Apresentação em tema: "The state of ecosystems in Portugal: Results from the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Henrique Miguel Pereira Centro de Biologia Ambiental Universidade."— Transcrição da apresentação:
The state of ecosystems in Portugal: Results from the Portugal Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Henrique Miguel Pereira Centro de Biologia Ambiental Universidade de Lisboa EEA, Copenhaga, 12 Out 2010
The Portugal Sub-Global Assessment Lead by the Center for Environmental Biology (University of Lisbon) Assessment team composed by 60 scientists from diverse fields: ecology, agricultural science, forest science, economics and social sciences. Designed to answer the information needs of a group of users Governmental agencies Private sector: agriculture and forestry Civil society: environmental NGO
Ecosystems and case studies
How have Portugal´s ecosystems changed? In the last 50 years: The economy increased more than 6 times The number of farmers decreased by 60% and the farmed area decreased by 40% There was forest and agriculture intensification Rivers underwent major changes due to the construction of dams and to water pollution The expansion of invasive species increased in island systems The pressure on coastal systems increased The level of over-fishing and over-hunting was maintained or increased Inland waters Unsuitable areas for farming Unfarmed areas Farmland Forest
What is the condition of biodiversity in Portugal? In mainland there are more than 3000 vascular plant species, about 400 vertebrate species, and an unknown number of invertebrate species In Azores and Madeira there are more than 1700 endemisms 30% of terrestrial vertebrates and 70% of freswhater and migratory fish are threatened Semi-natural forest Scrubland Agriculture and forest plantations
What is the state of ecosystem services? What options are available to address problems? Water provisioning The levels of water provisioning of Portugal´s ecosystems are sufficient to respond to water demand The market value of water supply is 2 billion / year Water cycle and water quality regulation 40% of the suface waters are in a poor or very poor state Response options Greater control of pollution from farming and animal production Restoration of wetlands and other freshwater ecosystems Integrated management of water resources excellentgoodacceptablepoor very poor
What is the state of ecosystem services? What options are available to address problems? Food provisioning The national food production has a 30% deficit relative to internal consumption The agriculture and fisheries sectors represen 3% and 0.3% of the economy Many of the fish stocks are overexploited Opções de resposta Certification and valorization of agricultural products Adoption of more sustainable fish quotas and fishing techniques
Timber and cork provisioning Portugal produces 54% of world´s cork The forest sector accounts for 10% of the national exports and employs 228 000 workers Wildfires, the pine nematode and the decrease of forest product prices are the main problems Carbon sequestration Forest expansion has favoured carbon sequestration Cork-oak forest captures up to 5 t CO2/ha/year and pine forest up to 32 t CO2/ha/year Response options Increase multifunctional oak forests Increase carbon sequestration in agricultural areas What is the state of ecosystem services? What options are available to address problems?
Cultural services The demand for rural and natural areas is growing Willingness to pay of portuguese citizes to protect the landscape and associated bird fauna reaches 446 /ha Hunting tourism generates 21,4 M/ano There is a degradation of the coastal landscape due to urbanistic pressure Response options Payment for ecoystem services to reward good biodiversity managers Limit construction in the coast What is the state of ecosystem services? What options are available to address problems?
What are the possible futures? The problems of the coming decades can only be minimized by a pro-active attituted towards the environment
Assessment team Alexandra Correia (ISA), Alexandra Nogal (IST), Alexandre Correia (ISA), Alfredo Borba (UA), Américo Mendes (UCP), Ana Paulo (ESAS), Ana Moreira (INIA), Ana Correia (FCUL), António Brito (UM), Carlos Aguiar (IPB), Carlos Carmona Belo (INIA), Carlos Teixeira (IST), Cátia Rosas (CONFAGRI), Cibele Queiroz (FCUL), Cristina Marta (IPB), Eduardo Azevedo (Universidade dos Açores), Elvira Pereira (ISCSP), Emiliana Silva (UA), Eugénio Sequeiro (ESUVG), Francisco Andrade (FCUL), Francisco Fonseca (FCUL), Francisco Dinis (UA), Fuensanta Herrero (CUE), Henrique Cabral (FCUL), Henrique Pereira (FCUL), Humberto Martins (UTAD), Inês Gomes (FCUL), Inocêncio Coelho (INIA), Joana Patrício (UC), João Azevedo (IPB), João Carlos Marques (UC), João Neto (UC), João Santos Pereira (ISA), José Borges (ISA), Luis Ribeiro (IST), Luis Vicente (FCUL), Manuela Magalhães (ISA), Margarida Ferreira (FCUL), Margarida Santos-Reis (FCUL), Maria da Luz Mathias (FCUL), Maria de Fátima Borges (IPIMAR), M. Teresa Ferreira (ISA), Marta Silva Pereira (INIA), Miguel Araújo (MNCN), Nuno Onofre (INIA), Nuno Rodrigues (TerraPrima), Oriana Rodrigues (IST), Orlando Rodrigues (IPB), Patrícia Rodrigues (FCUL), Paulo Borges (UA), Ricardo Teixeira (IST), Rosalina Gabriel (UA), Rui Mota (IST), Rui Rebelo (FCUL), Rute Pinto (UC), Tatiana Valada (IST), Tiago Domingos (IST), Vânia Proença (FCUL)