Apresentação em tema: "Reading in ENGLISH Professor Reinildes Dias, Ph.D."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Reading in ENGLISH Professor Reinildes Dias, Ph.D. Meet me at:
2L2 Reading is a basic life skill. Without the ability to read inEnglish well, opportunities forpersonal fulfillment and jobsuccess inevitably will be lost.
3Literacy rich environments display texts everywhere and provide opportunities that can engage students in L2 readingand writing activities.These environments can also encourage students to read and write in English for different social purposes.
4Reading throughout the years: from the 70s to now.Three cognitive modelsThe bottom-up modelThe top-down modelThe interactive model
5The bottom-up model acknowledges that … Readers proceed from the writtentext to meaning.Readers are passive recipients ofmeaning.Meaning resides in texts.Meaning is driven by the text.Reading proceeds from part to whole.
6From the bottom-up perspective, it is believed that … Readers read in a linear way through a step-by-step procedure which involves identification of letters,recognition of spelling patterns and words, and theprocessing of meaningfrom the sentence levelto the paragraph level andthen to the text itself.
7In sum, the bottom-up model emphasizes a single-direction,part-to-whole processingof a text.
8Main proponents of the bottom-up model of readingGough, P.B. (1972). One second of reading. In: J.F. Kavanagh and I.G. Mattingly (eds.), Language by ear and by the eye (pp ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.LaBerge, D. and Samuels, S.J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6,
9According to Gough (1972), reading is a sequential or serial mental process. In his words,“Readers begin by translating the partsof written language (letters) into speech sounds, then piece the sounds togetherto form individual words, then piece the words together to arrive at an understanding of the author’s written message.”
10Top-down process Important element: readers’ prior knowledge. Focuses on what readers bring to the processReaders activate prior knowledge to understandtexts.Readers are active processors of meaning.
11Top-down process: Reading is a “psycholinguistic guessing game”, Goodman, 1970.Reading proceeds from whole to part.Meaning is brought to the written text, notderived from it.Reading is driven by meaning.
12Main advocates of the top-down model of readingKenneth Goodman (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journalof Reading Specialist, 6,Frank Smith (1971). Understanding reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
13Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)
14Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.
15Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.Reading is a dynamic activity.
16Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.Reading is a dynamic activity.Readers have no controlover the act ofcomprehending a text
17Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.Reading is a dynamic activity.Readers make use of their previous knowledgeto comprehend a text.Readers have no controlover the act ofcomprehending a text
18Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.Reading is a dynamic activity.Readers have no controlover the act ofcomprehending a textReaders make use of their previous knowledgeto comprehend a text.Readers rely only on the formal features of languagein the quest for makingsense of a text.
19Traditional view of reading (bottom-up model) Cognitive view of reading (top-down model)Reading is a passive activity.Reading is a dynamic activity.Readers have no controlover the act ofcomprehending a textReaders make use of their previous knowledgeto comprehend a text.Readers rely only on the formal features of languagein the quest for makingSense of a text.Readers (as well as texts) are at the heart of thereading process.
20Acknowledges that reading involves The interactive model of readingAcknowledges that reading involvesboth a bottom-up and a top-down process.
21The interactive model of reading Recognizes the simultaneous interactionof bottom-up and top-down processes during reading comprehension.
22The interactive model of reading Readers rely on their prior knowledge andalso on the formal features of language inthe quest for making sense of a text.
23The interactive model of reading Stresses the dynamic interaction ofthe active mind of the reader andthe written text.
24The interactive model of reading Examines reading comprehension fromthe point of view of connected discourse.
25The interactive model of reading Starts considering readers’ culturalbackground and value systems in theprocess of reading comprehension.
26The interactive model of reading Acknowledges the importance of schema, that is,units of organized knowledge about events, situations,or objects that readers have stored in their mind’s cognitive structures during the process of reading comprehension.
27The interactive model of reading Schema knowledge is subdivided into formaland content schema with the acknowledgmentof the importance of the social, cultural andtext rhetorical features in reading comprehensionCarrell & Einsterhold (1988)
28Main advocates of the interactive model of readingDavid Rumelhart (1980). Schemata: the buildingblocks of cognition. In: Spiro, R.J.; Bruce, B. C.;Brewer, W. F. (ed). Theoretical issues in readingcomprehension. pKeith Stanovich (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differencesin the development of reading fluency. ReadingResearch Quarterly, 16,
29A spoken or written text does not in itself Cognitive views of reading (top-down andinteractive models)Encompass this fundamental principlefrom schema theory:A spoken or written text does not in itselfcarry meaning; rather, it provides directionsfor readers on how to use their own storedknowledge to retrieve and construct meaning.(Adams & Collins apud Leahey & Harris, p. 201).
30A social view of reading Posits that reading performs a socializing function.Assumes that texts are social and cultural artifactsreflecting group values and norms.Acknowledges the fact that texts are materializedor structured into different genres.Recognizes that we communicate through genresthat fulfill different social purposes in particularcontexts of use.
31Toward a synthesis:A sociocognitive viewof reading(Bernhardt, 1991).The two perspectives are integrated into aholistic view of the reading process.Meaning is reader-generated and it dependson the activation of different types of knowledge(prior knowledge, textual, lexical-systemic andstrategic knowledge).
32A sociocognitive view of reading Toward a synthesis:A sociocognitive view of reading(Bernhardt, 1991).Acknowledges the dynamic relationshipsbetween text producers, text receiversand the text itself.Recognizes the ongoing interaction betweenreader and writer, mediated by the text andcontext. This interaction is socially constructed.
33A sociocognitive view of reading Toward a synthesis:A sociocognitive view of reading(Bernhardt, 1991).Schema knowledge (from schema theory) isboth a social and a mentalistic construct.Understands the concept of text as a socialconstruct.
34Conceptualized as a social construct. Viewed as a communicative event that is socially and culturally recognizable, bothin spoken and written modes.Materialized in different genres for a variety of social communicative purposes.The readingtext
35The reading text (Anstey; Bull, 2004) A reading text can be paper, electronic, or live.It may comprise one or more semiotic systems (linguistic, sound, visual, spatial, gestural).Texts are consciously constructed.The readingtextMeanings are actively constructed.A text may be constructed using intertextuality.Texts may be multimodal, interactive, linear, and nonlinear.(Anstey; Bull, 2004)
36A genre-based approach to teach L2 reading Encourages habits of meaning-makingby students.Centered on the explicit identificationand analysis of genre features to showhow patterns of language work to shapemeaning.
37A genre-based approach to teach L2 reading Counts on students’ recognition of genresimilarities between Portuguese and Englishto enhance L2 reading comprehension.Counts on students’ repeated experienceswith texts in their mother language to enhanceL2 reading comprehension.
38A genre-based approach to teach L2 reading Encourages students to contextualize the particular texts they have to read by an understanding of the specific situations for which they have been written, their communicative purposes, intended audience, the social role played by the author, and when and where they were published.
39A genre-based approach to teach L2 reading In other words, this approach to teaching encourages students to answer this set of questions: “who writes what, for what purposes, how, where, and when” in order to understand the overall context for which texts have been written as well as who they want to influence.
40A genre-based approach to teach L2 reading Teaches the discursive, the lexical andthe linguistic features of different genresexplicitly to enhance L2 readingcomprehension.
41Fase 1: Pré-leitura Fases de uma aula de leitura Ativação de conhecimentoanteriorProposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
42Fase 2 Compreensão de pontos gerais Fases de uma aula de leitura Compreensão das condições deprodução do textoExploração da informaçãonão-verbalProposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
43Fase 3 principais Compreensão de pontos Fases de uma aula de leitura Exploração da informação verbal:construção dos elos coesivos -lexicais e gramaticais - inferências.Proposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
44Fase 4 Compreensão detalhada Fases de uma aula de leitura Exploração da informação verbal:inferências, sínteses, integração.Resumo do texto lido na forma dediagramas, esquemas e mapasconceituaisProposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
45Fase 5: Pós-Leitura Fases de uma aula de leitura Reflexões sobre as característicasretórico-discursivas e linguístico-textuais do texto lido.Proposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
46Fase 5: Pós-Leitura (cont.) Fases de uma aula de leituraFase 5: Pós-Leitura (cont.)Atividades de desenvolvimentode vocabulário.Atividades de aprendizagemde gramáticaProposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estadode Minas Gerais
47Please send me a message from there. I’ll be Visit my PORTAL atPlease send me a message from there. I’ll beglad to be in touch with you.
48ReferencesDIAS, R. Proposta Curricular de Língua Estrangeira do Estado de Minas Gerais -CBC.Disponível em: Faça o download em .pdfpara facilitar a leitura.
49Publicações recentesDIAS, R; DELL’ISOLA, R. L. P. Gêneros textuais: teoria e prática deEnsino em LE. Campinas: Mercado de LetrasDIAS, R. Inglês na escola: pelas trilhas da inclusão social. BeloHorizonte: Editora DimensãoDIAS, R; JUCÁ, L.; FARIA, R. Prime – Inglês para o Ensino Médio.São Paulo: MacmillanDIAS, R; CRISTOVÃO, V. L. L. O livro didático de língua estrangeira:múltiplas perspectivas. Campinas: Mercado de Letras
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