2O present perfect é formado por: Have/has + past participle (done, seen, gone, driven, studied...)I’ve (have) decided to spend Christmas with my family.John’s (has) never seen a nativity scene.Have you ever written a letter to Santa Claus?Ann hasn’t eaten any of the cookies.
3O present perfect é usado para: Perguntar sobre experiências, geralmente usando ever:Have you ever seen snow?No, I haven’t.Has she ever given you a present?Yes, she has.
4Descrever experiências passadas usando already, once, twice etc. I’ve already dressed as Santa Claus.They’ve decorated the house only once.Veronica’s been to the mall twice this week.
5Descrever a ausência de experiências usando never, ou not... yet. We’ve never been to Rio on New Year’s Eve.The kids haven’t opened their presents yet.
6Observe que nos exemplos dados de uso do present perfect não fica claro nem é importante saber quando a ação aconteceu:I’ve been to New York many times.They’ve never had turkey.Has she ever bought a car?She’s already been asked this question.