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Os riscos dos alimentos transgênicos na Saúde, Economia e Meio Ambiente Por Jeffrey Smith Diretor Executivo Instituto para Tecnologia Responsável Autor.

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Apresentação em tema: "Os riscos dos alimentos transgênicos na Saúde, Economia e Meio Ambiente Por Jeffrey Smith Diretor Executivo Instituto para Tecnologia Responsável Autor."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Os riscos dos alimentos transgênicos na Saúde, Economia e Meio Ambiente Por Jeffrey Smith Diretor Executivo Instituto para Tecnologia Responsável Autor Sementes da Decepção & Roleta Genética

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3 Industry Manipulation Scientists were fired, threatened, stripped of responsibilities and funds Scientists were fired, threatened, stripped of responsibilities and funds News reports are stopped News reports are stopped Evidence is omitted Evidence is omitted Research is rigged to avoid finding problems Research is rigged to avoid finding problems Monsanto offered bribes to regulators Monsanto offered bribes to regulators A MANIPULAÇÃO DA INDÚSTRIA CIENTISTAS FORAM DESPEDIDOS, AMEAÇADOS, ARRANCADOS DE RESPONSABILIDADES E ACESSO À FUNDOS RELATÓRIOS FORAM INTERROMPIDOS, EVIDÊNCIAS FORAM OMITIDAS, A PESQUISA FOI MANUSEADA PARA SE EVITAR ENCONTRAR PROBLEMAS MONSANTO OFERECEU PROPINAS PARA OS REGULADORES

4 Initial plans for GMOs Industrys goal was to genetically engineer and patent 100% of all commercial seeds in the world Industrys goal was to genetically engineer and patent 100% of all commercial seeds in the world The US governments goal was to increase US exports The US governments goal was to increase US exports O OBJETIVO DA INDUSTRIA ERA MODIFICAR GENETICAMENTE E PATENTEAR 100% DE TODAS AS SEMENTES COMERCIAIS DO MUNDO. O OBJETIVO DO GOVERNO AMERICANO ERA AUMENTAR AS EXPORTACOES AMERICANAS.

5 FDA declares GMOs no different The agency is not aware of any information showing that foods derived by these new methods differ from other foods in any meaningful or uniform way. Statement of Policy May 29, 1992 FDA DECLAROU QUE OS ORGANISMOS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS NÃO SÃO DIFERENTES E QUE A AGÊNCIA NÃO TEM NENHUMA INFORMAÇÃO DE QUE OS ALIMENTOS DERIVADOS DESTES NOVOS MÉTODOS DIFEREM DE MODO CONSTANTE OU SIGNIFICATIVO DE QUALQUER OUTRO ALIMENTO

6 Secret FDA documents revealed that the statement contradicted the agency scientists DOCUMENTOS SECRETOS DO FDA REVELARAM QUE A DECLARACAO CONTRADIZIA OS CIENTISTAS DA AGENCIA

7 Scientists warned of: Allergens Allergens Toxins Toxins New diseases New diseases Nutritional problems Nutritional problems OS CIENTISTAS ADVERTIRAM SOBRE ALERGENOS, TOXINAS, NOVAS DOENCAS, PROBLEMAS NUTRICIONAIS

8 Who overruled the scientists? Michael Taylor In charge of FDA policy In charge of FDA policy Former Monsanto attorney Former Monsanto attorney Later Monsanto vice president Later Monsanto vice president QUEM SOBREPUJOU OS CIENTISTAS? MICHAEL TAYLOR, QUE ERA NA EPOCA RESPONSAVEL PELA POLITICA DO FDA, EX-ADVOGADO DA MONSANTO E DEPOIS, VICE- PRESIDENTE DA MONSANTO

9 Checklist of 65 health risks that demand a response UMA LISTA DE 65 RISCOS A SAUDE EXIGEM UMA RESPOSTA

10 If GM crops are so bad, why dont we see more problems? SE COLHEITAS TRANSGENICAS FAZEM TANTO MAL, PORQUE NAO VEMOS MAIS PROBLEMAS?

11 L-tryptophan produced by GM bacteria Killed about 100 and caused 5,000-10,000 to fall sick L-TRIPTOFAN PRODUZIU UMA BACTERIA GM MATOU CERCA DE 100 E PROVOCOU DOENCA EM CERCA DE 5 A 10 MIL PESSOAS.

12 The epidemic was discovered because the disease 1.Was new, with unique symptoms 2.Acute 3.Came on quickly A EPIDEMIA FOI DESCOBERTA PORQUE A DOENCA 1.ERA NOVA, COM SINTOMAS UNICOS 2.AGUDA 3.AVANCAVA RAPIDAMENTE

13 Current Assessments No post-marketing surveillance No post-marketing surveillance No human clinical trials No human clinical trials No proper evaluation of plant changes or effects No proper evaluation of plant changes or effects Approvals based on Approvals based on Superficial and rigged industry studies Superficial and rigged industry studies Disproved or untested assumptions Disproved or untested assumptions AVALIACOES ATUAIS NENHUMA SUPERVISAO POS-MARKETING, NENHUM TESTE CLINICO EM HUMANOS, NENHUMA AVALIACAO ADEQUADA DE MUDANCAS OU EFEITOS EM PLANTAS, APROVACOES BASEADAS EM ESTUDOS INDUSTRIAIS SUPERFICIAIS OU ARMADOS, PRESSUPOSTOS DESAPROVADOS OU NAO TESTADOS.

14 Evidence of GM soy-related problems EVIDENCIA DE PROBLEMAS RELACIONADOS A SOJA TRANSGENICA

15 Soon after GM soy was introduced into the UK, soy allergies skyrocketed by 50%. York Laboratory LOGO APOS A INTRODUCAO DE SOJA GM NO REINO UNIDO, ALERGIAS A SOJA SUBIRAM 50%.

16 Could genetic engineering cause such problems? SERÁ QUE A ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA PODERIA CAUSAR TAIS PROBLEMAS? SERÁ QUE A ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA PODERIA CAUSAR TAIS PROBLEMAS?

17 First possible cause of problems The process of creating a GM crop creates unpredicted changes in DNA and plant composition PRIMEIRAS CAUSAS DE PROBLEMAS OS PROCESSOS DE CRIACAO DE PLANTAS GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADAS CRIAM MUDANCAS IMPREVISIVEIS NO DNA E NA COMPOSICAO DAS PLANTAS

18 Gene construct CONSTRUÇÃO GENÉTICA promoter Gene for trait (Bt toxin) end Regulatory sequence: on/off switch - often CaMV (virus) ( SEQUÊNCIA REGULATÓRIA: LIGA/DESLIGA -FREQUENTE/ VIRUS CamV) Coding sequence of a gene - e.g. Bt toxin gene from soil bacterium (SEQUÊNCIA CODIFICADORA DE UM GENE- i.e. GENE DE TOXINA BT DE BACTÉRIA DO SOLO) Regulatory sequence: Termination signal - e.g. from pea (SEQUÊNCIA REGULATÓRIA:SINAL DE TÉRMINO - i.e. DE ERVILHA) Plasmid backbone DNA, superfluous genetic material (DNA DE PLASMÍDEO, MATERIAL GENÉTICO SUPÉRFLUO) PROMOTOR GENE PARA O TRAÇO(TOXINA BT) TÉRMINO

19 The DNA may contain: Mutations (2-4% of DNA) Mutations (2-4% of DNA) Deletion of genes Deletion of genes Altered gene expression (up to 5%) Altered gene expression (up to 5%) O DNA PODE CONTER: MUTAÇÕES (2- 4%), DELEÇÕES DE GENES, EXPRESSÃO ALTERADA DE GENES(ATE 5%)

20 1. Disrupted DNA Damaged DNA Damaged DNA Extra transgene fragments Extra transgene fragments Altered nutrients Altered nutrients Increase of a known allergen Increase of a known allergen Production of a new potential allergen Production of a new potential allergen 1.DNA ROMPIDO: DNA DANIFICADO, FRAGMENTOS TRANSGENICOS EXTRAS, NUTRIENTES ALTERADOS, AUMENTO DE ALERGENICO CONHECIDO, PRODUCAO DE NOVOS ALERGENICOS

21 Skin prick test One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 2005 TESTE EM PELE UM PACIENTE TEVE RESULTADO POSITIVO NO TESTE DE PELE APENAS PARA SOJA GMO.

22 A second cause of problems The protein produced by the inserted gene may be harmful SEGUNDA CAUSA DE PROBLEMAS: A PROTEINA INSERIDA NO GENE PODE SER DANINHA

23 2. Protein may be harmful Sections identical to known shrimp and dust mite allergens Sections identical to known shrimp and dust mite allergens 2. A PROTEÍNA PODE SER PREJUDICIAL PARTES IDÊNTICAS A ALERGÊNICOS CONHECIDOS DE CAMARÃO E ÁCAROS DE POEIRA BMC Structural Biology 2002

24 3. GM protein may be altered Unintentional RNA sequences may create unintended proteins Unintentional RNA sequences may create unintended proteins 3. PROTEINA GM PODE SER ALTERADA SEQUENCIAS DE RNA NAO INTENCIONAIS PODEM CRIAR PROTEINAS NAO INTENCIONAIS European Food Research and Technology 2005

25 Third reason for problems The protein may be different than intended TERCEIRA RAZAO PARA HAVER PROBLEMAS A PROTEINA PODE SER DIFERENTE DA INTENCIONADA

26 The transgene sequence may: Mutate or truncate Mutate or truncate Rearrange Rearrange Be read differently Be read differently Produce multiple proteins Produce multiple proteins A SEQUENCIA TRANGENICA PODE: MUTAR OU TRUNCAR RE-ARRANJAR SER LIDA DE MANEIRA DIFERENTE PRODUZIR MULTIPLAS PROTEINAS

27 The protein may: Be folded differently Be folded differently Have different molecules attached Have different molecules attached A PROTEINA PODE: SER DOBRADA DE MANEIRA DIFERENTE ANEXAR MOLECULAS DIFERENTES

28 Mice had an immune response to protein that was altered in GM peas Agricultural Food Chemistry, 2005 RATOS TIVERAM UMA REAÇÃO IMUNOLÓGICA À PROTEÍNA QUE ERA ALTERADA EM ERVILHAS TRANSGÊNICAS

29 Fourth possible problem More herbicide residues in herbicide tolerant crops QUARTO PROBLEMA POSSIVEL: MAIS RESIDUOS DE HERBICIDA EM COLHEITAS TOLERANTES A HERBICIDAS

30 4. Increased herbicide 138 million pounds more in the US in the first 9 years 138 million pounds more in the US in the first 9 years Herbicide use is accelerating Herbicide use is accelerating About 120 million pound increase in last 2 years About 120 million pound increase in last 2 years In 1 year, , the increase was 38% In 1 year, , the increase was 38% Roundup use increased 93% from Roundup use increased 93% from Usage of the more toxic 2,4-D was up 237% Usage of the more toxic 2,4-D was up 237% HERBICIDA AUMENTADO 138 MILHÕES DE LIBRAS A MAIS NOS EUA NOS PRIMEIROS 9 ANOS USO DE HERBICIDA ESTÁ ACELERANDO; AUMENTO DE CERCA DE 120 MILHÕES DE LIBRAS NOS ÚLTIMOS 2 ANOS EM 1 ANO, , O AUMENTO FOI DE 38% USO DE GLIFOSATO(ROUNDUP) AUMENTOU 93% DE USO DO 2, 4-D MAIS TÓXICO, SUBIU 237% DE

31 Fifth possible problem Gene transfer to gut bacteria or into our DNA QUINTO PROBLEMA POSSIVEL TRANSFERENCIA GENETICA PARA BACTERIAS INTERNAS OU PARA NOSSO DNA

32 What can transfer? Promoter Promoter Roundup Ready gene Roundup Ready gene Antibiotic resistant marker Antibiotic resistant marker Bt gene Bt gene O QUE PODE SER TRANSFERIDO? PROMOTOR, GENE PRONTO PARA COLHER, MARCADOR RESISTENTE A ANTIBIOTICO, GENE BT

33 5. Gene transfer Soy transgenes were confirmed in human gut bacteria Soy transgenes were confirmed in human gut bacteria 5. TRANSFERENCIA GENETICA TRANSGENIA DE SOJA FOI CONFIRMADA EM BACTERIA INTERNA HUMANA Nature Biotechnology 2004

34 Reduced Digestive Enzymes The pancreas cells in Mice fed GM soy were significantly disrupted. The pancreas cells in Mice fed GM soy were significantly disrupted. There was a huge reduction in digestive enzymes There was a huge reduction in digestive enzymes If protein digestion is slowed, it increases time for allergic responses If protein digestion is slowed, it increases time for allergic responses

35 Toxic Reactions and GM Soy Can be produced from the same 5 causes Can be produced from the same 5 causes Pode ser produzidas a partir das mesmas 5 causas Pode ser produzidas a partir das mesmas 5 causas REAÇÕES TÓXICAS E SOJA TRANSGÊNICA

36 GM soy has higher lignin content Components of this same biochemical pathway also produce both flavonoids and isoflavonoids that have a high nutritional value, and rotenone, a plant-produced insecticide that may cause Parkinsons disease. Components of this same biochemical pathway also produce both flavonoids and isoflavonoids that have a high nutritional value, and rotenone, a plant-produced insecticide that may cause Parkinsons disease. David Schubert, PhD, Salk Institute SOJA TRANSGÊNICA TEM MAIS CONTEÚDE DE LIGNINA COMPONENTES DESTA MESMA VIA BIOQUÍMICA PODEM PRODUZIR FLAVONÓIDES E BIOFLAVONÓIDES QUE TÊM UM ALTO VALOR NUTRICIONAL, E ROTENONE, UM INSETICIDA PRODUZIDO POR PLANTAS QUE PODE CAUSAR A DOENÇA DE PARKINSON. David Schubert, PhD, Salk Institute

37 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy Altered cells, enzymes, and/or gene expression in the liver Altered cells, enzymes, and/or gene expression in the liver Higher metabolic activity (indicates toxic insult) Higher metabolic activity (indicates toxic insult) RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM SOJA ROUNDUP READY ALTERAÇÕES DE CÉLULAS, ENZIMAS E/OU EXPRESSAO GENÉTICA NO FIGADO,RINS ATIVIDADE METABÓLICA MAIS ELEVADA (INDICA INSULTO TÓXICO)

38 Rat Livers Fed GM Soy А, B – control group; C, D – GM-soy group B А C D FIGADO CONTROLEGRUPO DA SOJA GM

39 Mice fed GM soy Altered young sperm cells Altered young sperm cells Embryos had altered gene expression Embryos had altered gene expression RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM SOJA GM CELULAS DE ESPERMA JOVENS ALTERADAS EMBRIOES APRESENTAVAM EXRESSAO GENETICA ALTERADA

40 GM-soy Control GM-soy: disturbance of blood stream SOJA TRANSGÊNICA: DISTÚRBIOS DA CORRENTE SANGUÍNEA Control

41

42 MORTALIDADE DE FILHOTES DE RATOS 51.2%

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44

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46 Preliminary evidence Rat offspring did not conceive EVIDENCIA PRELIMINAR SEGUNDA GERACAO DE RATOS NAO CONCEBEU

47 When the entire Russian facility began using GM soy-based feed, infant mortality for all rats become 55.3%. QUANDO TODO O LABORATÓRIO DA RÚSSIA COMEÇOU A USAR ALIMENTO COM SOJA TRANSGÊNICA PARA OS RATOS, A MORTALIDADE INFANTIL PARA TODOS OS RATOS SE TORNOU 55,3% QUANDO TODO O LABORATÓRIO DA RÚSSIA COMEÇOU A USAR ALIMENTO COM SOJA TRANSGÊNICA PARA OS RATOS, A MORTALIDADE INFANTIL PARA TODOS OS RATOS SE TORNOU 55,3%

48 CTN Bio approved Bt corn. CTN BIO APROVOU MILHO BT

49 Bt-toxin Industry claims Bt: Has a history of safe use Has a history of safe use Is destroyed during digestion Is destroyed during digestion Is not active in mammals Is not active in mammals TOXINA BT- A INDUSTRIA ALEGA QUE: TEM UMA HISTORIA DE USO SEGURO, E DESTRUIDA DURANTE A DIGESTAO, NAO E ATIVA EM MAMIFEROS

50 In reality… People react to Bt spray People react to Bt spray Bt survives digestion Bt survives digestion Mice react to Bt-toxin Mice react to Bt-toxin NA REALIDADE AS PESSOAS REAGEM AO SPRAY BT BT SOBREVIVE A DIGESTAO CAMUNDONGOS REAGEM A TOXINA BT

51 Bt in crops Thousands of times more concentrated than the spray Thousands of times more concentrated than the spray Designed to be more toxic Designed to be more toxic Has properties of a known egg yolk allergen Has properties of a known egg yolk allergen BT EM PLANTAS- MILHARES DE VEZES MAIS CONCENTRADOS QUE NO SPRAY, DESENHADO PARA SER MAIS TÓXICO TEM PROPRIEDADES DE UM ALÉRGENO MUITO CONHECIDO DA GEMA DO OVO

52 Bt cotton Hundreds of laborers in India reported allergic reactions to Bt cotton ALGODAO-BT CENTENAS DE TRABALHADORES NA INDIA REPORTARAM REACOES ALERGICAS AO ALGODAO-BT

53 Upper respiratory EyesSkinOverall Bt Spray sneezing runny nose asthma watery red itching burning inflammation red, swelling fever some in hospital Bt cotton sneezing runny nose watery red itching burning eruptions red, swelling fever some in hospital TRATO RESPIRATORIO OLHOSPELEGERAL

54 Bt cotton Thousands of sheep died after grazing on Bt cotton plants ALGODAO COM A TOXINA BT MILHARES DE OVELHAS MORRERAM DEPOIS DE PASTAR PLANTAS DE ALGODAO COM BT

55 Bt cotton The Andhra Pradesh government has advised farmers not to allow animals to graze on Bt cotton fields after four institutes reported the presence of toxins in them. The Hindustan Times, 17 June 2007 O GOVERNO DE ANDHRA PRADESH AVISOU AOS FAZENDEIROS PARA NAO PERMITIREM QUE OS ANIMAS PASTASSEM EM CAMPOS DE ALGODAO BT DEPOIS QUE 4 INSTITUTOS RELATARAM A PRESENCA DE TOXINAS NELES.

56 Bt corn, reports… 12 cows died on a German farm MILHO COM BT, RELATORIO… 12 VACAS MORRERAM EM UMA FAZENDA NA ALEMANHA

57 Bt corn, reports… Farmers say pigs and cows became sterile MILHO COM BT, RELATORIO… FAZENDEIROS DIZEM QUE PORCOS E VACAS FICARAM ESTEREIS

58 Bt corn, reports… Inhaled pollen may have caused illness MILHO COM BT, RELATORIO… POLEN INALADO PODE PROVOCAR DOENCAS

59 Upper respiratory EyesSkinOverall Bt Spray sneezing runny nose asthma watery red Itching, burning inflammation, red, swelling fever some in hospital Bt corn pollen sneezing asthma coughs nose bleeds swelling fever some in hospital Other symptoms: headache, stomach ache, dizziness, diarrhea, vomiting, weakness, numbness 9 horses, 4 water buffalos, and 37 chickens died after eating the corn. 5 unexplained human deaths.

60 TratoRespiratórioOlhosPeleGeral Bt Spray Espirros Nariz escorrendo asma Lacri- mejando vermelho coceiras, inflamações, vermelhidão, inchaços Febre, hospitali zações Bt polem de milho Espirros, asma, tosse, hemorragias nasais inchaços Febre, hospitali zações Outros sintomas: dor de cabeça, cólicas, tonturas, diarréias, vômitos, fraqueza, adormecimentos 9 cavalos, 4 búfallos, e 37 galinhas morreram depois de comer o milho. 5 mortes humanas inexplicadas.

61 Rats ate Bt corn (90 days) Indicators for Liver and kidney toxicity Liver and kidney toxicity Blood pressure problems, allergies, infections or disease, higher blood sugar and anemia Blood pressure problems, allergies, infections or disease, higher blood sugar and anemia Industry study RATOS COMERAM MILHO COM BT (90 DIAS) INDICADORES PARA TOXICIDADE DO FIGADO E RINS, PROBLEMAS DE PRESSAO SANGUINEA, ALERGIAS, INFECCOES OU DOENCAS, NIVEL MAIOR DE ACUCAR NO SANGUE E ANEMIA

62 Rats ate Bt corn (90 days) With the present data, it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. With the present data, it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. The two main organs of detoxification, liver and kidney, have been disturbed in this study. The two main organs of detoxification, liver and kidney, have been disturbed in this study. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2007 COM OS DADOS ATUAIS, NAO SE PODE CONCLUIR QUE MILHO GM MON863 E UM PRODUTO SEGURO. DOIS ORGAOS PRINCIPAIS DE DESINTOXICACAO, O FIGADO E OS RINS, FORAM AFETADOS NESSE ESTUDO.

63 If the Bt gene transfers, it might turn our intestinal flora into living pesticide factories. SE O GENE BT SE TRANSFERIR, PODERÁ TRANSFORMAR NOSSA FLORA INTESTINAL EM FÁBRICAS VIVAS DE PESTICIDA

64 Additional evidence of health problems EVIDÊNCIAS ADICIONAIS DE PROBLEMAS DE SAÚDE

65 After 28 days 7 of 20 rats developed stomach lesions 7 of 20 rats developed stomach lesions Another 7 of 40 died within 2 weeks Another 7 of 40 died within 2 weeks Industry study APOS 28 DIAS, 7 DE 20 RATOS QUE COMERAM SOMENTE GM TIVERAM LESOES DE ESTOMAGO OUTROS 7 DE 40 MORRERAM EM 2 SEMANAS FlavrSavr Tomato

66 Rats refused to eat the tomato OS RATOS SE RECUSARAM A COMER O TOMATE

67 GM potatoes damaged rats (10 or 110 days) Rats developed Potentially precancerous cell growth in the digestive tract Potentially precancerous cell growth in the digestive tract Smaller brains, livers and testicles Smaller brains, livers and testicles Partial atrophy of the liver, and Partial atrophy of the liver, and Immune system damage Immune system damage Lancet, 1999 BATATAS GM DANIFICARAM RATOS (10 OU 110 DIAS) OS RATOS DESENVOLVERAM CRESCIMENTO CELULAR POTENCIAMENTE PRECANCERIGENOS NO TRATO DIGESTIVO; CEREBROS MENORES, ASSIM COMO FIGADO E TESTICULOS; DANOS AO SISTEMA IMUNOLOGICO

68 Intestinal Wall Non-GM GM MUCOSA INTESTINAL

69 Stomach Lining- Epitelio do Estomago Non-GM GM

70 Chickens fed Liberty Link corn Died at twice the rate FRANGOS ALIMENTADOS COM MILHO LIBERTY LINK TIVERAM O DOBRO DE INDICE DE MORTALIDADE Industry study

71 Economic risks RISCOS ECONÔMICOS

72 Lost Markets US lost all corn sales to EU and US soy sales were reduced US lost all corn sales to EU and US soy sales were reduced Canada lost sales of canola and honey to EU Canada lost sales of canola and honey to EU MERCADOS PERDIDOS OS EUA PERDERAM TODAS AS VENDAS DE MILHO PARA A EUROPA E A VENDA DE SOJA DOS EUA FOI REDUZIDA O CANADA PERDEU AS VENDAS DE CANOLA E MEL PARA A EUROPA

73 Worldwide rejection by consumers limited expansion 4 major crops 4 major crops 6 countries 6 countries 2 major traits 2 major traits REJEIÇÃO DE CONSUMIDORES A NÍVEL MUNDIAL EXPANSÃO LIMITADA 4 PLANTIOS PRINCIPAIS 6 PAISES 2 CARACTERÍSTICAS PRINCIPAIS

74 Critical role of Brazil US wants to force countries to take GM US wants to force countries to take GM EU and others need non-GM sources EU and others need non-GM sources PAPEL CRITICO DO BRASIL EUA QUEREM FORCAR OS PAISES A ACEITAR GM EUA E OUTROS PRECISAM DE FONTES NAO-GM

75 American Corn Growers Association GM corn caused a drop in corn prices by 13 to 20% GM corn caused a drop in corn prices by 13 to 20% An explanation is owed to the thousands of American farmers who were told to trust this technology, yet now see their prices fall to historically low levels while other countries exploit US vulnerability and pick off our export customers one by one. An explanation is owed to the thousands of American farmers who were told to trust this technology, yet now see their prices fall to historically low levels while other countries exploit US vulnerability and pick off our export customers one by one. ASSOCIAÇÃO DOS PLANTADORES DE MILHO DOS EUA O MILHO TRANSGÊNICO CAUSOU UMA QUEDA DOS PREÇOS DO MILHO DE 13 A 20% UMA EXPLANAÇÃO É DEVIDA AOS MILHARES DE FAZENDEIROS AMERICANOS QUE CONFIARAM NESTA TECNOLOGIA E QUE AGORA VÊEM OS SEUS PREÇOS CAÍREM ABAIXOS DOS NÍVEIS HISTÓRICOS ENQUANTO OUTROS PAÍSES EXPLORAM A VULNERABILIDADE DOS EUA E PEGAM UM A UM OS NOSSOS CLIENTES DE EXPORTAÇÃO.

76 US Government Subsidies US government payments to farmers are up by $3 to $5 billion annually due to GM crops US government payments to farmers are up by $3 to $5 billion annually due to GM crops Charles Benbrook, PhD, former executive director of the National Academy of Sciences Board on Agriculture AS INDENIZAÇÕES DO GOVERNO AMERICANO PARA FAZENDEIROS CHEGA A $3 ATÉ $5 BILHÕES ANUALMENTE DEVIDO AO MILHO TRANSGÊNICO _Charles Benbrook, PhD, antigo diretor executivo da Academia Nacional de Ciências-Comissão de Agricultura

77 Canadian National Farmers Union Corporate and government managers have spent millions trying to convince farmers and other citizens of the benefits of genetically- modified (GM) crops. But this huge public relations effort has failed to obscure the truth: GM crops do not deliver the promised benefits. Corporate and government managers have spent millions trying to convince farmers and other citizens of the benefits of genetically- modified (GM) crops. But this huge public relations effort has failed to obscure the truth: GM crops do not deliver the promised benefits. ADMINISTRADORES DE EMPRESA E GOVERNO TÊM GASTO MILHÕES TENTANDO CONVENCER FAZENDEIROS E OUTROS CIDADÕES DOS BENEFÍCIOS DAS PLANTAÇÕES TRANSGÊNICAS (GM). MAS ESTE IMENSO TRABALHO DE RELAÇÕES PÚBLICAS NÃO CONSEGUE OCULTAR A VERDADE: PLANTAÇÕES GM NÃO GARANTEM OS RESULTADOS PROMETIDOS.

78 Canadian National Farmers Union Closing markets and falling prices threaten to overwhelm any small, short-term economic benefits that GM crops or livestock may offer. Closing markets and falling prices threaten to overwhelm any small, short-term economic benefits that GM crops or livestock may offer. The claim that GM seeds make our farms more profitable is false. The claim that GM seeds make our farms more profitable is false.

79 Reduced Farmer Profit USDA: could not find positive financial impacts in either the field-level nor the whole-farm analysis for Bt corn and GM soybeans. Adoption of Bt corn had a negative impact on net returns among specialized corn farms. USDA: could not find positive financial impacts in either the field-level nor the whole-farm analysis for Bt corn and GM soybeans. Adoption of Bt corn had a negative impact on net returns among specialized corn farms. USDA: NÃO PODE ENCONTRAR IMPACTOS FINANCEIROS POSITIVOS NA ANÁLISE NEM AO NÍVEL DA PLANTAÇÃO EM SI NEM AO NÍVEL DA TOTALIDADE DA FAZENDA PARA O MILHO BT E A SOJA GM. A ADOÇÃO DO MILHO BT TEVE UM IMPACTO NEGATIVO NO LUCRO LÍQUIDO ENTRE AS FAZENDAS ESPECIALIZADAS EM MILHO.

80 Reduced Farmer Profit By 2004, Bt cotton farmers in China earn significantly less than non-Bt farmers. By 2004, Bt cotton farmers in China earn significantly less than non-Bt farmers. Cornell University study Over three years in Andhra Pradesh, non-Bt farmers earned 60% more. Over three years in Andhra Pradesh, non-Bt farmers earned 60% more study by three agriculture organizations 2004 study by three agriculture organizations REDUÇÃO DO LUCRO DO PLANTADOR EM 2004, PLANTADORES DE ALGODÃO BT NA CHINA GANHAM SIGNIFICATIVAMENTE MENOS DO QUE PLANTADORES NÃO-BT (ESTUDO DA CORNELL UNIVERSITY) DURANTE 3 ANOS EM ANDHRA PRADESH, FAZENDEIROS NÃO-BT GANHARAM 60% MAIS (ESTUDO DE 2004 POR TRÊS ORGANIZAÇÕES DE AGRICULTURA.

81 The average GM Crop Lowers Yields Currently available GM crops do not increase the yield potential of a hybrid variety.... In fact, yield may even decrease... Currently available GM crops do not increase the yield potential of a hybrid variety.... In fact, yield may even decrease... US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2006 AS PLANTAÇÕES TRANSGÊNICAS ATUALMENTE DISPONÍVEIS NÃO AUMENTAM O POTENCIAL DE PRODUÇÃO DE UMA VARIEDADE HÍBRIDA... DE FATO, A PRODUÇÃO DEVE ATÉ MESMO DIMINUIR...

82 Lower and Erratic Performance GM soy has 4-11% less yield GM soy has 4-11% less yield GM cotton failures have occurred in the US, Indonesia, China and India GM cotton failures have occurred in the US, Indonesia, China and India Thousands of indebted Bt cotton farmers in India committed suicide Thousands of indebted Bt cotton farmers in India committed suicide Brazilian soybean yields are also down since GM soy. Brazilian soybean yields are also down since GM soy. Canadian Roundup Ready canola yield down 7.5% Canadian Roundup Ready canola yield down 7.5% (Benbrook, 1999, Oplinger et al., 1999; ABIOVE, 2006; Productivity Commission Staff, 2002) PERFORMANCE BAIXA E INSTÁVEL SOJA TRANSGÊNICA TEM 4-11% MENOS PRODUTIVIDADE FALÊNCIAS COM ALGODÃO TRANSGÊNICO OCORRERAM NOS EUA, INDONÉSIA,CHINA E ÍNDIA (MILHARES DE FAZENDEIROS ENDIVIDADOS COMETERAM SUICÍDIO NA ÍNDIA) PRODUTIVIDADE BRASILEIRA DE GRÃOS SOJA TAMBÉM BAIXOU DESDE A INTRODUÇÃO DA SOJA TRANSGÊNICA A PRODUTIVIDADE DA CANOLA CANADENSE BAIXOU EM 7.5%

83 Contamination of Non-GM In Canada, 32 of 33 certified non-GM canola seeds were contaminated. In Canada, 32 of 33 certified non-GM canola seeds were contaminated. Agronomy Journal 95, 2003 Most of the non-GM soy, corn, and canola seeds tested in the US also contained GMOs. Most of the non-GM soy, corn, and canola seeds tested in the US also contained GMOs. Union of Concerned Scientists, 2005 Union of Concerned Scientists, 2005 CONTAMINAÇÃO DE SOJA NÃO TRANSGÊNICA No Canadá, 32 das 33 sementes de canolas certificadas não GM estavam contaminadas. Jornal de Agronomia 95, 2003 No Canadá, 32 das 33 sementes de canolas certificadas não GM estavam contaminadas. Jornal de Agronomia 95, 2003 A maioria da soja, milho e sementes de canola não- GM testadas nos USA estavam também contaminadas de GMOs

84 Non-GM Growers Suffer Dropped market prices Dropped market prices Risk of contamination Risk of contamination Costs for segregation, GMO testing, buffer zones, separate storage and shipping Costs for segregation, GMO testing, buffer zones, separate storage and shipping QUEDA DOS PREÇOS DE MERCADO QUEDA DOS PREÇOS DE MERCADO RISCO DE CONTAMINAÇÃO RISCO DE CONTAMINAÇÃO CUSTOS DE SEGREGAÇÃO, TESTES DE GMO, ZONAS DE PROTEÇÃO, ESTOCAGEM SEPARADA E TRANSPORTE CUSTOS DE SEGREGAÇÃO, TESTES DE GMO, ZONAS DE PROTEÇÃO, ESTOCAGEM SEPARADA E TRANSPORTE

85 GM Free Zones 4500 European jurisdictions 4500 European jurisdictions Venezuela, Angola, Zambia, Sudan, etc. Venezuela, Angola, Zambia, Sudan, etc. States and regions in Australia, New Zealand, US, etc. States and regions in Australia, New Zealand, US, etc. ZONAS LIVRES DE GM (GENETICAMENTE MODIFICADOS) 4500 JURISDIÇÕES EUROPÉIAS VENEZUELA, ANGOLA, ZAMBIA, SUDÃO, ETC. ESTADOS E REGIÕES NA AUSTRALIA, NOVA ZELANDIA, EUA, ETC.

86 Non-GM Advantages Australia was able to secure greater market access because it was producing non-GM canola. Australia was able to secure greater market access because it was producing non-GM canola. Western Australia Standing Committee on Environment and Public Affairs It is easier to trade non-GM grains in the current market environment than it is to trade GM grains. It is easier to trade non-GM grains in the current market environment than it is to trade GM grains. Australian Bureau of Resource Economics (ABARE) A AUSTRÁLIA FOI CAPAZ DE ASSEGURAR UM MAIOR ACESSO AO MER-CADO PORQUE ESTAVA PRODUZINDO CANOLA NÃO-TRANSGÊNICA É MAIS FÁCIL DE COMERCIALIZAR GRÃOS NÃO-TRANSGÊNICOS NA ATUAL C0NJUNTURA DE MERCADOS DO QUE GRÃOS TRANSGÊNICOS.

87 Trend in US Consumers that become aware of GMOs often reject them Consumers that become aware of GMOs often reject them Food companies are becoming non-GMO Food companies are becoming non-GMO TENDÊNCIA NOS EUA CONSUMIDORES QUE SE TORNAM CONSCIENTES DOS TRANSGÊNICOS FREQUENTEMENTE OS REJEITAM INDUSTRIAS ALIMENTÍCIAS ESTÃO SE TORNANDO NÃO-GMO

88 Environmental risks Contamination of Non-GM crops and relatives Contamination of Non-GM crops and relatives Contamination of soil organisms Contamination of soil organisms Killing of non-target species Killing of non-target species Overuse of herbicide Overuse of herbicide Longevity of Bt pesticide Longevity of Bt pesticide Bt effect on aquatic ecosystem Bt effect on aquatic ecosystem Reduction of biodiversity Reduction of biodiversity CONTAMINAÇÃO DE PLANTAÇÕES NÃO TRANGÊNICAS E ASSOCIADOS CONTAMINAÇÃO DE ORGANISMOS DO SOLO MATANÇA DE ESPECIES NÃO FOCALIZADAS ABUSO DO USO DE HERBICIDAS LONGETIVIDADE DO PESTICIDA BT REDUÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE

89 Self-propagating genetic pollution may outlast global warming and nuclear waste A POLUIÇÃO GENÉTICA AUTO- PROPAGADA PODE ULTRAPASSAR O AQUECIMENTO GLOBAL E OS RESÍDUOS ATÔMICOS A POLUIÇÃO GENÉTICA AUTO- PROPAGADA PODE ULTRAPASSAR O AQUECIMENTO GLOBAL E OS RESÍDUOS ATÔMICOS

90 Obstacles in the Debate Silence Silence Sweeping dismissal Sweeping dismissal Invoking of scientific organizations Invoking of scientific organizations Challenging only the weakest arguments Challenging only the weakest arguments Claiming GM has same risks as other foods Claiming GM has same risks as other foods Confusing the need for GM medicines or gene therapy Confusing the need for GM medicines or gene therapy Flood of evidence Flood of evidence Personal attack Personal attack SILÊNCIO PRONTAS NEGAÇÕES CITAÇÕES DE ORGANIZAÇÕES CIENTÍFICAS DESAFIANDO APENAS OS ARGUMENTOS MAIS FRACOS DECLARAÇÕES DE QUE TRANSGÊNICOS TÊM OS MESMOS RISCOS QUE OUTROS ALIMENTOS CONFUNDINDO A NECESSIDADE DE MEDICAMENTOS TRANSGÊNICOS OU TRA- TAMENTOS GENÉTICOS INUNDAÇÃO DE EVIDÊNCIAS ATAQUES PESSOAIS

91 My conclusion: The technology is not ready The technology is not ready The current generation of GM crops is not safe or predictable enough to justify feeding to millions of people or releasing them into the environment The current generation of GM crops is not safe or predictable enough to justify feeding to millions of people or releasing them into the environment MINHA CONCLUSÃO: A TECNOLOGIA AINDA NÃO ESTÁ PRONTA A ATUAL GERAÇÃO DE MILHO TRANSGÊNICO NÃO É SEGURA OU PREVISÍVEL O SUFICIENTE PARA JUSTIFICAR ALIMENTAR MILHÕES DE PESSOAS OU SER LIBERADO PARA O MEIO AMBIENTE.

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