A apresentação está carregando. Por favor, espere

A apresentação está carregando. Por favor, espere

Environmental Health Research L B A Amazonian Environmen t Society The LBA Project, Environmental Health Research and Society.

Apresentações semelhantes


Apresentação em tema: "Environmental Health Research L B A Amazonian Environmen t Society The LBA Project, Environmental Health Research and Society."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Environmental Health Research L B A Amazonian Environmen t Society The LBA Project, Environmental Health Research and Society

2 Determinants of Health and Disease I - Biophysical Factors in the Environment Climate Hydrology Vegetation Topography Animal diversity (vectors and reservoirs II - Social-Economic Conditions Income Education / Information Place of residence Health services III - Human Behaviour

3 Focalização das Endemias Combinação de elementos ambientais (clima, vegetação, relevo) e sociais (demografia, uso da terra), formando paisagens típicas, propícias à transmissão de endemias. Exemplos: Cólera no Rio Negro Febre Amarela Silvestre Doença de Chagas e Esquistossomose na Amazônia Hepatite no Amazonas Calazar em Roraima

4 Fatores Ambientais na Amazônia Clima: Temperatura Precipitação Umidade Relativa Ciclo Hidrológico Cobertura da Terra (Land Cover): Ambiente Construído Vegetação (Tipo, Fenologia, Distribuição Espacial Geomorfologia Fauna (Reservatórios e Vetores)

5 Determinant Factors in Vector–Borne Diseases Survival / Activity / Cycle Biological Susceptibility Exposure to Vector Disease Agent Vector Population Vector Borne Disease Climate / Weather eg. Transportation Genetic Factors Immunization Previous Exposure Human Behaviour Diagnosis Medical Care Reporting Education Type of Ecosystem Natural Predators Control Activities Place of Residence Income Social Development Economy Public Health System eg. migration

6 Conceptual Model for the Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Variability on Infectious Diseases PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS BIOLOGY OF VECTORS AND DISEASE AGENTS Vector control Treatment of cases Precipitation Temperature Runoff Relative humidity Changes in habitats Changes in animal reservoirs Change in microclimates DEMOGRAPHY BEHAVIOUR INCOME MOBILITY CULTURE INFORMATION OCCUPATION INSTITUTIONS DEMOGRAPHY BEHAVIOUR INCOME MOBILITY CULTURE INFORMATION OCCUPATION INSTITUTIONS HUMAN EXPOSURE INFECTIOUS DISEASES CLIMATE VARIABILITY LAND COVER CHANGES LAND USE PRACTICES HYDRO–METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS

7 Interfaces Between Public Health Research and the LBA Project II - Micro-Meteorology Influences of physical factors (temperature, relative humidity, evapotranspiration, radiation, wind) on vector development and survival rate Influences of temperature on the developmental cycle of pathogenic organisms I - Climatology Climate forecasts used for the prediction of outbreaks (eg. Climate-Health Early Warning Systems) Extreme conditions changing human exposure (eg. drought causing human migration)

8 III - Hydrology Formation / destruction of vector habitats (stagnant ponds, streamflow, overland runoff) IV - Land Use and Land Cover Changes Changes in habitats of reservoirs and vectors Proxies for local demographic variations and human exposure V - Atmospheric Chemistry Smoke from forest fires affecting respiratory conditions Atmospheric aerosols affecting mosquito survival (eg. reduction of ultraviolet radiation incidence in breeding sites) Interfaces Between Public Health Research and the LBA Project

9 VECTOR–BORNE DISEASE INCIDENCE eg. malaria VECTOR–BORNE DISEASE INCIDENCE eg. malaria PRECIPITATION ANOMALY VECTOR POPULATION DENSITY CLIMATE SYSTEM VARIABILITY Physical Linkages Possible Associations

10 LIFE–CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITE AND VECTORS LAND USE PRACTICE DEFORESTATION INCREASE IN MALARIA INCIDENCE INCREASE IN MEAN TEMPERATURE Physical Linkages Possible Associations

11 Precipitation Anomaly Deforestation CLIMATE Hydrological Cycle Forest Fires LAND USE PHYSICAL PARAMETERS eg. temperature; humidity VECTOR BIOLOGY eg. reproduction; growth; longevity MALARIA INCIDENCE Demography Behaviour Demography Behaviour

12 FLUTUAÇÕES CLIMÁTICAS Eventos Meteorológicos Extremos Acidentes e Traumas Abundância e Disseminação de Vetores e Patógenos Transmissão de Doenças Infecciosas

13 Precipitation Soil Type Evapotranspiration Infiltration Runoff Stream Flow Depression Storage Vegetation Cover Topography Leaf area index and turnover Interception Temperature Litter fall Through fall Erosivity Overland flow Evaporation Permanent and temporary pools Adults Larvae Hydrological Model and Vector

14 Interactions of Vulnerability Factors and Climates Impacts on a Landscape Setting Landform Vegetation Atmosphere Hydrology Landform Vegetation Atmosphere Hydrology Atmosphere Hydrology Landform Vegetation Atmosphere Hydrology Landform Vegetation Vegetation Landform Hydrology Atmosphere Vegetation Landform Hydrology Atmosphere Population Ecological Services Food Production Social Services Infrastructure & Buildings Infrastructure & Buildings Vulnerability Population Infrastructure Ecosystem Natural Landscape (eg. rainforest) Modified Landscape (eg. agroecosystem) Built (Cultural) Landscape (eg. urban) Vulnerability Climate System Landscape Climate System Landscape

15 REDUÇÃO DA MALÁRIA AUMENTO DA MALÁRIA SURTOS DE PESTE BUBÔNICA SURTOS DE LEPTOSPIROSE LARVAS DE MOSQUITO ARRASTADAS CRIAÇÃO DE MOSQUITOS AUMENTO DA POPULAÇÃO DE ROEDORES RESERVATÓRIOS MÁ DRENAGEM ESCOAMENTO SUPERFICIAL POÇAS DÁGUA AUMENTO DA PRODUTIVIDADE ECOSSISTÊMICA COLETA DE LIXO DEFICIENTE FLORESTA TROPICAL SEMI– ÁRIDO FAVELAS URBANAS Sistema Climático Variáveis Meteorológicas Precipitação

16 ENOS e Malária na Indonésia, 1997 EPIDEMIAS DE MALÁRIA Seca (70% de redução na precipitação) Formação de poças temporárias Aumento da população de Anopheles Redução da produtividade agrícola Escassez de alimentos Má nutrição Redução da imunidade Migração de não–imunes Exposição de hospedeiros vulneráveis ENOS

17 Precipitation (deviation from historical means) and cases of Leptospirosis in the rainy season (Jan/Jun) in the municipality of São Miguel, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil – 1985–1996 Cases of Leptospirosis Precipitation (% Deviation from Means)

18 Malaria Positive Smears for 1000 Population in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazil – 1962–1997 El Niño years

19 Annual Parasite Index for the State of Roraima 1980–1983

20 Annual Parasite Index for the State of Roraima 1984–1987

21 Annual Parasite Index for the State of Roraima 1988–1991

22 Annual Parasite Index for the State of Roraima 1992–1995

23 Annual Parasite Index for the State of Roraima 1996–1998

24 Cases of Malaria in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazil 1995 –1996 – 1997 Cases of Malaria in the State of Roraima, Northern Brazil 1995 –1996 – 1997

25 IPA for Malaria and SOI in Roraima 1980 a 1985

26 IPA for Malaria and SOI in Roraima

27 IPA for Malaria and SOI in Roraima

28 Imported Cases Autochtonous Cases Cases of Malaria in the State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, 1977–1997

29 Impacts of ENSO-Driven Droughts in Rural Landscapes of the Brazilian Northeastern and Amazonian Regions NORTHEASTERN AMAZONIAN Dominant Plant Physiognomy Scrubland Rainforest & savanna Fire Hazard No Yes Water Available Critically decreased Slightly affected Population Density High Low Food Production Extremely reduced Slightly reduced (focally) Transportation Normal Impaired Reactive Human Migration Yes (eg. to the Amazon) No Vector-borne Diseases Plague; dengue fever; leishmaniasis Malaria; arbovirus; leishmaniasis; dengue Other Diseases Diarrheal diseases; malnutrition; cholera; leptospirosis Respiratory ailments; cholera

30 Social Vulnerability to drought in Northeastern Brazil Semi-arid region Subsistence farming Low income No employment No access to climate prediction information No Food Surplus Changes in Epidemiological Profile Crop loss No Governmental Assistance Migration Rural Population Drought No Water Poor Hygiene Increase in infant mortality due to diarrhea Malnutrition of children Spread of visceral leishmaniasis to cities

31 Number of Cases of Visceral Leishmaniases in the State of Maranhão, Brazil – 1982–1996 Number of Cases

32 Number of Cases of Visceral Leishmaniases in the State of Piauí, Brazil – 1980–1996 Number of Cases

33 As far as human infectious diseases are concerned the Amazon functions as a Regional Nosological Unit due to its unique ecological and social characteristics. The cycles of many infectious diseases in Amazonia are closely linked to the structure and functioning of the natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic changes in these systems are causing changes in their disease systems such as the intensification of transmission; geographical expansion; changes in vector populations; emergence of new diseases or extinction. Most anthropogenic interventions that change the disease systems also change the geophysiology of Amazonia. The forecasting of changes in the ecological systems of Amazonia can be useful for making predictions about changes in the regional epidemiological profiles.


Carregar ppt "Environmental Health Research L B A Amazonian Environmen t Society The LBA Project, Environmental Health Research and Society."

Apresentações semelhantes


Anúncios Google