabelas Invertidas (ver TC/BD) Todas as páginas são revisitadas mensalmente Máquinas do cluster GOOGLE PCs baratos com processadores Intel, c/ 256MB RAM Cerca de 6.000 processadores, 12.000 discos (1 PByte de espaço, 2 discos por máquina) Linux Red Hat 2 sites na Califórnia e 2 na Virgínia Ligação à rede Cada site tem uma ligação OC48 (2.5 Gbps) à Internet Entre cada par de sites existe um link de backup de OC12 (622 Mbps)
69 Racks e Racks 40 PCs/rack 40 Racks No google, a aborgagem à redundância é utilizar um conjunto maciço de máquinas completas!
70 Máquinas super-rápidas??
71 Material para ler Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 3rd Ed. Secções 6.1, 6.3, 6.5 (brevemente), 6.9, 6.15 Alternativamente (ou complementarmente), a matéria encontra-se bastante bem explicada no Capítulo 9 do Computer Organization and Design, 3rd Ed. D. Patterson & J. Hennessy Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 1-55860-604-1 August 2004 Em particular, a descrição do cluster Google foi retirada de lá. A única matéria não coberta foi a Secção 9.6 Este capítulo do livro será colocado online no site da cadeira, disponível apenas para utilizadores autenticados Jon Stokes, Introduction to Multithreading, Superthreading and Hyperthreading, in Ars Technica, October 2003 http://arstechnica.com/articles/paedia/cpu/hyperthreading.ars http://arstechnica.com/articles/paedia/cpu/hyperthreading.ars