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AGA 0316 Aula 11 Sigam o Carbono -1. RÁPIDO BALANÇO DA MATÉRIA ATÉ AQUI 1)O que é a Astrobiologia? 2)O que é vida? Quaestão Bio 3)O Universo – condições.

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Apresentação em tema: "AGA 0316 Aula 11 Sigam o Carbono -1. RÁPIDO BALANÇO DA MATÉRIA ATÉ AQUI 1)O que é a Astrobiologia? 2)O que é vida? Quaestão Bio 3)O Universo – condições."— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 AGA 0316 Aula 11 Sigam o Carbono -1

2 RÁPIDO BALANÇO DA MATÉRIA ATÉ AQUI 1)O que é a Astrobiologia? 2)O que é vida? Quaestão Bio 3)O Universo – condições Astro 4)Complexidade 5)Complexidade & Princípio Antrópico 6)Evolução da vida na Terra:em 4 milhões de anos, cérebro humano passa de 0,5 a 1,4 kg! 7)O satélite CoRoT: busca por exoplanetas (Brasil) 8)Buscando a vida: a) busque a água! Planetas... 9)b) Busque a água: a atmosfera terrestre 10)c) Busque o carbono + astroquímica-astrobio

3 FOLLOW THE LIFE Follow the water Follow the carbon Follow the nitrogen Follow the energy Follow the entropy Follow the information

4 Universo Orgânico! 0.5 % da matéria bariônica visível está na forma molecular. (Fraser, McCoustra & Willians, 2002, A&G, 43, 2.11). > 150 Moléculas detectadas no espaço (~50% orgânicas: CHON).> 150 Moléculas detectadas no espaço (~50% orgânicas: CHON).

5 Como as biomoléculas são encontradas? Radiotelescopes (rotational lines) IR-Telescopes (vibrational lines) Itapetinga, SP VLA

6 Hale-BoppMurchinson Gaseous Pillars – Eagle Nebula Key hole Nebula Titan Onde são encontradas as biomoléculas?

7 151 interstellar and circumstellar molecules H2H2 CO C6H6C6H6 NH 3

8 Carbon in human body ElementPercent by mass Oxygen65 Carbon18 Hydrogen10 Nitrogen3 Calcium1.5 Phosphorus1.2 Potassium0.2 Sulfur0.2 Chlorine0.2 Sodium0.1 Magnesium0.05 IronIron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, IodineCobaltCopperZincIodine<0.05 each SeleniumSelenium, FluorineFluorine<0.01 each

9 ElementParts per million Hydrogen739,000 Helium240,000 Oxygen10,700 Carbon4,600 Neon1,340 Iron1,090 Nitrogen950 Silicon650 Magnesium580 Sulfur440 All Others650 Carbon in the Universe 2.3


11 Why Carbon? Carbon atom can form up to 4 chemical bonds with many other atoms – can form long and complex molecules Carbon can form compounds that readily dissolve in water.

12 Typically only electrons from the outer shell (valent electrons) engage in chemical bonds Hydrogen Helium Carbon Outer shell/orbits There is an optimal number of electrons per shell. S-shell = 2 electrons P-shell = 8 electrons P-shell S-shell

13 Chemical bonds Covalent Ionic Hydrogen

14 Carbon has 4 valent electrons – can form up to 4 bonds MethaneEthane

15 ethanol diamond ethene benzene fullerene

16 Polymerization A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. Well known examples of polymers include plastics and DNA.molecular massstructural units monomerscovalent chemical bondsplasticsDNA

17 2º TRABALHO DE AGA 0316 Fazer resenha sobre o artigos: Finding a second sample of life on Earth, de Davies & Lineweaver www.astro.iag.usp.br/~janot/

18 Silicon life? Si is abundant and also can form four bonds at once (like C). But! Si bonds are much weaker – complex molecules based on Si will be fragile Si does not form double bonds – less variety

19 Organic and Inorganic Carbon C can be in reduced or oxidized forms. Organic carbonInorganic carbon (reduced) (oxidized) CH 2 OCO 2 carbon dioxide H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid Example:HCO 3 bicarbonate ion Glucose -- C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 3 = carbonate ion

20 Organic carbon (has C-H and C-C bonds) Inorganic carbon (C-O bonds only)

21 http://www.nationalfuelgas.com http://www.upl.cs.wisc.edu/~stroker/jungle.jpg JENNY HAGER/ THE IMAGE WORKS Organic carbon Coal Oil

22 http://www.summerclouds.com/Vero/Sea%20Shells.jpg http://educate.si.edu/lessons/currkits/ocean/ http://www.cmas-md.org/Images/Sanjay/UnivTop4.jpg Inorganic carbon Seashells Coral

23 Four types of organic macromolecules in living systems. Most of the molecules in the living systems are water (H 2 O) and large organic macromolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

24 Carbohydrates (sugars, starches) Representatives: Glucose, Fructose Many hydroxyl groups (-OH) Soluble in water Form Polysaccharides Good energy source Structural support for organisms (cellulose - the main constituent of wood)

25 Glucose Fructose Table sugar

26 Glucose polymerization In starch molecule (potato) there can be 100s thousands of glucose units H2OH2O Linked by dehydration reaction Polysaccharides

27 Lipids (fats and oils) Representatives: fatty acids and cholesterol Poorly soluble Good (concentrated) energy source Flexible (cell membrane material)


29 Proteins Proteios – primary Long trains of amino acids Different proteins have different sequence of amino acids 20 amino acids used in any organism Some provide structure (fingernails, hair) Some serve as catalysts Enzymes – proteins with catalitic properties

30 L-AlanineGlycine Linked by dehydration reaction

31 Catalysts in Chemistry Suppose chemical reaction: A + B AB is a slow reaction The same reaction can be accelerated with catalyst (D): A + D AD fast step B + AD AB + D fast step The net result is still: A + B AB but it is much faster

32 Proteins (continued) Even though there are ~70 amino acids any known life uses only 20 Amino acids derived abiotically are a mix of both left-handed and right-handed ones. Biological amino acids are only left- handed. Chirality Was there a common ancestor for all life?

33 Biology uses only left-handed Alanine

34 Qual a Origem do Carbono?

35 Credit: Y.Pendleton

36 Nebulosas Planetárias O Sol vai morrer assim Estrelas com massas menores que 8 vezes a massa do Sol Núcleo anã branca Camadas exteriores nebulosa planetária C, N Tempos: até varios Ganos Promovem as condições pré-bióticas.


38 Large carbonaceous molecules in space Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000 PAHs ~ 15 % Diamond < 50% ?? Soot


40 Meteorites A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface without being destroyed. Chondrites – 86% (5% Carbonaceous Chondrites) Achondrites – 8% Iron meteorites – 5%

41 Meteorites represent the only extraterrestrial material which can be studied on Earth ! Volatile fraction: Insoluble C-fraction: 60-80 % aromatic carbon highly substituted small aromatic moieties branched by aliphatic chains Murchison (1969, Australia)

42 Abundances of soluble organic compounds in the Murchison meteorite (Botta & Bada 2002, Sephton 2002, 2004) Compound Class Concentration(ppm) Amino AcidsCM17-60 CI~5 Aliphatic hydrocarbons>35 Aromatic hydrocarbons 3.3 Fullerenes> 1 Carboxylic acids> 300 Hydroxycarboxylic acids15 Dicarboxylic acids & Hydroxydicarboxylic acids14 Purines & Pyrimidines1.3 Basic N-heterocycles 7 Amines 8 Amideslinear> 70 cyclic> 2 Alcohols11 Aldehydes & Ketones27 Sulphonic acids68 Phosphonic acids2

43 2º TRABALHO DE AGA 0316 Fazer resenha sobre o artigo: Finding a second sample of life on Earth, de Davies & Lineweaver www.astro.iag.usp.br/~janot/

44 QUESTÕES SOBRE A AULA 11 1) Onde há Carbono no Universo? 2) Porque o C e um elemento-chave para a vida? 3) Dê exemplos de compostos de C que encontramos habitualmente. 4) Porque a quiralidade é um elemento-chave para a descoberta de vida extraterrestre?

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