Apresentação em tema: "Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for the Brazilian Interconnected Power System Francisco José Arteiro de Oliveira."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Increasing Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree in Brazil: a Challenge for the Brazilian Interconnected Power SystemFrancisco José Arteiro de Oliveira Operation Planning and Scheduling Director
2AgendaIntroductionWind power generation penetration degree increase in the Brazilian Energetic MatrixCharacteristics of wind power plants in BrazilMajor challenges for the increase of wind generation penetration degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System - BIPSOngoing improvements necessary to connect wind farms to grids with high wind generation penetration degreeConclusions
4Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS Isolated systemsBrazilian Interconnected PowerSystem+3.400kmThe BIPS covers 2/3 of the national territory: 5 million km2The BIPS supplies about 98% of the country’s electricity consumption.Hydro generation is dominant: about 79% of the installed capacityThermal generation is complementary with diversity of fuels: nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil, diesel (about 16%)Small share (about 5%) of other renewable energies: wind and biomassMain transmission grid with long distance lines (≥ 230 kV). Over 100,000 km of transmission linesCemigFurnasAES-TieteCESPCDSAConsórciosCopelTractebelITAIPU BINATIONALGrande RiverParanaiba RiverTiete RiverParanapanema RiverIguaçu RiverUtilities
5Brazilian Interconected Power System - BIPS Multi-owned: 97 agents own assets (≥ 230 kV)The Main Transmission Grid is operated and expanded in order to achieve safety of supply and system optimizationInter-regional and inter-basin transmission links allow interchange of large blocks of energy between regions, based on the hydrological diversity between river basinsThe current challenge is the interconnection of the projects in the Amazonian Region
6Brazilian Electricity Supply in 2012 Source: Brazilian Energy Balance 2013 / year 2012 – MME/EPE
7Wind Power Generation Penetration Degree Increase in the Brazilian Energetic Matrix
8Regularization Capacity Evolution Evolution of Cumulative Volume and of the Installed Power (hidro generation) in BIPS10,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000100,000110,00019501955196019651970197519801985199019952000200520102014Installed capacity-Hidro(MW)306090120150180210240270300330Volume1000hm3Installed CapacityUseful VolumeTrês Marias15.,.10FurnasNova PonteSerra da MesaEmborcaçãoTucuruíIlha Solteira eTrês Irmãos16Marimbondo – 5.3 .CapivaraSobradinho –São Simão5ÁVermelha5.2Itumbiara –Growth BetweenInstalled Power>47%8The 13 largest reservoirs identified in the figure have useful volume greather than 5 x 103 hm3, and together account for 74% of total accumulated volume
9Gradual Reduction of Regularization 20213.352001201320152017Ratio between stored energy / load6.25.45.04.7How many months of maximum energy storageTen-year Plan*
10The Expansion of Supply Between 2012 and 2017 TYPE12/31/201212/31/2017GROWTHMW%HIDRO(1)89,52177.9107,49173.817,97020.1NUCLEAR1,9901.71.40.0N. GAS/L.N. GAS9,8088.513,0549.03,24633.1COAL2,1251.93,2102.21,08551.1BIOMASS(2)4,9484.35,8754.092718.7OTHER(3)7490.70.5OIL4,0483.54,8213.377319.1WIND1,7621.58,4775.86,715381.1TOTAL114,951100.0145,66730,71626.7Includes the participation of Itaipu and small hidro power plants;Includes small thermal power plants;The portion "OTHER" refers to other thermal plants with CVU.
11Wind Generation Expansion in Southern INSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012621 MW(21 UEE)SCÁgua DoceAmparoAquibatãBom JardimCampo BeloCascataCruz AltaPúlpitoRio do OuroSaltoSanto Antônio231 MWRSCerro Chato ICerro Chato IICerro Chato IIICidreira 1PalmaresParque Eólico de OsórioParque Eólico de SangradouroSangradouro 2Sangradouro 3Parque Eólico dos Índios390 MWSource: ANEEL
12Wind Generation Expansion in Southern INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 20151648 MW621 MW(21 UEE)1027 MW(43 UEE)SCÁgua DoceAmparoAquibatãBom JardimCampo BeloCascataCruz AltaPúlpitoRio do OuroSaltoSanto AntônioSOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGA231 MWAtlântica IAtlântica IIAtlântica IVAtlântica VCerro Chato IVCerro Chato VCerro Chato VICerro dos TrindadeChuí IChuí IIChuí IVChuí VCorredor do Senandes IICorredor do Senandes IIICorredor do Senandes IVDos Índios 2Dos Índios 3Fazenda Rosário 2Força 1Força 2Força 3GiruáIbirapuitã IMinuano IMinuano IIOsório 2Osório 3PinhalPontal 2BREB Cassino IREB Cassino IIREB Cassino IIIVento Aragano IVerace IVerace IIVerace IIIVerace IVVerace VVerace IXVerace VIVerace VIIVerace VIIIVerace XRSCerro Chato ICerro Chato IICerro Chato IIICidreira 1PalmaresParque Eólico de OsórioParque Eólico de SangradouroSangradouro 2Sangradouro 3Parque Eólico dos Índios390 MW1027 MWSource: ANEEL
13Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast 18 MWPEDRA DO SALPRAIA DO MORGADOVOLTA DO RIO542 MWPRAIA FORMOSAAMONTADAPARACURUTAÍBA ALBATROZPARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBEFOZ DO RIO CHORÓPRAIAS DE PARAJURU373 MWBONS VENTOSCANOA QUEBRADA (RV)CANOA QUEBRADAENACELICARAIZINHOMAALEGRIA IALEGRIA IIMIASSABA IIIARATUÁMANGUE SECO 1MANGUE SECO 2MANGUE SECO 5MANGUE SECO 3CEINSTALLED CAPACITY IN NOVEMBER 2012RNRIO DO FOGOCABEÇO PRETOCABEÇO PRETO IVALBATROZMILLENIUMATLÂNTICACAMURIMCARAVELACOELHOS IICOELHOS ICOELHOS IIICOELHOS IVMATARACÁVITÓRIAPRESIDENTE66 MW1154 MW(50 UEE)PIPBALHANDRAPIRAUÁXAVANTEPEGRAVATÁMANDACARUSANTA MARIA25 MWALSE35 MWBarra dos CoqueirosBAMACAÚBASNOVO HORIZONTESEABRA95 MWSource: ANEEL
14Wind Generation Expansion in Northeast 432 MWMarco dos Ventos 1Marco dos Ventos 2Marco dos Ventos 4Marco dos Ventos 3Marco dos Ventos 5Ventos do Norte 1Ventos do Norte 10Ventos do Norte 3Ventos do Norte 2Ventos do Norte 4Ventos do Norte 5Ventos do Norte 6Ventos do Norte 7Ventos do Norte 8Ventos do Norte 918 MW59 MWPEDRA DO SALPRAIA DO MORGADOVOLTA DO RIO542 MW1249 MWArarasBoca do CórregoCajucocoBuritiCataventos Paracuru 1ColôniaCoqueiroEmbuacaDunas de ParacuruFaisa IFaisa IIFaisa IIIFaisa VFaisa IVFleixeiras IGarçasGuajirúIcaraíIcaraí IIcaraí IIIlha GrandeJandaia IJandaiaJunco IJunco IILagoa SecaMundaúMalhadinha IPau BrasilPau FerroPedra do GerônimoPorto SalgadoPlanalto da TaíbaPotengiQuixabaRibeirãoSão PauloTacaicóTaíba ÁguiaTrairíTaíba AndorinhaVento do OesteVento FormosoVentos de HorizonteVentos de Santo InácioVentos de Santa RosaVentos de São GeraldoVentos de TianguáVentos de SebastiãoVentos de Tianguá NorteVentos do Morro do ChapéuVentos do ParazinhoPRAIA FORMOSAAMONTADAPARACURUTAÍBA ALBATROZPARQUE EÓLICO DE BEBERIBEFOZ DO RIO CHORÓPRAIAS DE PARAJURU373 MW2559 MWBONS VENTOSCANOA QUEBRADA (RV)CANOA QUEBRADAENACELICARAIZINHOMAALEGRIA IALEGRIA IIARATUÁMIASSABA IIIMANGUE SECO 1MANGUE SECO 2MANGUE SECO 3MANGUE SECO 5INSTALLED CAPACITY IN DECEMBER 20157738 MWCERNRIO DO FOGOCABEÇO PRETOCABEÇO PRETO IVALBATROZMILLENIUMATLÂNTICACAMURIMCARAVELACOELHOS IICOELHOS ICOELHOS IIICOELHOS IVMATARACÁVITÓRIAPRESIDENTE66 MWPIPBALHANDRAPIRAUÁ1154 MW(50 UEE)6584 MW(210 UEE)XAVANTEPEGRAVATÁMANDACARUSANTA MARIA25 MW78 MWALAratuá 3Areia BrancaArizona IAsa Branca IIAsa Branca IAsa Branca IIIAsa Branca IVAsa Branca VAsa Branca VIIAsa Branca VIAsa Branca VIIICaiçara 2Caiçara do NorteCalango 2Calango 1Calango 3Calango 4Calango 5Campos dos Ventos IICarcará ICarcará IICarnaúbasDreen Boa VistaCosta BrancaDreen CutiaDreen GuajiruDreen Olho d'ÁguaDreen São Bento do NorteEurus IEurus IIEurus IIIEurus VIEurus IVFamosa IFarolGE JangadaJuremasGE Maria HelenaLanchinhaMacacosMar e TerraMiassaba 3Mel 02Miassaba 4Modelo IModelo IIMorro dos Ventos IIMorro dos Ventos IMorro dos Ventos IIIMorro dos Ventos IVMorro dos Ventos IXPeladoMorro dos Ventos VIPedra PretaRedutoRei dos Ventos 1Rei dos Ventos 3Rei dos Ventos 4Renascença IRenascença IIRenascença IVRenascença IIIRenascença VRiachão IRiachão IIRiachão VIRiachão IVRiachão VIISanta Clara ISanta Clara IISanta Clara IVSanta Clara IIISanta Clara VSanta Clara VISanta HelenaSanto CristoSão JoãoSerra de Santana ISerra de Santana IISerra de Santana IIISMUnião dos Ventos 10União dos Ventos 1União dos Ventos 2União dos Ventos 3União dos Ventos 4União dos Ventos 6União dos Ventos 5União dos Ventos 7União dos Ventos 8União dos Ventos 9Ventos de São MiguelVentos de Santo UrielSOMENTE EMPREENDIMENTOS COM OUTORGASE35 MWBarra dos CoqueirosBAMACAÚBASNOVO HORIZONTESEABRA95 MW1144 MWAlvoradaAmetistaAngicalCaetitéBorgoCaetité 2Caetité 3CaitituCoqueirinhoCandibaCorrupiãoCristalDa PrataDouradosDos AraçásEmilianaEspigãoGuanambiIgaporãGuirapáIlhéusInhambuLicínio de AlmeidaJoanaMaronMorrãoN. Sra. da ConceiçãoPedra BrancaPajeú do VentoPedra do ReinoPedra do Reino IIIPelourinhoPilõesPindaíPlanaltinaPorto SeguroPrimaveraSão JudasRio VerdeSão Pedro do LagoSeraímaSerra do SaltoSerra do EspinhaçoSete GameleirasTanqueTamanduá MirimTeiuVentos do NordesteSource: ANEEL
16Renewable Sources Connection to the Grid The connection to the bulk power system is made through Renewable Generators Collection System Sub-Grid (ICG)The use of ICG and IEG represent a reduction in the grid connection costs, but also represents an engineering challenge...Source: L. A. Barroso, F. Porrua, R. Chabar, M. V. Pereira and B. Bezerra, Incorporating Large-Scale Renewables to the Transmission Grid: Technical and Regulatory Issues - IEEE PES General Meeting 2009, Calgary, Canada
17Wind Farms ICG Connection - Igapora II ICG There are 13 wind farms connected to the Igapora II ICG
18Energetic Complementarity of Hidro, Wind and Biomass Reservoirs of hydro power plants and the transmission grid may be used to modulate the production of wind and sugarcane biomass plants (no back up natural gas generation is necessary as in other countries)During the dry season, wind and biomass power plants may “return the favor” to hydro plants (functioning as a virtual reservoir)
19Wind Characteristics in Brazil Northeast and Southern
20Major Challenges for the Increase of Wind Generation Penetration Degree in the Brazilian Interconnected Power System
21Major Challenges with High Wind Penetration Degree The sites in Brazil with highest winds are located in the Northeast and Southern of Brazil. These regions are characterized by low short circuit ratio (SCR) and low inertia, often requiring network reinforcements for the correct performance of wind generators.This also provokes different power flow patterns in the presence of high wind generation penetration degree - transmission systems must be adapted to this new paradigm.Wind generators must be capable to participate in voltage control in weak networks efficiently, even when producing little or no active power at all.The network must be prepared to handle a higher amount of generation loss, for example, when the wind in a given area reduces very fast.Normally wind generation does not contribute to the inertia of the system.
22Ongoing Improvements Necessary to Connect Wind Farms to Grids with High Wind Generation Penetration Degree
23Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Set Strategies for Power ReservesWith the increase of wind generation penetration degree, a strategy must be set, to create a power reserve in the case, for example, if the wind reduces in a fast way.Scheduling and real time actions to maintain and restore system reserves.Improved Wind ForecastThe improved wind forecast will allow a more precise Power Reserve calculation, reducing operation costs.
24Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Improved Supervision of Wind FarmsSet supervision requirements to monitor wind geration production.Need to set dispatch centers to concentrate operation communication among Power System Operator and wind plants groups.Harmonic Distortion and Voltage FluctuationImplement electric energy quality indicators, mainly the ones for harmonic distortions and voltage fluctuation.
25Ongoing Improvements for High Wind Penetration Degree Install Wind Generators Improved Dynamic PerformanceThe technology utilized in wind generation is in fast evolution. This favors the secure increase of wind generation penetration degree in power systems.The grid codes must also evolve to take advantage of this fast technology development, in order to ensure the dynamic performance needed to the increasing penetration of wind generation.The technologies currently used in modern wind turbines are the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Full-Converter.
26Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Off-nominal Frequency OperationThe wind generators must be capable to stay connected to the grid during system under/overfrequency disturbances. This requirement is specially important in underfrequency contingencies, when the outages of wind generators can compromise the correct operation of the load shedding scheme.
27Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Reactive Power Control of Wind FarmsRegarding this technical requirement the DFIG and Full-Converters wind generator technology provides a much higher reactive power generation / absorption capacity than the specified by the Brazilian Grid Code.The extended range that these two technologies allow, can improve voltage control of the system as a whole, enabling a higher penetration degree of wind generation.
28Grid Codes Technical Requirements Improvements Synthetic InertiaAsynchronous machines, such as variable speed wind generators, do not contribute to the inertia of the system (the rotating masses are not electrically connected to the system).This feature is currently under development by many wind generators manufacturers.Particularly in the Northeast sub-system, where it is expected a high penetration degree of wind power in a region with low inertia, this feature may contribute to the security of the system, possibly improving the operation of load shedding scheme.
30ConclusionsThe connection of the large amount of wind generation in the BIPS predicted for this decade in a secure way is possible, since actions are taken from now on by all involved in the process.A detailed review of the Brazilian Grid Code is being carried on in Brazilian System Operator - ONS, to include new technical requirements that the new wind generation technologies allow. The work is being carried by GT Eolica Task Force.The control technologies available in DFIG and Full-Converter wind generators must be explored to its maximum to allow the safe operation of the system with high wind generation penetration degree.The Brazilian Grid Code, as well as the technical requirements for next auctions, must reflect, and take into account, the performance improvement for the network that can be achieved with the use of the new wind generator technologies.
31ConclusionsA careful network expansion planning must be done in a way to allow the safe connection of wind farms in areas of the system with low SCR and inertia. The most appropriate equipment to improve the performance of a system with these characteristics is the synchronous condenser.The improvement in the wind forecast models is mandatory to become wind generation more predictable, and thus become the Power Reserve calculation more precise. This will impact directly in the reduction of operation costs.Improvement in the centralized control wind generators in the wind farms to become the operation of the wind farms from the Control Center more friendly.