Apresentação em tema: "Como tornar eficaz a política de álcool e drogas nos diversos níveis"— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 Como tornar eficaz a política de álcool e drogas nos diversos níveis Prof. Dr. Ronaldo LaranjeiraUNIAD-UNIFESP
2 Resumo 1 – Políticas do álcool baseadas em evidências científicas 2 – Príncipios do tratamento efetivo
3 Alcohol, No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy Sponsored by:The World Health OrganizationandThe Society for the Study of Addiction (UK)The findings and conclusions represent the consensus views of its 15 authors, none of whom received either direct or indirect support for their participation from the sponsoring organizations or any other organization that might represent a conflict of interest.
4 Prevention Strategies Reviewed and Evaluated Regulating Physical AvailabilityPricing and TaxationAltering the Drinking ContextEducation and PersuasionRegulating Alcohol PromotionDrinking-Driving CountermeasuresTreatment and Early Intervention
5 Ratings of 32 Policy-relevant Prevention Strategies and Interventions Evidence of Effectiveness – the quality of scientific informationBreadth of Research Support – quantity and consistency of the evidenceTested Across Cultures, e.,g. countries, regions, subgroupsCost to Implement and Sustain – monetary and other costsaRating Scale: 0, +, ++, +++, (?)b Rating Scale: Low, Moderate, High
9 Modifying the Drinking Context Many prevention measures seek to limit drinking in the contexts or environments where alcohol is typically sold and consumed (e.g., bars and restaurants).The most effective options involve:enforcement of serving regulationsincreasing the legal liability of bar staff and owners for the actions of those they serve.
10 Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) programs Focus on attitudes, knowledge, skills, and practices of persons involved in serving alcoholic beverages on licensed premisesIf supported by actual changes in the serving policies of licensed establishments and reinforced by local police, RBS training can reduce heavy consumption and high risk drinking
13 Education and Persuasion Strategies School-based alcohol education programs have been found to increase knowledge and change attitudes toward alcohol and other substances, but actual substance use remains unaffected.Approaches that address values clarification, self-esteem, general social skills, and “alternatives” approaches that provide activities inconsistent with alcohol use (e.g., sports) are equally ineffective.Programs that include both resistance skills training and normative education (which attempts to correct adolescents’ tendency to overestimate the number of their peers who drink) have modest effects that are short-lived unless accompanied by ongoing booster sessions.Programs that include both individual-level education and family- or community-level interventions may not be sufficient to delay the initiation of drinking, or to sustain a small reduction in drinking beyond the operation of the program.
14 Summary: Education and Persuasion Strategies The impact of education and persuasion programs tends to be small at best.When positive effects are found, they do not persist.Among the hundreds of studies, only two show significant lasting effects (after 3 years), and the significance of these is questionable when reanalyzed (Foxcroft et al. 2003).The time is past for arguments on behalf of substituting education for other, more effective approaches.If educational approaches are to be used, they should be implemented within the framework of broader environmental interventions that address availability of alcohol.
16 Regulating alcohol promotion The marketing of alcohol is a global industry.Alcohol brands are advertised through television, radio, print, point-of-sale promotions, and the Internet.Exposure to repeated high-level alcohol promotion inculcates pro-drinking attitudes and increases the likelihood of heavier drinking.Alcohol advertising predisposes minors to drinking well before legal age of purchase.Advertising has been found to promote and reinforce perceptions of drinking as positive, glamorous, and relatively risk-free.
17 Regulating alcohol promotion Legislation restricting alcohol advertising A well-established precaution used by governments throughout the world, despite opposition from the alcoholic beverage industry.Findings suggest that while the restrictions have not achieved a major reduction in drinking and related harms in the short-term, countries with greater restrictions on advertising have less drinking and fewer alcohol-related problems (Saffer, 1991).
18 Regulating alcohol promotion Industry Self-regulation Codes Self-regulation tends to be fragile and largely ineffective.These codes may work best where the media, advertising, and alcohol industries are all involved, and an independent body has powers to approve or veto advertisements, rule on complaints, and impose sanctions.Few countries currently have all these components.
20 Melhores Práticas Idade mínima para a compra de álcool Monopólio governamental para a venda de álcoolRestrições de horário para a venda de álcoolRestrições a densidade de baresTaxação álcoolSobriety check pointsDiminuir BAC limitsSuspenção administrativa de cartas de motoristaIntervenção Breve
21 Piores Práticas Código voluntário de prática em bares Promover atividades sem álcoolEducação sobre álcool nas escolasEducação nas universidadesPropaganda contra o álcoolWarning labelsMotorista alternativo ou taxi para alcoolizados
22 Evolving Views of Alcohol Policy: Optimism Opportunities for effective, evidence-based alcohol policies are more available than ever to better serve the public good.Alcohol policies that limit access to alcoholic beverages, increase the price of alcohol, and enforce laws and regulations through deterrence, are likely to reduce the harm linked to specific drinking patterns and per capita consumption.Alcohol problems can be minimized or prevented using a coordinated, systematic policy response.
23 CONCLUSIONSThe difference between good and bad alcohol policy is not an abstraction, but very often a matter of life and death.Research has the capacity to indicate which strategies are likely to succeed in their public health intentions, and which are likely to be less effective or even useless, diversionary, and a waste of resources.Opportunities for evidence-based alcohol policies that better serve the public good are more available than ever.There are still too many instances of policy vacuums filled by unevaluated or ineffective strategies and interventions.Because alcohol is no ordinary commodity, the public has a right to expect a more enlightened, evidence-based approach to alcohol policy.
25 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 1Nenhum tratamento é efetivo para todos os pacientes
26 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 2O Tratamento necessita ser facilmente disponível
27 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 3Tratamento deve atender às várias necessidades e não somente ao uso drogas
28 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 4O tratamento necessita ser continuamente avaliado e modificado de acordo com as necessidades.
29 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 5Permanecer em tratamento por período adequado é fundamental para a efetividade
30 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 6Aconselhamento e outras técnicas comportamentais são fundamentais para o tratamento
31 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 7Medicamentos são importantes, principalmente quando combinados com terapia
32 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 8A comorbidade deveria ser tratada de uma forma integrada
33 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 9Desintoxicação é só o começo do tratamento
34 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 10O tratamento não necessita ser voluntário para ser efetivo
35 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 11A possibilidade de uso de drogas deve ser monitorada
36 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 12Avaliação sobre HIV, hepatites B e C e aconselhamento para evitar esses riscos
37 Princípios Tratamento Efetivo 13Recuperação é um processo longo e muitas vezes necessita vários episódios de tratamento
38 EQUIPE MULTIDISCIPLINAR CRECHESORIENTAÇÃOVOCACIONALABORDAGENSVOLTADAS À FAMÍLIAPROCESSO DE ENTRADAE AVALIAÇÃOSERVIÇOSDE SAÚDE MENTALALBERGAGEM &TRANSPORTEASSESSORIA &PSICOTERAPIAPLANO DETRATAMENTOMONITORAMENTO(USO DE DROGAS)EQUIPE MULTIDISCIPLINARFARMACOTERAPIAOUTROS SERVIÇOSMÉDICOSORIENTAÇÃOFINANCEIRACUIDADOS CONTÍNUOSABORDAGENSEDUCACIONAISAPÓIO JURÍDICOORIENTAÇÃO EDIAGNÓSTICOPARA DST-AIDSOs melhores programas de tratamento provêm uma combinação de terapias e outros serviços para satisfazer as necessidades do paciente. FONTE: NIDA.