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IBM Applies Open Source Lessons to Commercial Apps Posted on: 06/01/06.

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Apresentação em tema: "IBM Applies Open Source Lessons to Commercial Apps Posted on: 06/01/06."— Transcrição da apresentação:

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2 IBM Applies Open Source Lessons to Commercial Apps Posted on: 06/01/06

3 IBM is borrowing some important pages from the Open Source playbook in its pushes to re- architect its most valuable software assets, including Websphere and Tivoli.

4 IBM software execs have aggressive goals in place to convert many of their core software products, including Websphere and Tivoli, from tightly-coupled offerings to a collection of integratable loosely- coupled component- based apps.

5 ...IBM managers have invoked some tried-and- true software development practices from the Open Source arena. The result:...“Community Source”...in existence for more than 2 years and now involves just over 10% of IBM’s 25,000 in-house developers, and involves more than 100 projects.

6 Community Source addresses a bigger challenge... componentized software assets: “Componentization will give us more code reuse and more flexibility in products, and let us do all that in a more timely way.”

7 ...to get there, IBM needed to “optimize our development environment.” One target: “We needed higher degrees of transparencies between IBM development labs around the world,”

8 “The way you develop components is really very different from the way you develop an already integrated product, and so we found early on that for our components programs to work better we needed a more efficient mechanism that would give our worldwide developers a better way to collaborate.

9 After all, these people are scattered all over the world working on bits and pieces of all sorts of [software] technology projects.”

10 “Open Source is an obvious model for how you develop in a collaborative environment, so we’ve borrowed a lot from the Open Source community -- tools, processes, collaborative mechanisms and even some culture, and then we replicated those things internally for letting our labs to better work together,”... “And the result is what we call today ‘Community Source.’”

11 e...

12 aqu i?...

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16 free as in free dom silvio lemos meira

17 free as in freedom: o livro

18 oss: vem aí mesmo? Open source software has the potential to fundamentally change the economics of the computer software industry. It will affect how traditional software firms structure the incentives that they provide to their programmers, the product markets in which they compete, and the business models and strategies that they use. It will also impact on the career choices of software developers, and provides an additional means for potential programmers to enter the software industry. The Economics of Open Source Software: A Survey of the Early Literature, Aaron Schiff, Review of Network Economics Vol. 1, Issue 1 – March 2002

19 free software: definição a liberdade de rodar o programa, para qualquer propósito (freedom 0) a liberdade de estudar como o programa funciona e de adaptá-lo para suas necessidades (freedom 1) a liberdade de redistribuir cópias do programa, de tal forma a poder ajudar outros (freedom 2) a liberdade de melhorar o programa e publicar suas melhorias, de forma a beneficiar toda a comunidade (freedom 3)

20 f/l/oss classification

21 f/l/oss classification floss “final report”

22 de onde veio isso? steffen evers AT&T, 'Sherman Antitrust Act‘, –'consent decree' em 1956… “prohibited AT&T to start any other business than telephone or telegraph services” Unix… policy: –license the software (allowed by the decree) but not to pursue software as a business. ``no advertising, no support, no bug fixes, payment in advance'‘...

23 daí... steffen evers sem SUPORTE e correção de BUGS, a comunidade TINHA QUE SE AJUDAR… –…they started “to share with one another. They shared ideas, information, programs, bug fixes, and hardware fixes.” User groups were created where ever Unix was introduced. Among them were universities in many other countries than the USA like Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan. “At ten years of age, Unix was genuinely being used worldwide.”

24 isso funciona? SIM

25 em que contextos? em qualquer um onde seja possível incentivar uma comunidade aberta de desenvolvedores competentes…  onde haja um “inimigo natural”…  ou necessidades não satisfeitas…  onde não interessa para o capital…  ou onde INTERESSA AO CAPITAL!… em especial, 1-3 é TRADIÇÃO em UNIX –e muito antes de linux torvalds nascer…

26 resumo básico:

27 software LIVRE interessa… ao CAPITAL? SIM...OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE não é uma nova forma de comunismo

28 por que funciona? {do ponto de vista econômico...} ninguém sabe direito –ou tem uma teoria completa para explicar… –mas as primeiras evidências estão aparecendo free sw como “public goods”… The Economics of Open Source Software for a Competitive Firm, Richard Hawkins

29 bens econômicos: categorias bens privados: –aqueles para os quais há rivalidade e exclusão (o meu NÃO é seu e TÊM preço) maçã, sorvete, automóvel bens públicos: –para estes não há exclusão nem rivalidade (o meu É seu e NÃO TÊM preço) defesa nacional, conhecimento,… pergunta: ensino superior DEVERIA estar aqui?...

30 bens econômicos: categorias bens comuns: –há rivalidade mas não exclusão (o meu NÃO é seu, mas NÃO TÊM preço) peixe nos oceanos, o meio- ambiente,.. monopólios naturais: –há exclusão, mas não rivalidade (TÊM preço, mas o MEU é SEU) proteção contra incêndio, tv a cabo

31 bens PÚBLICOS… aqueles que estão disponíveis grátis para todos ( =para os quais não há exclusão) –tais bens têm um elemento de externalidade, porque algo DE VALOR não tem nenhum preço atribuído… i.e., pessoas recebem benefícios sem ter que compensar NINGUÉM por tornar disponível um recurso escasso e valioso… aí é onde os governos normalmente entram! –defesa nacional é um exemplo…

32 o caso da ibm & apache

33 apache e “o resto” netcraft.com survey, nov2006

34 apache e “o resto”... netcraft.com survey, nov2006

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36 a lei de LOTKA The number of authors making n contributions is about 1/n a of those making one contribution, where a is often nearly 2. –Alfred J. Lotka, The Frequency Distribution of Scientific Productivity, Journal of the Wash. Academy of Sciences, 16(12): , 1926.

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38 os números... podem enganar: –sourceforge.net, dez 2005: projetos –total de desenvolvedores: –média de desenvolvedores por projeto: 1,9 –projetos com 1 ou 2 desenvolvedores...: 90+%

39 free sw e o “mundo capitalista” empresas contribuem para projeto(s) open source de sistemas operacionais & infra-estrutura de SW –para entender a indústria –e as motivações [de consumidores?...] –e para COMPETIR!... –sabendo que, para o usuário, são as aplicações que interessam: plataformas são infra-estrutura!

40 teoria e conseqüências plataformas e aplicações SÃO regimes de compatibilidade (como carros e estradas) os efeitos de REDE valem e há retornos crescentes (realimentação positiva) em vários níveis desenvolvedores de aplicações varejo de software usuários as tecnologias competem e há efeitos de lock-in –…“By taking control of a standard and making it proprietary [i.e. Windows-specific], Microsoft can design the standard to reduce rather than increase interoperability….”

41 teoria e conseqüências o “resto” se transforma em nicho quando o número de aplicações diminui (apple…[?]) E corre sério risco de desaparecer!... para COMPETIR, têm que CRIAR uma alternativa SÉRIA!

42 OSS é uma alternativa é muito difícil “seqüestrar” um projeto combinação de esforços = desenvolvimento rápido empresas têm incentivos –criar plataforma alternativa e atrair aplicações –desenvolver aplicações e atrair clientes e usuários –influenciar no desenvolvimento da plataforma –liberdade para desenvolver hardware inovador/NOVO para a plataforma

43 qual é o “mercado”?...

44 de oss?...

45 sobre que cadeia de valor?...

46 política dos fornecedores de SW...

47 who cares?...

48 e falta gente...

49 Most popular OSS software {berlecon research, europe, 2002 } Server operating system 1. Linux (78% of those using OSS SOS), 2. Free/Open BSD (9%) Databases 1. MySQL (54%), 2. SAP-DB (12%?), 3. PostgreSQL (11%) Web site creation and operation 1. Apache (72%), 2. Perl (48%), 3. PHP (32%), 4. Squid (26%), 5. OS CMS (10%), 6. Python (8%) Desktops 1. Linux (49%), 2. StarOffice/OpenOffice (33%), 3. KDE (31%), 4. Gnome (23%), 5. Mozilla (23%).

50 Benefits from OSS usage - server OS {berlecon research, europe, 2002} Importance of criterion for decision in favour of OSS and against proprietory software

51 Security in Open versus Closed Systems Ross Anderson, Cambridge University {2002} The debate about open versus closed systems started out in the nineteenth century when Auguste Kerckhoffs pointed out the wisdom of assuming that the enemy knew one's cipher system, so that security could only reside in the key. It has developed into a debate about whether access to the source code of a software product is of more help to the defence, because they can find and fix bugs more easily, or to attackers, because they can develop exploits with less effort. This paper answers that question. In a perfect world, and for systems large and complex enough for statistical methods to apply, the attack and the defence are helped equally. Whether systems are open or closed makes no difference in the long run.

52 sim… mas como funciona a engenharia de f/l/oss development?

53 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi First, SE is a team endeavor that is focused on the development of large software systems through a software development life cycle.

54 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi Second, the software life cycle (model) constitutes a framework that directs or orders the processes of SE that every software development project should traverse.

55 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi Third, the focal processes of SE include software requirements engineering, specification and prototyping, design (functional, architectural, modular, or object-oriented), testing (verification and validation), configuration management, maintenance (or evolution), and project management.

56 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi Fourth, these processes may or should employ formal notations and reasoning schemes for consistency and completeness, though which computer- based tool to use to support such notations and schemes is unclear.

57 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi Fifth, software quality results from the systematic performance of software life cycle processes that create, reuse, manipulate, or update software artifacts (including formal notations, graphic diagrams, and source code), according to project planning, cost estimation, and management control efforts.

58 f/l/ossD vs sw engineering walt scacchi Sixth, the level, goal, or threshold of software quality (e.g., end-user satisfaction, number of defects discovered post delivery) that is sought or attained determines the level of software productivity that is achieved, as well as the overall cost of the software development effort.

59 ciclo “profissional”/“empresa” de vida de software

60 How is F/OSSD faster than SE? Internet time and F/OSSD projects also tend to produce incremental software releases at a much faster rate, even to the point of releasing unstable but operational daily system builds. This denotes not only a reduction in product release cycle times compared to SE practice, but also a significantly restructured life cycle process and process cycle time reduction.

61 How is F/OSSD faster than SE?......Thus, many large F/OSSD projects have demonstrated a sustained ability to produce and deliver complex software systems that grow in a manner faster than attributed to traditional SE practices that focus attention to project development schedules and management control.

62 How is F/OSSD faster than SE?... Many of the largest and most popular F/OSS systems like the Linux Kernel, GNU/Linux distributions, GNOME user interface and others are growing at a super-linear (exponential) rate, as is their internal architectural complexity…

63 How is F/OSSD faster than SE?......As OSS developers are themselves often end-users of their systems, then software requirements and design take less time to articulate and negotiate, compared to SE projects. In the tradition of SE, developers are not expected to be users of the systems they develop. As such, they must elicit requirements and validate system design with end-users who are generally not SE professionals, and thus must negotiate what they will be able to do, on what schedule and budget, and with what staff resources.

64 How is F/OSSD faster than SE? Thus for F/OSSD projects, the time it takes to determine required system functionality is shorter, and often less demanding that expected in SE projects... [pergunta: e num projeto “vida real”?...]

65 na vida real...

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69 problemas?...

70 We downloaded 365 versions of Linux. For each version in turn, we examined the 17 kernel modules and counted the number of lines of code in each module. Then we counted the number of instances of common (global) coupling between each of the kernel modules and all the other modules in that version of Linux. We obtained two primary results. First, we found a linear dependency between lines of code and version number that is significant at the 99.99% level; Second, we found that the number of instances of common coupling grows exponentially with version number. This result, too, is significant at the 99.99% level. That is, the exponential growth in common coupling is again an inherent feature of successive versions of Linux. We previously related common coupling to fault- proneness. Consequently, combining our two results reveals a worrying trend. On the Nonmaintainability of Open- Source Software Stephen R. Schach, Vanderbilt University A. Jefferson Offutt, George Mason University {2002/3}

71 do ponto de vista capitalista faz sentido tratar o problema como um de competição tecnológica e… a plataforma OSS é uma oportunidade ÚNICA para que se crie, de fato, no longo prazo, uma alternativa SÉRIA a windows… e ISSO É BOM pra microsoft! –mantém a empresa de redmond paranóica… –beneficia seus parceiros… –clientes e usuários!

72 adoção por governos

73 Government Preferences for Promoting Open-Source Software: A Solution in Search of a Problem BERNARD REDDY, DAVID S. EVANS NERA Economic Consulting - Cambridge Office Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, Forthcoming Abstract Governments around the world are making or considering efforts to promote open-source software (typically produced by cooperatives of individuals) at the expense of proprietary software (generally sold by for-profit software developers). This article examines the economic basis for these kinds of government interventions in the market. It first provides some background on the software industry. The article discusses the industrial organization and performance of the proprietarysoftware business and describes how the open-source movement produces and distributes software. It then surveys current government proposals and initiatives to support open-source software and examines whether there is a significant market failure that would justify such intervention in the software industry. The article concludes that the software industry has performed remarkably well over the past 20 years in the absence of government intervention. There is no evidence of any significant market failures in the provision of commercial software and no evidence that the establishment of policy preferences in favor of open-source software on the part of governments would increase consumer welfare.

74 A Solution in Search of… Compared with many other industries, the software industry is relatively unconcentrated. One conventional measure of industry concentration is the total share of sales accounted for by the four largest firms. In 2000, the four largest firms in the proprietary software industry accounted for 26.7 percent of total revenues. According to the latest Census data, nearly 47 percent of all manufacturing industries have a four- firm concentration ratio greater than that of the software industry.

75 A Solution in Search of… A second measure of industry concentration is the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). HHIs can range from zero (a large number of firms with infinitesimal market shares) to 10,000 (a monopoly with 100 percent of the market). In 2000, the HHI for the software industry was 244,47 a relatively low HHI when compared with industries such as automobiles (2,506) or breakfast cereals (2,446) There is also a great deal of turnover among the leading firms indicating that firms generally have not had entrenched positions in the software industry overall. Of the top ten companies in 1990, five did not make the list in 2000…

76 a intervenção do governo no setor, no longo prazo… vai ter que significado?... –DRM (digital rights management) –TCPA (trusted computing platform alliance) –... será que algum governo vai conseguir seqüestrar algum open source project?......

77 olhando lá pra frente… é preciso REDISCUTIR o problema de propriedade intelectual na era da informação –patentes e copyright podem não estar mais atendendo às necessidades do TODO o SISTEMA pode ter sido distorcido pelas PARTES a discussão NÃO pode ser religiosa... É PRECISO criar MAIS AMBIENTES para EXPERIMENTAÇÃO!...

78 ainda mais...

79 salesforce.com...

80 sugarcrm.com

81 é preciso pensar. sempre. people demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid –as pessoas demandam liberdade de expressão para compensar a liberdade de pensamento que elas mesmo evitam. »Soren Aabye Kierkegaard ( )

82 free as in free dom silvio lemos meira

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85 resumo básico:

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90 política dos fornecedores de SW...

91 who cares?...

92 falta gente...


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