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Organização de Computadores Fabiano Hessel

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Apresentação em tema: "Organização de Computadores Fabiano Hessel"— Transcrição da apresentação:

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2 Organização de Computadores Fabiano Hessel

3 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Bibliografia zLivro texto yPatterson, D. A. & Hennessy, J. L. Organização e projeto de computadores: a interface hardware/software zLivros referenciados e outras referências yDisponíveis na página da disciplina zSlides e documentos disponíveis na página

4 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Conteúdo zRevisão de conceitos básicos zProcessador Cleópatra yCaracterísticas gerais yLinguagem assembly yBloco de dados yBloco de controle zVHDL

5 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Avaliação z2 provas e 1 trabalho prático zFórmula G1 yG1= ( P1 + P2 + T ) / 3 zP1 - 24/ABRIL zP2 - 01/JULHO zP4 - 03/JULHO zG2 - 08/JULHO

6 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Trabalho zImplementar o processador R11, utilizando a linguagem VHDL zEspecificação do trabalho prevista para Maio zApresentação dos trabalhos y24/JULHO y26/JULHO

7 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Aviso zSemana Acadêmica yDurante a semana acadêmica não haverá aula, estando os alunos e o professor dispensados para acompanhar o evento. yPeríodo: 09 a 13 de Junho

8 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Embedding a computer CPU mem input output analog embedded computer

9 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Instruction sets zComputer architecture taxonomy. zAssembly language.

10 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components von Neumann architecture zMemory holds data, instructions. zCentral processing unit (CPU) fetches instructions from memory. ySeparate CPU and memory distinguishes programmable computer. zCPU registers help out: program counter (PC), instruction register (IR), general- purpose registers, etc.

11 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components CPU + memory memory CPU PC address data IRADD r5,r1,r3 200 ADD r5,r1,r3

12 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Harvard architecture CPU PC data memory program memory address data address data

13 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components von Neumann vs. Harvard zHarvard cant use self-modifying code. zHarvard allows two simultaneous memory fetches. zMost DSPs use Harvard architecture for streaming data: ygreater memory bandwidth; ymore predictable bandwidth.

14 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components RISC vs. CISC zComplex instruction set computer (CISC): ymany addressing modes; ymany operations. zReduced instruction set computer (RISC): yload/store; ypipelinable instructions.

15 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Instruction set characteristics zFixed vs. variable length. zAddressing modes. zNumber of operands. zTypes of operands.

16 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Programming model zProgramming model: registers visible to the programmer. zSome registers are not visible (IR).

17 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Multiple implementations zSuccessful architectures have several implementations: yvarying clock speeds; ydifferent bus widths; ydifferent cache sizes; yetc.

18 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Assembly language zOne-to-one with instructions (more or less). zBasic features: yOne instruction per line. yLabels provide names for addresses (usually in first column). yInstructions often start in later columns. yColumns run to end of line.

19 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components ARM assembly language example label1ADR r4,c LDR r0,[r4] ; a comment ADR r4,d LDR r1,[r4] SUB r0,r0,r1 ; comment

20 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Pseudo-ops zSome assembler directives dont correspond directly to instructions: yDefine current address. yReserve storage. yConstants.

21 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Endianness zRelationship between bit and byte/word ordering defines endianness: byte 3byte 2byte 1byte 0 byte 1byte 2byte 3 bit 31 bit 0 bit 31 little-endianbig-endian

22 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Example: C assignments (ARM Processor) zC: x = (a + b) - c; zAssembler: ADR r4,a; get address for a LDR r0,[r4]; get value of a ADR r4,b; get address for b, reusing r4 LDR r1,[r4]; get value of b ADD r3,r0,r1; compute a+b ADR r4,c; get address for c LDR r2,[r4]; get value of c

23 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components C assignment, contd. SUB r3,r3,r2; complete computation of x ADR r4,x; get address for x STR r3,[r4]; store value of x

24 © 2000 Morgan Kaufman Overheads for Computers as Components Example: C assignments (SHARC DSP) zC: x = (a + b) - c; zAssembler: R0 = DM(_a) ! Load a R1 = DM(_b); ! Load b R3 = R0 + R1; R2 = DM(_c); ! Load c R3 = R3-R2; DM(_x) = R3; ! Store result in x


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