Apresentação em tema: "1 Francisco José Arteiro de Oliveira Operation Planning and Scheduling Director Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 Francisco José Arteiro de Oliveira Operation Planning and Scheduling Director Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
2 Agenda Introduction Wind power generation penetration degree increase in the Brazilian Energetic Matrix Characteristics of wind power plants in Brazil Major challenges for the increase of wind generation penetration degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System - BIPS Ongoing improvements necessary to connect wind farms to grids with high wind generation penetration degree Conclusions
4 Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS Isolated systems Brazilian Interconnected Power System +3.400km Cemig Furnas AES-Tiete CESP CDSA Consórcios Copel Tractebel ITAIPU BINATIONAL Grande River Paranaiba River Tiete River Paranapanema River Iguaçu River Utilities The BIPS covers 2/3 of the national territory: 5 million km 2 The BIPS supplies about 98% of the countrys electricity consumption. Hydro generation is dominant: about 79% of the installed capacity Thermal generation is complementary with diversity of fuels: nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil, diesel (about 16%) Small share (about 5%) of other renewable energies: wind and biomass Main transmission grid with long distance lines ( 230 kV). Over 100,000 km of transmission lines
5 Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS Multi-owned: 97 agents own assets ( 230 kV) The Main Transmission Grid is operated and expanded in order to achieve safety of supply and system optimization Inter-regional and inter-basin transmission links allow interchange of large blocks of energy between regions, based on the hydrological diversity between river basins The current challenge is the interconnection of the projects in the Amazonian Region
6 Brazilian Electricity Supply in 2012 Source: Brazilian Energy Balance 2013 / year 2012 – MME/EPE
7 Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree Increase in the Brazilian Energetic Matrix
8 Regularization Capacity Evolution The 13 largest reservoirs identified in the figure have useful volume greather than 5 x 10 3 hm 3, and together account for 74% of total accumulated volume
9 Gradual Reduction of Regularization 2021 3.35 2001201320152017 Ratio between stored energy / load 6.2 5.4 5.0 4.7 How many months of maximum energy storage Ten-year Plan*
10 The Expansion of Supply Between 2012 and 2017 TYPE12/31/201212/31/2017 GROWTH 2013-2017 MW% % % HIDRO (1) 89,52177.9107,49173.817,97020.1 NUCLEAR 1,9901.71,9901.400.0 N. GAS/L.N. GAS 9,8088.513,0549.03,24633.1 COAL 2,1251.93,2102.21,08551.1 BIOMASS (2) 4,9484.35,8754.092718.7 OTHER (3) 7490.77490.500.0 OIL 4,0483.54,8213.377319.1 WIND 1,7621.58,4775.86,715381.1 TOTAL 114,951100.0145,667100.030,71626.7 (1)Includes the participation of Itaipu and small hidro power plants; (2)Includes small thermal power plants; (3)The portion "OTHER" refers to other thermal plants with CVU.
11 Wind Generation Expansion in Southern Source: ANEEL Cerro Chato I Cerro Chato II Cerro Chato III Cidreira 1 Palmares Parque Eólico de Osório Parque Eólico de Sangradouro Sangradouro 2 Sangradouro 3 Parque Eólico dos Índios Água Doce Amparo Aquibatã Bom Jardim Campo Belo Cascata Cruz Alta Púlpito Rio do Ouro Salto Santo Antônio 390 MW 231 MW 621 MW (21 UEE) INSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012
12 Wind Generation Expansion in Southern Source: ANEEL Cerro Chato I Cerro Chato II Cerro Chato III Cidreira 1 Palmares Parque Eólico de Osório Parque Eólico de Sangradouro Sangradouro 2 Sangradouro 3 Parque Eólico dos Índios Água Doce Amparo Aquibatã Bom Jardim Campo Belo Cascata Cruz Alta Púlpito Rio do Ouro Salto Santo Antônio 390 MW 231 MW 621 MW (21 UEE) 1027 MW (43 UEE) 1027 MW Atlântica I Atlântica II Atlântica IV Atlântica V Cerro Chato IV Cerro Chato V Cerro Chato VI Cerro dos Trindade Chuí I Chuí II Chuí IV Chuí V Corredor do Senandes II Corredor do Senandes III Corredor do Senandes IV Dos Índios 2 Dos Índios 3 Fazenda Rosário 2 Força 1 Força 2 Força 3 Giruá Ibirapuitã I Minuano I Minuano II Osório 2 Osório 3 Pinhal Pontal 2B REB Cassino I REB Cassino II REB Cassino III Vento Aragano I Verace I Verace II Verace III Verace IV Verace V Verace IX Verace VI Verace VII Verace VIII Verace X INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 2015 1648 MW SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGA
13 Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast PARACURU AMONTADA PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ PRAIAS DE PARAJURU BONS VENTOS CANOA QUEBRADA CANOA QUEBRADA (RV) ENACEL ICARAIZINHO RIO DO FOGO MILLENIUM ALBATROZ ATLÂNTICA CAMURIM CARAVELA PRAIA DO MORGADO VOLTA DO RIO PRAIA FORMOSA TAÍBA ALBATROZ ALHANDRA COELHOS I COELHOS II COELHOS III COELHOS IV MATARACÁ PRESIDENTE VITÓRIA GRAVATÁ MANDACARU SANTA MARIA PIRAUÁ XAVANTE PEDRA DO SAL ALEGRIA I ALEGRIA II ARATUÁ MIASSABA III CABEÇO PRETO CABEÇO PRETO IV MANGUE SECO 1 MANGUE SECO 2 MANGUE SECO 3 MANGUE SECO 5 MACAÚBAS NOVO HORIZONTE SEABRA Barra dos Coqueiros 95 MW 542 MW 25 MW 18 MW 373 MW 35 MW 66 MW INSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012 1154 MW (50 UEE) Source: ANEEL
14 Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast Source: ANEEL PARACURU AMONTADA PARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBE FOZ DO RIO CHORÓ PRAIAS DE PARAJURU BONS VENTOS CANOA QUEBRADA CANOA QUEBRADA (RV) ENACEL ICARAIZINHO RIO DO FOGO MILLENIUM ALBATROZ ATLÂNTICA CAMURIM CARAVELA PRAIA DO MORGADO VOLTA DO RIO PRAIA FORMOSA TAÍBA ALBATROZ ALHANDRA COELHOS I COELHOS II COELHOS III COELHOS IV MATARACÁ PRESIDENTE VITÓRIA GRAVATÁ MANDACARU SANTA MARIA PIRAUÁ XAVANTE PEDRA DO SAL ALEGRIA I ALEGRIA II ARATUÁ MIASSABA III CABEÇO PRETO CABEÇO PRETO IV MANGUE SECO 1 MANGUE SECO 2 MANGUE SECO 3 MANGUE SECO 5 MACAÚBAS NOVO HORIZONTE SEABRA Barra dos Coqueiros 95 MW 542 MW 25 MW 18 MW 373 MW 35 MW 66 MW 1154 MW (50 UEE) Alvorada Ametista Angical Borgo Caetité Caetité 2 Caetité 3 Caititu Candiba Coqueirinho Corrupião Cristal Da Prata Dos Araçás Dourados Emiliana Espigão Guanambi Guirapá Igaporã Ilhéus Inhambu Joana Licínio de Almeida Maron Morrão N. Sra. da Conceição Pajeú do Vento Pedra Branca Pedra do Reino Pedra do Reino III Pelourinho Pilões Pindaí Planaltina Porto Seguro Primavera Rio Verde São Judas São Pedro do Lago Seraíma Serra do Salto Serra do Espinhaço Sete Gameleiras Tamanduá Mirim Tanque Teiu Ventos do Nordeste Araras Boca do Córrego Buriti Cajucoco Cataventos Paracuru 1 Colônia Coqueiro Dunas de Paracuru Embuaca Faisa I Faisa II Faisa III Faisa IV Faisa V Fleixeiras I Garças Guajirú Icaraí Icaraí I Icaraí II Ilha Grande Jandaia Jandaia I Junco I Junco II Lagoa Seca Malhadinha I Mundaú Pau Brasil Pau Ferro Pedra do Gerônimo Planalto da Taíba Porto Salgado Potengi Quixaba Ribeirão São Paulo Tacaicó Taíba Águia Taíba Andorinha Trairí Vento do Oeste Vento Formoso Ventos de Horizonte Ventos de Santa Rosa Ventos de Santo Inácio Ventos de São Geraldo Ventos de Sebastião Ventos de Tianguá Ventos de Tianguá Norte Ventos do Morro do Chapéu Ventos do Parazinho Marco dos Ventos 1 Marco dos Ventos 2 Marco dos Ventos 3 Marco dos Ventos 4 Marco dos Ventos 5 Ventos do Norte 1 Ventos do Norte 10 Ventos do Norte 2 Ventos do Norte 3 Ventos do Norte 4 Ventos do Norte 5 Ventos do Norte 6 Ventos do Norte 7 Ventos do Norte 8 Ventos do Norte 9 Aratuá 3 Areia Branca Arizona I Asa Branca I Asa Branca II Asa Branca III Asa Branca IV Asa Branca V Asa Branca VI Asa Branca VII Asa Branca VIII Caiçara 2 Caiçara do Norte Calango 1 Calango 2 Calango 3 Calango 4 Calango 5 Campos dos Ventos II Carcará I Carcará II Carnaúbas Costa Branca Dreen Boa Vista Dreen Cutia Dreen Guajiru Dreen Olho d'Água Dreen São Bento do Norte Eurus I Eurus II Eurus III Eurus IV Eurus VI Famosa I Farol GE Jangada GE Maria Helena Juremas Lanchinha Macacos Mar e Terra Mel 02 Miassaba 3 Miassaba 4 Modelo I Modelo II Morro dos Ventos I Morro dos Ventos II Morro dos Ventos III Morro dos Ventos IV Morro dos Ventos IX Morro dos Ventos VI Pelado Pedra Preta Reduto Rei dos Ventos 1 Rei dos Ventos 3 Rei dos Ventos 4 Renascença I Renascença II Renascença III Renascença IV Renascença V Riachão I Riachão II Riachão IV Riachão VI Riachão VII Santa Clara I Santa Clara II Santa Clara III Santa Clara IV Santa Clara V Santa Clara VI Santa Helena Santo Cristo São João Serra de Santana I Serra de Santana II Serra de Santana III SM União dos Ventos 1 União dos Ventos 10 União dos Ventos 2 União dos Ventos 3 União dos Ventos 4 União dos Ventos 5 União dos Ventos 6 União dos Ventos 7 União dos Ventos 8 União dos Ventos 9 Ventos de Santo Uriel Ventos de São Miguel 59 MW 432 MW 1249 MW 2559 MW 78 MW 1144 MW 6584 MW (210 UEE) INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 2015 7738 MW SOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGA
15 Characteristics of Wind Power Plants in Brazil
16 Renewable Sources Connection to the Grid The connection to the bulk power system is made through Renewable Generators Collection System Sub-Grid (ICG) The use of ICG and IEG represent a reduction in the grid connection costs, but also represents an engineering challenge... Source: L. A. Barroso, F. Porrua, R. Chabar, M. V. Pereira and B. Bezerra, Incorporating Large-Scale Renewables to the Transmission Grid: Technical and Regulatory Issues - IEEE PES General Meeting 2009, Calgary, Canada
17 Wind Farms ICG Connection - Igapora II ICG There are 13 wind farms connected to the Igapora II ICG
18 Energetic Complementarity of Hidro, Wind and Biomass Reservoirs of hydro power plants and the transmission grid may be used to modulate the production of wind and sugarcane biomass plants (no back up natural gas generation is necessary as in other countries) During the dry season, wind and biomass power plants may return the favor to hydro plants (functioning as a virtual reservoir)
19 Wind Characteristics in Brazil Northeast and Southern
20 Major Challenges for the Increase of Wind Generation Penetration Degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
21 Major Challenges with High Wind Penetration Degree The sites in Brazil with highest winds are located in the Northeast and Southern of Brazil. These regions are characterized by low short circuit ratio (SCR) and low inertia, often requiring network reinforcements for the correct performance of wind generators. This also provokes different power flow patterns in the presence of high wind generation penetration degree - transmission systems must be adapted to this new paradigm. Wind generators must be capable to participate in voltage control in weak networks efficiently, even when producing little or no active power at all. The network must be prepared to handle a higher amount of generation loss, for example, when the wind in a given area reduces very fast. Normally wind generation does not contribute to the inertia of the system.
22 Ongoing Improvements Necessary to Connect Wind Farms to Grids with High Wind Generation Penetration Degree
23 Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Set Strategies for Power Reserves With the increase of wind generation penetration degree, a strategy must be set, to create a power reserve in the case, for example, if the wind reduces in a fast way. Scheduling and real time actions to maintain and restore system reserves. Improved Wind Forecast The improved wind forecast will allow a more precise Power Reserve calculation, reducing operation costs.
24 Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Improved Supervision of Wind Farms Set supervision requirements to monitor wind geration production. Need to set dispatch centers to concentrate operation communication among Power System Operator and wind plants groups. Harmonic Distortion and Voltage Fluctuation Implement electric energy quality indicators, mainly the ones for harmonic distortions and voltage fluctuation.
25 Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Install Wind Generators Improved Dynamic Performance The technology utilized in wind generation is in fast evolution. This favors the secure increase of wind generation penetration degree in power systems. The grid codes must also evolve to take advantage of this fast technology development, in order to ensure the dynamic performance needed to the increasing penetration of wind generation. The technologies currently used in modern wind turbines are the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Full-Converter.
26 Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Off-nominal Frequency Operation The wind generators must be capable to stay connected to the grid during system under/overfrequency disturbances. This requirement is specially important in underfrequency contingencies, when the outages of wind generators can compromise the correct operation of the load shedding scheme.
27 Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms Regarding this technical requirement the DFIG and Full-Converters wind generator technology provides a much higher reactive power generation / absorption capacity than the specified by the Brazilian Grid Code. The extended range that these two technologies allow, can improve voltage control of the system as a whole, enabling a higher penetration degree of wind generation.
28 Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Synthetic Inertia Asynchronous machines, such as variable speed wind generators, do not contribute to the inertia of the system (the rotating masses are not electrically connected to the system). This feature is currently under development by many wind generators manufacturers. Particularly in the Northeast sub-system, where it is expected a high penetration degree of wind power in a region with low inertia, this feature may contribute to the security of the system, possibly improving the operation of load shedding scheme.
30 Conclusions The connection of the large amount of wind generation in the BIPS predicted for this decade in a secure way is possible, since actions are taken from now on by all involved in the process. A detailed review of the Brazilian Grid Code is being carried on in Brazilian System Operator - ONS, to include new technical requirements that the new wind generation technologies allow. The work is being carried by GT Eolica Task Force. The control technologies available in DFIG and Full-Converter wind generators must be explored to its maximum to allow the safe operation of the system with high wind generation penetration degree. The Brazilian Grid Code, as well as the technical requirements for next auctions, must reflect, and take into account, the performance improvement for the network that can be achieved with the use of the new wind generator technologies.
31 Conclusions A careful network expansion planning must be done in a way to allow the safe connection of wind farms in areas of the system with low SCR and inertia. The most appropriate equipment to improve the performance of a system with these characteristics is the synchronous condenser. The improvement in the wind forecast models is mandatory to become wind generation more predictable, and thus become the Power Reserve calculation more precise. This will impact directly in the reduction of operation costs. Improvement in the centralized control wind generators in the wind farms to become the operation of the wind farms from the Control Center more friendly.