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Gestão de Energia: 2013/2014 Introduction & Review of Thermodynamics Class # 1 Prof. Tânia Sousa

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Apresentação em tema: "Gestão de Energia: 2013/2014 Introduction & Review of Thermodynamics Class # 1 Prof. Tânia Sousa"— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Gestão de Energia: 2013/2014 Introduction & Review of Thermodynamics Class # 1 Prof. Tânia Sousa

2 Docentes Tânia Sousa Carla Silva Carlos Silva André Pina

3 Avaliação Exame (50%) com nota mínima 9.5 val. Avaliação Contínua (50%) –Trabalhos feitos por grupos de 2/3 alunos –Os trabalhos começam nas aulas e são para terminar em casa –A avaliação é feita nas aulas e com os trabalhos Trazer um portátil por grupo para as aulas práticas

4 Objectivo 1.Compreender e modelar os fluxos energéticos à escala do país, em sistemas industriais, em edifícios ou equipamentos complexos. 2.Definir acções que permitam racionalizar o uso da energia, quantificando os benefícios económicos e ambientais destas acções.

5 Gestão de Energia: Conteúdo SemanaTeóricasPráticas Apresentação. Revisões TermodinâmicaRevisões Termodinâmica Balanço Energético PortuguêsExercícios Energia Primária Final e e Útil. Diagramas de Sankey Transições Energéticas. Análise da Eficiência de Sistemas Energéticos Trabalho I (B.E.N) Modelos analíticos para a análise energética de sistemas: diagramas de blocos Trabalho II (Sankey) Eficiência Energética na Indústria. Regulamento da eficiência energética na indústria (SGCIE). Exercícios Eficiência Energética nos edifícios. Regulamentos de eficiência energética nos edifícios. Trabalho III Modelos Input-OutputExercícios Energia e Economia Métodos de contabilização da electricidade primária. Trabalho IV (Input-Output) FÉRIAS FERIADO Análise Ciclo de Vida Exercícios Eficiência energética nos Transportes. Regulamento da eficiência energética nos Transportes Exercícios Auditorias Energéticas Trabalho V (Tranportes) Modelação Oferta e Procura de Energia Visita a um Laboratório Tagus Park Revisões. Exercícios 4ª feira à tarde 4ª feira manhã e à tarde

6 Course Contents Thermodynamics Energy and Entropy Balances for Closed & Open Systems Thermodynamic Cycles: power cycle, heat pump & refrigerator cycle 1 st Pratical Class (exercises) Bibliography –Fundamental of Engineering Thermodynamics Shapiro & Moran

7 Course Contents – T2 The Portuguese Energetic Balance: –Supply, Conversion & Demand –Energy Carriers BALANÇO ENERGÉTICO tep Total de CarvãoTotal de Petróleo Gás Natural (*) Gases o Outros Derivados Total de Eectricidade Calor Resíduos Industriais Renováveis Sem Hídrica TOTAL GERAL = 1 a 322= = 24 a 2936 = 31 a = 39 a 45 47= IMPORTAÇÕES PRODUÇÃO DOMÉSTICA VARIAÇÃO DE "STOCKS" SAÍDAS CONSUMO DE ENERGIA PRIMÁRIA PARA NOVAS FORMAS DE ENERGIA CONSUMO DO SECTOR ENERGÉTICO CONSUMO COMO MATÉRIA PRIMA DISPONÍVEL PARA CONSUMO FINAL ACERTOS CONSUMO FINAL AGRICULTURA E PESCAS INDÚSTRIAS EXTRACTIVAS INDÚSTRIAS TRANSFORMADORAS CONSTRUÇÃO E OBRAS PÚBLICAS TRANSPORTES SECTOR DOMÉSTICO SERVIÇOS

8 Course Contents – T2 2 nd Pratical Class & 1 st assignment –Each group analyses the PEB for a specific year and compares it with 2012 (bring the computer) Learning Outcomes: –Be able to retrieve information from the Energetic Balance of a country/region –Compute electricity production efficiencies and other 1 st law efficiencies for the country level Bibliography: –Chap. 2 Balanço Energético Nacional - Metodologia de Elaboração, Evolução da Estrutura e do Consumo Energético Primário, Ramos, A. –Chap. 2 Energy Economics, Bhattacharyya.

9 From Primary Energy to Energy Services at different scales Course Contents - T3 IAASA - Global Energy Assessment 2012

10 Course Contents - T3 Grubler, A. Energy Transitions Energy Transition biomass to coal coal to oil World and national patterns of energy use Energy Transitions

11 Course Contents - T3 Sankey diagrams for different scales 1 st and 2 nd Law Efficiencies

12 Course Contents – T3 2 nd Pratical Class & 1 st assignment –Each group draws the Sankey diagram using e-Sankey for the PEB for a specific year for Portugal Learning outcomes: –Understand concepts of primary, final & useful energy –Historical perspective on world energy use & transitions –Use Sankey diagrams to analyse energy systems –Understand 1 st and 2 nd law efficiencies Bibliography: –Cap. 2 da sebenta Gestão de Energia, Águas, M. –Chapter 1 & 16 GEA, IAASA –Cullen and Alwood The efficient use of energy: Tracing the global flow of energy, Energy Policy 2010.

13 Block Diagrams Energy Analysis 3 th Practical Class –Exercises Learning Outcomes –Compute the energy intensity of a product or service, i.e., the total energy required to produce it –Compute the impact of efficiency measures on the specific energy consumption Bibliography: –Cap. 5 da sebenta Gestão de Energia, Águas, M. Course Contents – T4

14 Energy use in industry SGCIE: Energy efficiency in industry 4 th Practical Class & 3 rd assignment –Each group chooses a case study (e.g. the Secil), finds the correct data and describes the production process and computes the specific consumption Course Contents – T5

15 Learning Outcomes –Apply & understand the SGCIE legislation Bibliography: –DL n.º 71/2008; Despachos nº 17449/2008 & 17313/2008 –Chap. 6 Energy Efficiency and the Demand for Energy Services Danny Harvey Course Contents – T5

16 Course Contents – T6 Energy use in Buildings –Factors controlling energy use in buildings –Techniques to reduce energy use:

17 Course Contents – T6 RCCTE & RSECE: Energy efficiency in buildings 5 th Practical Class –Exercises Learning Outcomes –Learn about strategies to reduce energy use in buildings and their impact –Apply & understand the RCCTE & RSECE Bibliography: –Chap. 4 Energy Efficiency and the Demand for Energy Services Danny Harvey –Decreto-lei n.º 118/2013

18 Course Contents - T7 IO Analysis at the Macroeconomic scale Computation of Direct and Indirect Effects of changes in Demand 6 th Pratical Class & 4 th assignment –Each group computes energy demand scenarios for a country for 2 & 5 & 10 years based on changes in the economic structure & compares with reality Application of this methodology to Block Diagrams Analysis Bibliography: –Chap. 5 Ecological Economics, Common & Stagl.

19 Course Contents – T8 Methods to compute primary energy for renewable electricity EROI

20 Course Contents – T8 Learning Outcomes –Critically evaluate statistics and political goals on the weight of renewables on primary energy mixes at the country level. –Understand & apply the concept of EROI Bibliography Chapter. 14 & 15 from Energy and the Wealth of Nations,Hall, C. & Klitgaard, K.. 7 th Practical Class –Exercises

21 Course Contents – T8 Energy & Economic Growth & Environment

22 Course Contents – T8 Learning Outcomes –Identify the interactions between energy use, economic growth and environmental quality Bibliography: –Chap. 2 & 6 Energy at the Crossroads Smil, V.

23 Course Contents – T9 Life Cycle Assessment 8 th Practical Class –Exercises Bibliography: CO 2 Bioethanol DDG Bioethanol Life Cycle

24 Energy use in Transports Course Contents – T10

25 Legislation 9 th Practical Class –Exercises Learning Outcomes –Learn about factors that influence energy use in transports and strategies & technologies that reduce the energy use in and their environmental impact –Apply & understand the legislation on transports Bibliography: –Chap. 5 Energy Efficiency and the Demand for Energy Services Danny Harvey

26 Course Contents – T11 Energy Audits –Measurements –Mass and Energy Balances –Equipments 10 th Practical Class –Visita de Estudo (no Tagus Park)

27 Course Contents – T12 Tools to Model the Supply and Demand of Energy 11 th Practical Class –Exercises Learning Outcomes –Learn about the energy modeling softwares & their usefulness

28 Energy Balance in Closed Systems Energy Change = Heat + Work Energy change in the system Flows at the boundaries 1 st Law: Energy Conservation U, E c and E p Energy transfer by Heat Energy transfer by Work Sign of heat and work fluxes Steady state vs. Transient work heat

29 Choosing the boundaries –Flows, Thermodynamic System, Steady vs. Transient state – flows at the boundaries? Energy Balance in Closed Systems

30 Choosing the boundaries –Flows, Thermodynamic System, Steady vs. Transient state Energy Balance in Closed Systems

31 Exercise: Energy Balance in Closed Systems

32 Thermodynamic Cycles Energy Balance in Closed Systems 1 st Law efficiencies –Power Cycle –Heat Pump –Refrigerator Power CycleRefrigerator & Heat Pump Cycles

33 Exercise (Homework) –If P is constant then –If PV is constant then Energy Balance in Closed Systems

34 Exercise (Homework) Exercise: –Why is it possible that ? –How much does the electricity of your fridge costs in a month? Energy Balance in Closed Systems

35 Energy Balance in Open Systems Energy Change = Heat + Work + Energy in Mass Flow Enthalpy of component j Flows at the boundaries Mass Change = Mass Flows

36 Exercises –1º Write the energy balance eq. –2º Identify energy flows –3º Simplify the eq. –For incompressible liquids at constant pressure: Energy Balance in Open Systems

37 Turbines: –Produce work as a result of gas or liquid passing through a set of blades attached to a shaft free to rotate Energy Balance in Open Systems Hydraulic TurbineWind Turbine W mec from E kin of the wind Electricity from E pot of the water Electricity from E kin of the wind Wind Mill

38 Turbines: –Produce work as a result of gas or liquid passing through a set of blades attached to a shaft free to rotate Energy Balance in Open Systems Hydraulic TurbineWind Turbine W mec from E kin of the wind Electricity from E pot of the water Electricity from E kin of the wind Wind Mill

39 Exercises –Write the energy balance eq. –Identify energy flows –Simplify the eq. What is the energy conversion taking place? Energy Balance in Open Systems Castelo de Bode dam 3 turbines medium water fall 80 m Installed power: 159 MW Medium annual electricity production: 390 GWh

40 Exercises –Write the energy balance eq. –Identify energy flows –Simplify the eq. Potential energy is converted into electricity and kinetical energy Energy Balance in Open Systems Castelo de Bode dam 3 turbines medium water fall 80 m Installed power: 159 MW Medium annual electricity production: 390 GWh

41 Compressors (gas) & Pumps (liquids): –Used in aircraft engines, water pumping, natural gas transport, etc –Increase the pressure of a gas (compressor) or move fluids or slurries (pumps) using work Energy Balance in Open Systems Reciprocating Compressor Treadle Pump Pump water using work Pumps Pump water using human work Increase in pressure of gas obtainned from decreasing volume (obtainned with work)

42 Compressors (gas) & Pumps (liquids): –Used in aircraft engines, water pumping, natural gas transport, etc –Increase the pressure of a gas (compressor) or move fluids or slurries (pumps) using work Energy Balance in Open Systems Reciprocating Compressor Treadle Pump Pump water using work Pumps Pump water using human work Increase in pressure of gas obtainned from decreasing volume (obtainned with work)

43 Exercises –1º Write the energy balance eq. –2º Identify energy flows –3º Simplify the eq. –Ideal gas model: –The need to cool after compression Energy Balance in Open Systems Underground storing of natural gas in Carriço Storing Pressure: 180 bar Storing capacity: GWh

44 Heat Exchangers: –Used in power plants, air conditioners, fridges, liquefication of natural gas, etc –Transfer energy between fluids at different temperatures Energy Balance in Open Systems Direct Contact Heat Exchanger Counter-flow Heat exchanger Direct Flow Heat Exchanger

45 Heat Exchangers: –Used in power plants, air conditioners, fridges, liquefication of natural gas, etc –Transfer energy between fluids at different temperatures Energy Balance in Open Systems Direct Contact Heat Exchanger Counter-flow Heat exchanger Direct Flow Heat Exchanger

46 Exercises (homework) –1º Write the energy balance eq. –2º Identify energy flows –3º Simplify the eq. Discuss boundaries Energy Balance in Open Systems Liquefaction of natural gas T=-162ºC Decrease in volume: 1/600

47 Coal power plant: Power cycle revisited Power CycleRefrigerator

48 The state variable: Entropy Entropy is the state variable that gives unidirectionality to time in physical processes ocurring in isolated & adiabatic systems. –Hot coffee in a cold room gets colder and not hotter –Radiating energy is received by the Earth from the sun and by outer space from the earth and not the other way around. –If the valve of the tyre is opened, air gets out and not in

49 Entropy Balance in Closed Systems Entropy Change = Entropy transfer in the form of heat + entropy production Entropy change in the system Flows at the boundaries Meaning of 2 st Law: >0 In adiabatic systems… Entropy transfer by Heat & sign Steady state vs. Transient work heat It is not a flow at the boundary Not relevant for entropy balance

50 2 nd Law: In an adiabatic system the entropy must not decrease Suppose the system is adiabatic and that T 2 >T 1 2 nd Law: the arrow of time Entropy Balance in Closed Systems T2T2 T1T1 T2T2 T1T1


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