Apresentação em tema: "Gestão do Ciclo de Vida um Guia de Negócios para a Sustentabilidade Sessão de capacitação 3 de 4 Novembro 2006."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1Gestão do Ciclo de Vida um Guia de Negócios para a Sustentabilidade Sessão de capacitação 3 de 4 Novembro 2006
2Gestão do Ciclo de Vida Treinamento - Sumário Introdução à GCVPrimeira sessãoComo a GCV é usada na PráticaSegunda sessãoComunicando os Resultados da GCVEsta Sessão!GCV e expectativas das Partes InteressadasQuarta Sessão
3 feita Introdução à GCV Primeira sessão Objetivo de aprendizado: Entender as bases teóricas da gestão do ciclo de vida & sua históriaO que é ciclo de vida? Impactos & valores criados ao longo do ciclo de vida de um produto ou serviçoDefiniçõesHistóriaUsoPor que a GCV é necessária nos negócios e no governo?AgentesO que a GCV compreende?Quais os aspectos únicos da GCV?Exercício em grupoIntervalo para caféIntrodução à GCVPrimeira sessãoHere is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the previous session...feita
4 feita Gestão do ciclo de vida Definições e benefícios Objetivo de aprendizado: Entende os aspectos da GCV no desenvolvimento de políticas e nas operações de negócios, por meio de discussões de como integra-los na tomada de decisões e por meio de exemplos de casosGestão do ciclo de vidaDefinições e benefíciosGestão do ciclo de vida envolve…Aprendizado a partir de exemplosUm processo para implementar GCVPlanejar – Fazer – Conferir – AjustarUm enfoque no projetoMais exemplos ilustrativosExercício em grupoIntervalo para almoçoComo GCV é usada na PráticaSessão préviaHere is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the previous session...feita
5Por que comunicar GCV Para quem? Objetivos de aprendizado: fornecer um bom entendimento de estratégias e ferramentas de comunicação. Como e porque elas podem ser úteis aos negócios?Por que comunicar GCV Para quem?Definição e escopo, indutores, público alvo da comunicaçãoCaixa de ferramentas de comunicaçãoPrincipais características e vínculo com GCV Exemplos e difusão de ferramentasEstudos de casoIndutores de setores específicos Estratégias de comunicação Combinação de ferramentasExercício em grupoIntervalo para caféComunicando resultadosEsta sessão!Here is our agenda for this session, and a statement of learning objectives – The session will last no longer than 4 hours
6Por que envolver partes interessadas? Objetivo de aprendizado: entender como identificar stakeholdes, bem como suas prioridades e preocupaçõesPor que envolver partes interessadas?Identificando partes interessadasPartes interessadas potenciaisConsulte a pessoa certaRankingImportância de incluir partes interessadasEvitando riscosCriando oportunidadesExemplo de casoExercício em grupoIntervalo para almoçoGCV e expectativas das partes interessadasQuarta SessãoHere is a preview of the agenda for the fourth, upcoming, session - - to give you an understanding of what we’ll cover next
7Conteúdo Definição, escopo e objetivos da seção Panorama geral da caixa de ferramentas de Comunicação da GCV – Principais características e relação com GCVQuais meios de comunicação são usados na prática? Exemplos e difusãoEstudos de casoRequisitos específicos do setorEmpresas líderes com estratégias de comunicaçãoO que vem depois? Recentes tendências e panoramaThis session has five sections:Definition and scope of communication of LCM, as well as section goals and main research questions are identifiedAn overview of the main communication tools is given. Main features and link with LCM of each communication tool are discussedExamples of communication tools used by business are given. When possible, diffusion of tools reported (e.g. in terms of labelled products, etc.)This section highlights the difference between companies communicating LCM in episodic way and firms making it in a systematic way, with a clear communication strategy and using a combination of toolsFinally, section five identifies the most important recent trends and gives an outlook about possible future LC communication tools
9Definição Definição de “Comunicação” pelo kit de treinamento atual: Qualquer meio de compartilhamento de informação com as partes interessadas, geralmente por meio de processos unilaterais e não-interativos, p. ex. Relatório Corporativo de Sustentabilidade ou Rotulagem ambiental de produtoThis is to clearly define the scope of the present session with respect to the others.While interaction with partes interessadas generally involves an iterative process with incoming and outgoing communication flows, the present session just deals with the communication tools used by companies in a one-way, non-iterative process (e.g. environmental reports, sustainability reports, eco-labels, environmental claims, environmental product declarations, advertising, information brochures, etc.)
10Agentes – Porque comunicar GCV? Demandas do consumidorInformações requeridas por clientes de negócios (ex. na cadeia de suprimentos)Pressões externas pelas partes interessadas da sociedade civil (ex. ONGs)Estimular a atenção de partes interessadas do setor financeiroProgramas de compras verdes pelas administrações públicasRequisitos de tomadores de decisão (ex.: WEEE e RoHS Diretivas Européias)
11Oportunidades / Público alvo Vantagem competitiva em mercados emergentes ou novos mercados verdesConsumidores finaisClientes de negóciosAdministração públicaMelhor imagemConsumidores e clientesPartes interessadas do setor financeiroONGs e sociedade civilLegisladoresRegulações influentes e processos pré-normativos
12Grupo alvo da comunicação partes interessadas externasConsumidores finaisClientes de negóciospartes interessadas do setor financeiroAdministradores públicos e elaboradores de políticasSociedade civil e partes interessadas da sociedadeFornecedorespartes interessadas internasAcionistasFuncionários e gerência
13Objetivos da Seção Oferecer um bom entendimento de: Ferramentas e estratégias de comunicaçãoPor que e como eles podem ser valiosos para os negócios?
14Principais questões/ Tópicos Quais ferramentas de comunicação são usadas na prática pela indústria e nos negócios?Distinguir ferramentas de comunicação vs. partes interessadas almejadasO que é usado para se comunicar com quem?Por que e como a comunicação é valiosa para os negócios?Relevância e difusão das ferramentas de comunicaçãoEstudos de caso de empresas com estratégias de comunicação compreensivasAgentes específicos do setor e necessidades de comunicação
15Panorama das ferramentas de comunicação Principais características e relação com GCV
16Caixa de ferramentas da Comunicação NÍVEL ORGANIZACIONAL (F&O)Relatórios ambientaisRelatórios EHSRelatórios sociaisRelatórios de sustentabilidadeCSR – Responsabilidade socialcorporativaCódigos da EmpresaManuais de CondutaAuditoriasSistemas de avaliação de fornecedoresPRODUTO-RELACIONADAS (P-R)Selos ambientaisDeclarações ambientaisDeclarações ambientais de produtosIndicadores de desempenho ambiental do produtoPerfis do produtoAnálises de ecoeficiênciaEsquemas de informação de Prod.Diretrizes GPPP-RF&OFirst distinction to be made is between communication tools at firm & organization level (F&O) and at product-related level (P-R)The former group includes reporting (environmental, health&safety, social, sustainability, CSR) + company codes and manuals of conduct, communication within audits in environmental management systems, and supplier evaluation systems (e.g. through checklists)The second group includes all Environmental Product Information Schemes (EPIS), as defined by ISO:ISO-type I ecolabelsISO-type II environmental claimsISO-type III environmental product declarationsFurthermore it includes (usually in-house company-specific) other assessment and communication schemes, e.g. Product Environmental Performance indicators, Product profiles, Eco-efficiency analysisFinally, it also included tools usually used to communicate with public administrations according to their requirement, i.e. Product Information Schemes and Green Public Procurement (GPP) guidelinesIn the coming slides, several of these communication tools will be analyzed more in detail, with specific respect to main features and characteristics and their link with LCM.Due to restricted space and time, not all of them can be covered in this presentation.Propagandas, Cadernos informativos & campanhas, websites
17Qual ferramenta para se comunicar com quem? partes interessadas externasConsumidores finaisClientes de negóciospartes interessadas do setor financeiroAdministradores públicos e elaboradores de políticasSociedade civil e partes interessadas da sociedadeFornecedorespartes interessadas internasAcionistasFuncionários e gerênciaP-RIntExtF&OExtIntNot surprisinglyP-R communication tools are mainly used to communicate to clients and final consumers, and to a lesser extent to public administrators and internal partes interessadasOn the contrary, F&O tools reporting about the firm are usually used to interact with the financial sector, with policy makers, NGOs and other society partes interessadas, as well as shareholdersIn the coming slides, several of these communication tools will be analyzed more in detail, with specific respect to main features and characterstics and their link with LCM.Due to restricted space and time, not all of them can be covered in this presentation.
18Reporting - From Environmental Reporting to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Relatório – Do Relatório Ambiental à Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (CSR)F&OGlobal report output by « type » since 1992.This slides shows the evolution of reporting with time, which reflects an increasing attention of companies towards sustainability, i.e. taking into account not only environmental and economic, but also social factors.While before 2000 the main focus was on environmental and health aspects, since then there has been a very significant increase of attention on social matters and ultimately on Corporate Social Responsibility of companies
19Relatório – Conteúdo & GCV F&OMuitas aproximações diferentesDiferentes diretrizes (ex. GRI – Global Reporting Initiative)Classificação difícil, devido aosInstrumentos voluntáriosSetores diferentes e heterogêneos da indústriaPensamento de Ciclo de Vida (PCV) e Gestão de Ciclo de Vida (GCV) não são levados em conta / relatados sempreDespite existing guidelines (e.g. GRI Global Reporting Initiative), there are very different formats and scopes of reports.Life cycle thinking and Life cycle Management are not always taken into account or reported.In the GRI guidelines (2002), there are indirect indicators addressing the life cycle of the product (e.g. with respect to the manufacturing stage and/or the environmental performance of suppliers), but they are not mandatory.Note: GRI guidelines are currently being reviewed (October 2006)
20Códigos de Conduta & Seleção de fornecedores Grupo de requisitos emÉticaSocialSaúde & SegurançaAspectos ambientaisA serem realizados internamente na empresaNormalmente estendido aos fornecedoresBoa ferramenta para interagir com SMEsRelação com a GCV intrínseca emResponsabilidade Social CorporativaResponsabilidade Extendida ao ProdutorEnvolvimento dos FornecedoresUsually codes of conduct and conduct manuals are first used internally in the company.Often their use is extended to suppliers, sometimes in connection with environmental management systems.The use of supplier screening systems is often accompanied with training to suppliers.This approach is very suited to interact with Small Medium Enterprizes (SMEs), which often lack human, economic and time resources to use more structured life cycle communication systems (e.g. ecolabels and/or environmental product declarations, see next slides).Manuals of conduct and supplier screening systems are usually founded on much simpler communication means (e.g. checklists).The link with LCM is intrinsic because the firm expands its area of responsibility (Extended Producer Responsibility and/or Corporate Social Responsibility) and because it involves its suppliers
21Ferramentas de comunicação relacionadas ao produto Grande abrangência de Esquemas de Informação Ambiental de Produto (EPIS)Principal classificação de acordo com a verificação:Verificação de primeira parteVerificação/Certificação de terceira parteCodificação pelas normas ISO 1402xThe actual landscape of existing voluntary Environmental Product Information Schemes (EPIS) is wide, ranging from voluntary seal-of-approval programmes, single-attribute programmes, hazard warning programmes, information disclosure programmes, environmental self-declaration by individual firms or test reporting.They can be classified in First-party and third party labelling programmes. First-party verification is performed by producers on their own behalf, to promote the positive attributes of their products on the market. On the contrary, third-party verification is carried out by an independent source that awards labels to products based on certain environmental criteria or assessment procedures.Source: Frankl et al (2004)
22Esquemas de Informação Ambiental de Produto (EPIS) – Normas de Referência Normas ISO 14020Reivindicações Ambientais e declaraçõesTipo-IISO 14024(1999)Rótulos ambientais(ex. EU-Flower, Blue Engel, White Swan)Tipo-IIISO 14021Auto-declaração ambientalTipo-IIIISO 14025(2006)Declarações ambientais(e.g. EPD®, Eco-leaf)The International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO), through the technical committee (ISO/TC 207), has done much effort to structure environmental labelling schemes. Three types of voluntary labels are distinguished:ISO-type I environmental labels or ecolabelsISO.type II environmental claimsISO-type III environmental declarationsIn the following slides the main feature of each EPIS and its link with LCM is presented
23Selos ambientais ISO-tipo I P-RIndica a preferência ambiental geral de um produto a partir de uma categoria particular do produtoInformação concisa e qualitativaPermite aos consumidores tomarem rápidas decisões de aquisiçãoCaracterísticas/fatores principais:Instrumento voluntárioCritério múltiploAproximação do ciclo de vidaVerificação independente por terceira parte (instituições nacionais)PCV – Pensamento do Ciclo de Vida (mas não necessariamente ACV) explicitamente usados para estabelecer os critérios (indicadores múltiplos)ISO Type I label schemes are “Voluntary, multiple criteria-based third party programmes that awards a licence authorising the use of environmental labels on products. These indicate the overall environmental preferability of a product within a particular product category based on life cycle considerations. These labels provide qualitative environmental information“ (ISO 14024: 1). They are covered by ISO published in April 1999.Life cycle thinking (but not necessarily ACV) is explicitly used to set the criteria, which involve multiple environmental indicators. Involvement of interested parties is required and detailed in the standard. Verification is guaranteed by an independent third-party body.When using ecolabels, the company communicates its involvement in LCM to final consumers, business clients or public administrations: This is intrinsic in the fact that it sells a product, which satisfies certain environmental criterias referring to the product life cycleThe positive feature of Type I environmental labels is that they provide consumers with concise information, which enables them to make quick purchasing decisions.
24Declarações ambientais ISO-tipo II P-RDefinição (ISO 14021): “auto-declarações ambientais feitas por fabricantes, importadores, distribuidores, varejistas, ou quaisquer outros que se beneficiem com tais declarações sem uma certificação independente de terceira parte”Diversas formas de comunicação:Declarações, símbolos ou gráficos em produtos ou rótulos de embalagens, ou na literatura do produto, boletins técnicos, propagandas, publicidade, telemarketing, internetMaior vantagem para empresas: flexibilidadeISO Type II labels are “self-declared environmental claims made by manufacturers, importers, distributors, retailers, or anyone else likely to benefit from such a claim without independent third-party certification“ (ISO 14021: 3). They are covered by ISO published in 1999.The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet.The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered.The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool.However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.Source: Frankl et al (2004)
25Declarações ambientais ISO-tipo II P-RPrincipais características/fatores:Instrumento voluntárioGeralmente critério únicoAuto declaração por primeira parteRelação com ciclo de vida de produto e GCV é implícita, geralmente fracaISO Type II labels are “self-declared environmental claims made by manufacturers, importers, distributors, retailers, or anyone else likely to benefit from such a claim without independent third-party certification“ (ISO 14021: 3). They are covered by ISO published in The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet. The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.Source: Frankl et al (2004)
26Declarações ambientais ISO-tipo III Definição (ISO 14025): “Dados ambientais quantificados para um produto, com parâmetros pré-determinados, baseada na série de padrões da ISO 14040, a qual deve ser suplementada por outras informações qualitativas e quantitativas”Declarações Ambientais de Produtos (EPD)P-RISO Type III declarations are “Quantified environmental data for a product, with pre-determined parameters, based on the ISO series of standards, which may be supplemented by other qualitative and quantitative information” (ISO 14025). They are covered by the standard ISO 14025, published on July, 1st 2006.
27Declarações ISO-tipo III P-RDeclarações Ambientais de Produtos (EPD) – Principais fatores/características:Instrumento voluntárioIndicadores de múltiplos impactos ambientais (da ACV)Inexistência de critérios iniciais / níveis mínimos para serem alcançadosPermite comparações de produtosVerificação por terceira parteRegras de Categorias de Produtos (PCR)Define as regras para o estudo de ACV e formato EPD para categorias específicas de produtosProcesso aberto de consulta à parte interessadaRelação com ciclo de vida de produto é explícita, estritamente baseada no estudo de ACV subjacenteAn ISO-type III environmental declaration is based on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study, carried out in accordance with the ISO series. To be compared with each other, the results of ACV studies must have the same scope, system boundaries, calculation rules and must be presented in the same format.This is ensured in an Environmental Declaration Programme, which provides both general and product category-specific prescriptions for data collection, handling and calculation rules.The latter are contained in the product category rules (PCR) i.e., a set of specific rules, requirements, and guidelines for developing Type III environmental declarations for one or more product categories. PCR are approved in a multi-Partes Interessadasopen consultation process. Information contained in the declaration gives no criteria for assessment, preference or minimum levels to be met, but the customer can compare products by comparing the quantified results presented in the corresponding type III declarationsThe relationship with the product life cycle is explicit, strictly based on the underlying ACV study. The company is involved in LCM through the fact that it has carried out an ACV study on its product according to certain rules (EPD programme + PCR) and communicates it to its customers (usually business clients)
28Caixa de ferramentas de comunicação e GCV Slide summarising the different communication tools and their link with LCM.
29Quais ferramentas de comunicação são usadas na prática pela indústria e pelo negócio? Exemplos e difusãoWhile there is a wide set of available life cycle communication tools available, which ones are used by industry and business in practice?What is the actual diffusion of these tools on the market?
30Qual ferramenta para comunicar com quem? P-RIntExtpartes interessadas externasConsumidores finaisClientes de negóciospartes interessadas do setor financeiroAdministradores públicos eelaboradores de políticasSociedade civil e partes interessadasda sociedadeFornecedorespartes interessadas internasAcionistasFuncionários e gerênciaF&OExtIntThis slide is just to remind us of the different tools used to communicated to different groups
31Importância e impactos da comunicação É muito difícil medir impactos de comunicações GCVImpactos diretos (ex. aumentar a fatia do mercado)Impactos indiretos (imagem, outros fatores, etc.)Um indicador indireto da importância das diferentes ferramentas de comunicação é o grau de sua difusão, ex.Número de produtos rotuladosQuantia de vendasThe importance and impact of LCM communication (in general and of EPIS in particular) on the market depends on several factors, and it is very difficult to assess.The US EPA (1994) introduces five indicators for measuring the effectiveness of EPIS:The consumer’s awareness of eco-labelsConsumer’s trust in labels (in relation to the credibility of the label and customer’s understanding of the label)Changes in consumer behaviourChanges in the manufacturers’ behaviourImprovements in environmental quality.Measuring the impact of other LCM communication tools (e.g. firm-organization related reporting) is even more complicated.Such an assessment is out of the scope of the present work and presentation.However, an indirect indicator for the importance of the different communication tools is the degree of its diffusion, e.g.- Number of labelled products- Amount of sales
32Tendências observadas Selos ISO-tipo I são ainda a ferramenta de comunicação mais amplamente usada para consumidores finaisNo entanto, importantes limitações de selos ambientais outras ferramentas de comunicação estão aumentando sua atenção e gerando o uso de produtos melhoresSimplificação de informações complexas de ciclo de vida nas Declarações ISO-tipo II, no entanto há alguns problemas de credibilidadeDeclarações ISO-tipo III for B2B (negócio para negócio) – aumentando, mas ainda com difusão limitadaCombinação de ferramentas e relatório para várias partes interessadasISO-type I labels are still the EPI tools most widely used by industry and business for their communication to consumers in several countries. As far as these specific communication tool are concerned, an indirect measure of their effectiveness can be provided, in terms of:·The number of product groups for which award criteria have been developed·The number of awarded products and firms participating to the scheme, reflecting the adoption by industry and the behaviour (change) of producers·The market sales and shares of eco-labelled goods and services, which are meant to reflect the actual change in behaviour of consumers.However, ISO-type I labels have a set of important limitations. Therefore industry has been devoloping and using also other tools to increase the awareness of life cycle environmental impacts of products among consumers and to encourage the latter to be more closely involved in reducing impact via better use of the product. Communication materials include information on pack, in product catalogs and/or advertising campaigns via internet, media and information brochures.Another trend observed (e.g. in Japan) is the simplification of complex life cycle information into ISO-type II labels, through which the consumers can understand more easily how products are improved in a life cycle perspective. This kind of information is spread out via the web, product catalogues and environmental and sustainability reports.As for business-to-business communication, the use of ISO-type III environmental declarations has been significantly increasing, especially in Sweden and Japan. Moreover, a number of initiatives have been taken in several industry sectors (e.g. in the electronics and car sectors) at international level to standardise the format of life cycle information data gathered from suppliers.Other initiatives aiming to standardise the format of EPI to other partes interessadas in the supply chain, i.e. retailers, distributors and recyclers, are also being developed, e.g. in the white good sector.Product life cycle information is also increasingly being included in environmental and sustainability reports. The latter are meant as important communication tools for a variety of both private (e.g. financial) and public partes interessadas.Finally, it is worth highlighting that industry and business have been increasingly using a combination of tools for communication with partes interessadas. For instance, in Japan, some companies carry out ISO-type III declarations on their products but at the same time use simplified communication to consumers. Moreover, a set of different tools is used for communication to public administrations for green public procurement (GPP).Source: Frankl et al (2004)
33Exemplos e difusão de ferramentas de comunicação em função do grupo alvo Comunicação para:Consumidores finaisClientes de negóciosAdministradores públicosVárias partes interessadasFornecedoresComunicação interna
34I.1 – Consumidores finais - Selos ISO-tipo I Difusão dos selos ISO-tipo I como de Outubro de 2006Country (Status)Year ofestablishmentProduct groupsFirmsProductsJapan (October 2006)19894721075152South Korea (June 2006)19927 (groups) 103 (categories)10014100Germany (State July 2006)1978895293,650Nordic Countries (2006)61680n.a.EU (October 2005)24309The Netherlands (Milieukeur,October 2006)69257360Catalonia (DGQA)199426171895Austria199149France19Spain (AENOR)1152275Sweden (Falcon) (October 06)China (2005)199356India (October 2006)16n.aBrazil (ABNT–QualidadeAmbiental)10 (under development)The table summarises the indicator numbers of product groups, participating firms and awarded products for the main existing ISO-type I labelling schemes in different countries.As shown, the two Asian countries Japan and Korea have the largest number of ecolabelled products, followed by Germany and the Nordic Swan in the Scandinavian Countries.The European ecolabel EU-Flower has much lower diffusion and a limited set of product groups, but is rapidly increasing (see next slide)Important ISO-type I ecolabeling systems do exist also in emerging countries like China, India and BrazilFonte: Frankl et al (2006)
35I.1 – Consumidores finais - Selos ISO-tipo I Exemplo de difusão: Evolução das vendas de Produtos rotulados com o EU-FlowerExample of diffusion via the indicator of salesFonte:
36I.2 - Consumidores finais – Selos “ISO-tipo I like” Selos e declarações “ISO-type I like”, ex.FSC – Forest Stewardship Council4945 certificados Chain of Custody em 73 paises como em Set. de 2006854 certificados Forest management/COC em 74 paisesPEFC – Pan European Forest CertificationBlue FlagEco-Tex standardMilhares de concessõesOther relevant EPI schemes are not covered by the ISO standards. They include product certifications, like the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the Oeko-tex Standard 100, etc. They usually refer to one product group only. Because they are based on some major elements of the ISO type I standard (i.e. third-party verification, multi-criteria based, and partly open Partes Interessadasparticipation), some authors classify them as “ISO-type I like” labels in literature, as opposed to “classical” ISO-type I labels like the EU-Flower, the Blue Angel in Germany and the White Swan in the Nordic countries (Rubik & Frankl 2005).Example: The Forest Stewardship Council is an international non-profit organisation founded in 1993 to support environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of the world's forests. It is an association of Members consisting of a diverse group of representatives from environmental and social groups, the timber trade and the forestry profession, indigenous people's organisations, community forestry groups and forest product certification organisations.Diffusion is relevant (e.g. thousands of FSC or Eco-Tex certificates), but of course restricted to a specific sector
37I.3 – Consumidores finais – Declarações ISO-tipo II Exemplos:UKCRA The United Kingdom Cartridge Recyclers Association (UK)NAPM The National Association of Paper Merchants (UK)Ecological Woodparticle board (Italy)DIGODREAM- 100% recyclable textile floor covering (Italy)The easiest way for companies to communicate about the environemantal performance of their products is by using ISO-type II self-declared environmental claims.As mentioned, The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet. The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.
38I.3 – Consumidores finais – Declarações ISO-tipo II A large variety of statements and symbols, sometimes causing confusion in consumers and/or clients
39I.4 – Consumidores finais – Propagandas Exemplo: Fujitsu desenvolveu declarações ISO-tipo III e anúncios em jornaisIn Japan, several companies involved in the EcoLeaf ISO-type III declaration system also seek strategic ways to make the most out of their life cycle information made available to partes interessadas.As a matter of fact, while life cycle information is being gradually more developed in industry, the concept of “life cycle thinking” itself has not yet been much acknowledged by purchasers and consumers. Previously, product-related life cycle information was usually to be provided through environmental reporting. However, environmental reportis tends to be read only by environmental conscious partes interessadas. Therefore, recently, Japanese companies carrying out Type III declarations have also begun to address various kinds of Partes Interessadastarget groups through a variety of communication tools. As a consequence, life cycle information has been emerging in advertisements, sales and marketing communication.For instance, Fujitsu is one of the companies which are eager to promote life cycle information, which has issued more than 10 Eco-Leaf declarations for their note-book personal computers. Recently, the firm began to feel the necessity of communicating the idea of life cycle perspective as well as providing life cycle data. As a result, life cycle information was explained in newspapers advertising (see box) and included in marketing promotion kits (see section 4.3). Fujitsu believe information should be disclosed to promote environmental friendly products and eagerly pursues environmental information disclosure.Another example is Toyota, which has included the life cycle information gathered through its in-house developed system ECO-VAS in the product catalogues of two models, i.e. the Premio and Allion. ACV information is expected to be disclosed in all product catalogues in the future.Source: Frankl et al (2004)
40I.5 – Consumidores finais – Campanhas de informação Exemplo: Campanha AISE Washright gerou melhor uso de detergentesAs mentioned, several companies in different industry sectors are concerned by the fact that ISO-type I labels mostly focus on the production phase and not the whole product life cycle. This is particularly important for all those products for which the use phase is the source of the largest impacts over the life cycle. As a response to this issue, some industries have carried out information campaigns with the aim of increasing consumer awareness and providing guidance for the best use of products.For instance the case of campaign Washright carried out by the European Soaps and Detergents Industry Association( AISE) within its Code of Good Environmental Practice. The latter was the industry’s response to the European Commission’s Fifth Environmental Action Programme. It aimed to reduce the environmental load created by the manufacture and use of household laundry detergents. A Voluntary Agreement with measurable targets on detergent consumption, packaging consumption, use of poorly biodegradable organic substances and energy consumption in use was concluded with the European Commission in 1998 and resulted in an EU Recommendation 98/480/EC. It was implemented in the then 15 members of the EU plus Switzerland, Norway and Iceland. The commitments and targets in the Code were based on risk assessment and life cycle analysis which indicate that most of the environmental impact occurs in home during consumer use. A data collection system was organised with independent consultants and auditors to allow reporting on progress at both national and European level. All together more than 180 companies representing more than 90% of the total market participated. The companies committing to the code undertook to continue environmental progress when formulating products and packaging for household laundry detergents and to encourage consumers to be more closely involved in reducing impact via better use of the product.
41II.1 – Clientes de negócios Declarações ISO-tipo III Programas Nacionais de EPD (Declarações Ambientais de Produtos)Suécia (107 declarações até out. de 2006; participação de companhias vários paises)Japão (210 declarações até out. de 2006)Coréia do Sul (96 EDP até out. de 2006)Noruega (96 declarações)Programas de EPD de setores específicos EPDParticularmente na construção e consolidação do setorSetor ITSetor automotivoSeveral national EPD programmes + many sector-specific programmes (in particular in the building & construction sector)EPD are a more recent communication tool, and their diffusion and adoption is fairly limited in absolute numbers.As of October 2006, in total 107 EPDs are reported in the official website of the Swedish EPD® system, 94 of which are certified. Additional 23 declarations are registered in the programs “On the way to EPD” and “Stepwise EPDs” (http://extra.ivf.se/StepwiseEPD/default.asp). Not only Swedish companies participate in the system. Italian, Japanese, Korean, Belgian, Polish, Czech, Russian, Portuguese, Lithuanian and Latvian EPDs have been also registered in the Swedish system.Table 4 shows the number of EPDs registered under the Swedish system per country of provenance. As shown, a significant number of Italian companies are participating in the system. This is the consequence of the Italian-Swedish LIFE project INTEND. Also some Japanese companies have issued EPDs certified under the Swedish system, further showing the increasing international dimension of the latter. EPDs in the Swedish system cover a wide set of products and services, ranging from consumable products like washing machines to the electricity produced by a nuclear power plant.  The number of companies belonging to the same corporate group are aggregatedIn Japan, JEMAI launched the “EcoLeaf Type III environmental labelling program” in the1st half of As of summer 2003, the Japanese system overcame the number of 50 EPDs, which shows a very good reaction of the market. As of October 2006, the number of EcoLeaf declarations has further grown up to more than 200, with 40 companies involvedA key feature of the Japanese ISO-type III declaration system is that, unlike other countries’ Type III programmes, several companies have issued declarations within the same product category. This allows for a real comparison of products of different companies by clients and customers.This is also facilitated by the existence of a common national reference ACV database.Though the absolute number of products is still limited, companies perceive that (ISO-type II) environmental claims without proof are just self-declaration with limited credibility and recognize on the contrary that certified ISO-type III declarations are a valuable tool to compete on the market with respect to environmental performance of products.The Korean EDP - Environmental Declaration of Products Program (http://www.koeco.or.kr) was established by the Korean Eco-products Institute (KOECO), the Environmental Management Corporation (EMC) and the Korean Environmental Preservation Association (KEPA). The system is supported by Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE)The focus of the system is in EEE (electric and electronic equipment). Up to now (October 2006) 96 EDPs are registered within 24 product groupsThe Norwegian EPD program (http://www.epd-norge.no) was founded in 2000 by NHO - Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise and is supported by Byggforsk, NTNU and Østfoldforskning. The focus of the program is on furniture, building, energy and paper products. 8 PCRs have been developed, 2 for construction products. 96 EPD are registered, most of them for furniture, 28 EPDs are registered for construction productsSource: Frankl et al (2006)
42II.1 – Clientes de negócios Declarações ISO-tipo III Exemplos: Eco-leaf japonesa e AUB EPD alemãSeveral national EPD programmes + many sector-specific programmes (in particular in the building & construction sector)This is just to give an example of how an EPD looks like
43II.2 – Clientes de negócios Relatórios de marketing e sustentabilidade Exemplo de marketing de Eco-leaf no exemplo de emissões de CO2 na FujitsuIn Japanese companies, sales and marketing departments increasingly make use of life cycle information. For example, at Fujitsu Co. the environmental department and sales & marketing department work together successfully in order life cycle information to be understood and accepted by consumers. Fujitsu, which emphasizes “environmental friendly consciousness” as their product competitiveness, calls attention of its clients by using life-cycle environmental information both in its sustainability report and in its product promotion kits. During sales promotion, EcoLeaf is used as one of persuasive tools to prove the sincere attitude of the company. Type III declarations prove its activities of evaluating eco-design and recycling. Promotion staffs favor life cycle information because it can provide quantitative data steadily. Though clear outcomes of using Eco-Leaf have not been yet identified, client’s response seems fairly goodSource: Frankl et al (2004)
44II.4 – Clientes de negócios Ecoeficiencia + ISO-tipo II Example: BASFAnálise de Eco-efficiência combinada com declaração ISO-tipo II “incrementada” (revisão crítica por terceira parte)A relevant example of the use of “improved” ISO-type II environmental claims is provided by BASF. The latter has developed a new label for products that have been evaluated through an Eco-Efficiency Analysis. The awarding of the label is dependent on specific requirements. For example, a third party evaluation (critical review) of the eco-efficiency analysis is requested. In addition, the results of the analysis have to be published on the Internet. The label is allowed for three years. After that period, a revision of the analysis is required in order to cover market developments and product diversity.More specifically, the procedure for the awarding of the label is based on the following steps:Accomplished Eco-Efficiency Analysis according to the methodology certified by TÜV Rheinland/ Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany.Verification of the investigated product to be more eco-efficient for the defined customer benefit than other alternatives as result of the analysis.Presentation of a third party evaluation (so-called Critical Review according ISO ff.).Publication of the results via internet on website which is referred to on the label.5. Payment of the licence fee for the duration of three yearsThe following products have been granted the label so far:Styrodur in Pitched Roof Insulation above Rafter (Northern Italy)Inosoly 400 Fotopur® - Electronic Chemicals - Systems®Acid quench with the ionic liquid BASIL®Astaxanthin for Salmon ProductionPropylene Carbonate as Solvent in Wire CoaringsIbuprofen ProductionAutomotive Refinish Primers for Small Surface Damage RepairInjection Moulding with Ultradur® High SpeedThe eco-label system developed by BASF can actually be considered an “ISO-type II and a half” tool, since it requires a third party verification according to pre-determined standards, and a quite detailed and complete declaration. As an example, the one issued for roof insulating materials is a document of 30 pages.(source:
45II.5 – Todos os clientes Propagandas (ISO-tipo II) Exemplo: DOW BUILDING MATERIALSDeclaração QualitativaVisualAuto-declaraçãoII.5 - All clients –dddA US survey shows that many building products firms are attempting to communicate environmental messages in national campaigns in the US (specialized magazines). Approximately 10% of ads contain an environmental message; probably a bigger number in media targeting architects more directly. However, very little quantitative and/or disaggregated information communicated. Information is predominately presented in the form of qualitative self-claims.Information usually refers to a single aspect (e.g. energy saving) and no life cycle information in a strict sense is presented in the advertisements. Third-party certifications are being integrated into ads, but still in minor ways. On the contrary, there is a fairly significant sophistication with regards to mode of execution (visual, lexical, etc.).Source: Smith (2005)[Fonte: T.Smith 2005]
46III.1 Administradores Publicos Diretrizes GPP Diretrizes de compras verdes na DinamarcaAtualmente 50 grupos de produtosDiretriz: documento tipicamente com 4 páginasChecklist para maior profundidadeOf course, in order to implement GPP, public authorities do need proper information on products. Therefore, the Danish EPA has provided the purchasers with environmental purchasing guidelines based on life cycle thinking from the last many years. As of the end of 2004 guidelines for about 50 product groups are available and they are currently being updated. All guidelines and background documents are available for free (in Danish) on the Internet for both public and private purchasers.A guideline is typically a 4-page document, but for those who do not want to go into more specific requirements a simple checklist is included. For each of these guidelines, however, there is also a background report describing the life cycle of the product going into more detail.All guidelines and background documents are available for free (in Danish) at the Internet, which means that both public and private purchasers can use them to set up life cycle requirements to their suppliers in an easy way.Source: Frankl et al (2004)
47III.2 Administrações Públicas Combinações das ferramentas Combinação de ferramentas usadas por empresas japonesas para oferecer informações de ciclo de vida às partes interessadas públicas para compras verdesA variety of communication tools are used by industry and business to inform public administrators who are responsible for green public procurement. The Table summarises the different EPI tools used to communicate to different local administration authorities in Japan[Fonte: Resource: Japanese Ministry of Environment, 2003 Report of Green procurement]
48IV.1 Várias partes interessadas Relatório de sustentabilidade IV.1 Various partes interessadas Sustainability reportingCustos evitados de CV na Johnson&JohnsonJohnson & Johnson tracks the life cycle costs avoided as a result of projects implemented by facilities to meet the Next Generation Goals. Total life cycle costs include the costs of purchasing, transporting, storing, treating and disposing of materials. By tracking both annual cost reductions and cumulative savings from prior years, Johnson & Johnson has built a strong business case for its environmental goals and programs.[Fonte: J&J sustainability report 2003]
49IV.1 Várias partes interessadas Relatório de sustentabilidade Henkel: 1992 primeiro Relatório Ambiental corporativo Desde 2000 Relatório de SustentabilidadeProcter&Gamble: 1993 primeiro Relatório Ambiental corporativo Desde 1999 Relatório de SustentabilidadeUnilever: 2000 primeiro Relatório Ambiental corporativo Desde 2001 Relatório Ambiental + Relatório SocialJohnson&Johnson: Desde 2000 Relatório de Sustentabilidade corporativoLife cycle information is increasingly being included in environmental and/or sustainability reports. These are communication documents meant for precise private and/or public partes interessadas, which are issued by several global players around the world. For instance, in the packaging and chemical sectors, world leader companies Henkel, Johnson&Johnson, Procter&Gamble and Unilever all report ACV activities or other life cycle information in their sustainability reports.
50IV.1 Relatórios de sustentabilida e Informações de ciclo de vida ASPECTOSReported instrumentsHenkelJ&JP&GUnileverQualidadeISO9000N.a.AmbienteISO14000Since 2003 all business unitsN.d.Since 2003 for all main sitesEMAS-LCAResponsabilelidade SocialSA8000On-goingOHSAS180117 plantsSustentabilidadeGRI Guidelines (in accordance)NoDJSI (Eco-rating)OutrosUse of renewable energy sourcesReported aspects and instruments in sustainability reports of four leading global companies in the health&care sectorAll four global companies report about their ACV activities in their sustainability reports[Fonte: Menichetti, in Largo Consumo 1/2004]
51IV.1 - Relatório – Difusão por países Life cycle information is increasingly being included in environmental and/or sustainability reports. These are communication documents meant for precise private and/or public partes interessadas. Apart from the already mentioned Japanese examples of Fujitsu and Panasonic, there are several other global players doing so. For instance, in the packaging and chemical sectors, world leader companies Henkel, Johnson&Johnson, Procter&Gamble and Unilever all report ACV activities or other life cycle information in their sustainability reports. For instance the P&G sustainability report 2004 mentions the development and use of state-of-the-art science and product ACV for the assessment of P&G environmental technology and monitoring progress towards environmental goals. The report also describes the company’s forest resource policy, including the purchase only from suppliers who demonstrate (e.g. by third-party certification) forestry practices and sourcing commitments consistent with the principles of sustainable forestry.Another example is given by Johnson & Johnson, which reports on the life cycle approach taken to evaluate environmental issues associated with their products [source: J&J sustainability report 2002]. In the 2003 report, the company shows a strong business case, by indicating the life cycle costs avoided taking into account the savings associated with avoided purchasing, transporting, storing, treating and disposing of materials. For 2003, total cost savings from avoidance and cost reduction projects exceeded $155 million. Moreover, in another report “Healthy People, Healthy Planet”, the company describes in a detailed manner the used tool of Design for Environment (DfE) based on a life cycle approach and ACV [source: Healthy People, Healthy Planet Explorer, Issue two, August 2002]. Although the report is primarily meant to be published by J&J Worldwide Environmental Affairs for the employees, it is fully available for other partes interessadas on the corporate website.There are thousands of reports worldwide. However it is not known how many of them report LCM results.
52V.I – Fornecedores – Códigos de conduta Exemplo: LEGOCódigos de conduta introduzidos em 1997ÉticaSocialAmbientalSaúde e segurançaRequisitos internos + estendidos a 200 fornecedoresAuditoria de fornecedores por auditores independentesThe Danish-based company LEGO is the sixth-largest manufactures of toys with production in several countries. It has an annual revenue of about 1 billion € and more than 5000 employees around the world.In 2003 LEGO joined as the first play material manufacturer the UN Global Compact Initiative and its principles.As early as 1997 LEGO introduced a set of guidelines – a Code of Conduct – outlining what ethical, social and environment, health and safety requirements it expected of itself and of its about 200 supplier companies at that time. This code covers:Child labourCoercion and disciplinary practicesCompensation and working hoursDiscriminationForced and compulsory labourFreedom of associationHealth and safetyEnvironmentThe suppliers are audited by independent auditors.Source: A.A. Jensen (2006)
53V.II - Fornecedores – Sistemas de Classificação Exemplo: INMINSUR, PeruISO no principal sítio de mineração AntapiteAplicação estendida de EMS para fornecedores (10)Aplicação estendida para cobrir aspectos de saúde e segurança“Política de avaliação de fornecedores”:Obediência à leiAtenção à Saúde&Segurança de funcionários e subcontratadosImpactos positivos na vizinhançaMitigar a poluição nos cursos d’águaInversiones Mineras del Sur S.A. (INMINSUR) is one of Compañia de Minas Buenaventura S.A.A.’s ten subsidiaries.The later is a Peruvian mining company that ranks among the top 10 gold producers worldwide. INMINSUR extractsgold from its mine called Antapite, located in the southern Andes of Peru, in the poorest region of Peru with 95.4%of its population under the “poverty line”. Antapite provides work to more than 1,200 people; where 85.2% of themcomes from 10 supplier companies. Antapite has a certi.ed environmental management acc. to ISO 14001, whichhas extended its application to also cover health and security aspects and its scope to also cover Antapite’s suppliers.The suppliers provide services previous to the extraction stage as shown in the .gure below.Antapite has supported the implementation of EMSs by its 10 suppliers and furthermore Antapite has a “supplierassessment policy”, which requires compliance with at least the following criteria: Compliance with the law, attentionto health and security aspects of employees or sub-contractors, positive impacts on the neighborhood, and minimumpollution of water courses. The implementation of an extended EMS in Antapite (INMINSUR) and its 10 suppliers, harlead to the following results along the Life Cycle:• less utilization and consumption of: explosives (then less air and dust emissions), water, and consumption andfuel for the workers transportation (then less air emissions and waiting times)• less generation of construction wastes (e.g. rests of cement)• non use of toxics in the exploration phase.• controlled disposal of sludge from exploration processes• less number of accidents in the mine siteSource:Cia de Minas Buenaventura (2006)
54VI.1 – Comunicação Interna Matriz GCV na 3M Brasil GCV é uma parte formal do processo de introdução mundial de um novo produto 3MEquipes multisetoriais, de lançamento de novos produtos usam a matriz GCV para uma avaliação holística e sistemáticaAnálise de matriz GCV aplicada à 3M Brasil em um produto adesivoComo conseqüência da análise da matriz GCV, foram identificadas oportunidades para as fases do processo, estágio de uso e estágio de disposição levando em consideração a mudança de forma dos adesivos e dos pellets[For more information see case study in section II)Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a formal part of 3M's new product introduction process worldwide. Cross-functional, new product introduction teams use a LCM matrix to systematically and holistically address the environmental, health and safety opportunities and issues from each stage of their product's life.The Adhesive HOT MELT BR-7065A is manufactured at 3M Brazil for the local market. It is mainly used to close cardboard boxes, and it is applied using an electrical melting pot. As a consequence of LCM matrix analysis, opportunities were identified for process stage, use stage and disposal stage taking into consideration the changing from sticks shape to pellets shape.According to technical service representative there were complains about long time of product melting, product loses in the wall of the equipment (residuals in the melting pot) and skin burning due to adhesive splashing during sticks melting pot loading.In order to save energy (melting time), to minimize risk of burning and product losses, a new shape for the product was proposed: in pellets.The process line was optimized and instead long cooling water hopper the matrix of the extruder is cooled. This changing is also a benefit in terms of maintenance and cleaning.The adhesive product was analyzed and classified according local normative (NBR10004 – Solid Waste Classification) as no dangerous and inert for waste disposals after use.Source: Lienne Pires – 3M Brazil[Fonte: Lienne Pires – 3M Brazil]
55VI.2 – Comunicação Interna Modelo - STEP® da Hartmann Modelo - STEP® (Ferramenta Sistemática para Progresso Ambiental) desde 1997Integra impactos ambientais com avaliações de saúde, segurança, e relações sociais no ciclo de vida de produto.Departamento de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Hartmann Corporate Headquarter na Dinamarca é responsável pelas diretrizes dos sítios de produçãoFerramenta simples para não-expertsDesenvolvida e organizada pela organização integração progressiva na tomada de decisão diáriaHartmann has been a front-runner of Life Cycle Management (LCM) since 1997, where theSTEP®-model (Systematic Tool for Environmental Progress) was introduced. The LCM approach at Hartmann integrates environmental impacts with assessments of health, safety and social relations into the product life cycle (product profile).By implementation of LCM and carrying out of life cycle assessment (LCA) for major products, Hartmann has achieved a sufficient overview of environmental aspects of its major products, processes, operations, and other activities throughout the life cycle. This information is used to support all relevant business decisions - from strategic planning, product development, purchase and production to distribution and sales.The responsibility for progress towards sustainability is placed at the specific production sites but the Department for Sustainable Development at Hartmann Corporate Headquarter in Denmark is responsible for guiding the production sites. This Department is continuously using STEP in order to maintain an overview of company performance and potentials for improvements. Simple tools for non-experts in regards to sustainable development have been developed and implemented throughout the organization; thus environmental and social consideration is gradually integrated in the everyday decision-making. In 2006, Hartmann will introduce a new internet-based supplier assessment concept, which includes the social dimension of sustainability.Source: A.A. Jensen (2006)[Fonte: A.A.Jensen 2006]
56VI.3 – Comunicação Interna KEPIs na Nokia Indicadores chave de Desempenho Ambiental (KEPIs)Baseados nos resultados da ACV de um projeto KEPI pela Motorola, Nokia, Panasonic e PhilipsMétodo reduz significantemente a confiança nacadeia de suprimentos para dados em fluxos de materialIdentifica componentes e materiais que contam paraa maioria dos impactos ambientais do ciclo de vidaCanais de comunicação interna com funcionários:IntranetDois eventos globais anuaisRevistas globais in-house, revista eletrônica ambiental global, folhetos informativos mensais e várias outras publicações internasNokia has been involved with ACVs and developing them since mid 1990s. This firm uses ACVs as a strategic tool to assess the environmental impacts of its products and conducts periodic ACVs whenever there is a major technology shift like from 2G mobile phones to 3G mobile phones. This organization also has an IPP (Integrated Product Policy) approach to “reduce the environment impacts from products through their life-cycle, harnessing, where possible, a market-driven approach, within which competitiveness concerns are integrated”. The company is working on developing suitable methods for environmental assessments of electronic products, an example of this being the Key Environmental Performance Indicators (KEPIs). KEPI consists of a small number of product environmental performance indicators validated as representative of the most important environmental impacts of an electronic product life cycle, and may provide a good and simple assessment tool for use in electronics industry. Nokia also applied other tools such as the Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) and MIPS (Material Input per Service Unit). Nokia does not consider that EFA and MIPS deliver useful measures for the mobile phone industry; therefore, this firm is trying to develop MIPS into a new method called ImPACT that is more relevant to product development cycles of mobile phones.Source: Nokia, Integrated Product Policy Pilot Project – Stage 1 Final Report: Life Cycle Environmental Issues of Mobile Phones, Finland, April 2005.[Fonte: Nokia, Integrated Product Policy Pilot Project – Stage 1 Final Report: Life Cycle Environmental Issues of Mobile Phones, Finland, April 2005]
57Considerações Sumárias Selos ambientais ISO-tipo IMais adequado para comunicação com consumidores, permite decisões rápidas, milhares de produtos classificadosPrós: Credibilidade (critério, envolvimento das partes Interessadas, verificação por terceira parte)Contras: Diversas limitações (modelo top-down, número limitado de grupos de produtos, formato nem sempre apropriado, burocracia)Selos similares ao ISO-tipo IBem adequado para comunicação com consumidores, pertmite decisões rápidas, milhares de produtos classificadosPrós: Credibilidade (critério, verificação por terceira parte)Contras: restrito a setores específicos (ex. madeira, tecido)Declaração ambiental ISO-tipo IIBem adequado para comunicação com consumidores, milhares de declaraçõesPrós: Flexibilidade (modelo bottom-up)Contras: credibilidade limitada, freqüentemente ciclo de vida não integral, somente um parâmetro ambientalSome summarising considerations about the presented tools:The positive feature of Type I environmental labels is that they provide consumers with concise information, which enables them to make quick purchasing decisions.Among the drawbacks of ISO-type I labels, the following ones are often mentioned, which limit the effective use for marketing purposes:· Not all product groups are covered by the label· The hurdle evaluation principle does not allow for competition within labelled products and does not award environmental excellence· Criteria removal is too slow and not compatible with product innovation cycles at industry level· In many cases, criteria focus mostly on the production phase and do not actually cover the whole life cycle· Format is not appropriate for all product groups· Criteria are sometimes too strictThese and other drawbacks are reflected in a large set of zero-product groupsISO-type I-like labels are product certifications, like the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the Oeko-tex Standard 100, etc. They usually refer to one product group only. Because they are based on some major elements of the ISO type I standard (i.e. third-party verification, multi-criteria based, and partly open Partes Interessadasparticipation), some authors classify them as “ISO-type I like” labels in literature, as opposed to “classical” ISO-type I labels like the EU-Flower, the Blue Angel in Germany and the White Swan in the Nordic countries (Rubik & Frankl 2005).They have a similar credibility of ISO-type I ecolabels, but they are of course restricted to one sector only.The relationship with the product life cycle of ISO-type II environmental claims is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered.The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains (depends very much on the company and brand). Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.
58Considerações Sumárias – (cont.) Declarações ambientais ISO-tipo IIIMais adequado para comunicação B2B, complexo para consumidores, permite comparações, centenas de declarações em todo o mundoPrós: Credibilidade (PCR com envolvimento de partes interessadas, verificação por terceira parte), grande quantidade de informação detalhada, ciclo de vida completoContras: Informações complexas sem tamanho real, alta necessidade de recursos (ACV completa), complicado para SMEs (necessários sistemas simplificados, atualmente sendo testados)Códigos de conduta, sistemas de classificação de fornecedoresAdequado para comunicação com e para coletar informações de fornecedoresPrós: Simplicidade e flexibilidade, adequado para envolver SMEsContras: Limitado a berço-ao-portão, não necessariamente verificado por terceira parteISO-type III declarations base explicitly on ACV, therefore they give the most complete and holistic picture about environmental performance of products.However, there are a set of limits of current EPD systems, e.g. related to:-Format and understandability of information-Choice and use of indicators for decision-making-Costs and other barriers for SMEs-Comparability-Verification vs. certification-Need for harmonization at international levelAt present these issues strongly hamper the applicability of EPD in business.On the contrary, codes of conduct, supplier screening systems and checklists are well suited to communicate with and gather info from suppliers.This is also an easy way to involve SMEs in LCM.Of course, not the whole life cycle is covered
59Aproximações por setores específicos & Estudos de caso
60Aspectos chave dos estudos de caso Presença de uma Estratégia de comunicaçãoAgentes específicos de setorCombinação de ferramentasRelatório no nível empresarialComunicação orientada por produtos (combinação de rótulos)Selos ambientais ISO-tipo ISelos e certificações similares ao ISO-tipo IDeclarações ambientais ISO-tipo IIDeclarações ambientais ISO-tipo IIISelos sociaisPropaganda & marketingFoco em SustentabilidadeDois setores:EnergiaEletrônicosWhat makes the difference between episodic and systematic use of LCM communication?The existence of a communication strategySuch a strategy is usually driven by sector-specific driversIn most LCM communication strategies there are clear objectives, programmes and communication tools. Always, a combination of tools is usedMoreover, generally the focus is on sustainability and not just environmental aspects
61Energia Agentes específicos de Setor Pressão dos regulamentos / Diretriz européia sobre mercados de eletricidadeLiberação de misturas de combustíveisInformação pública de impactos ambientais, pelo menos em termos de emissões de CO2 e rejeitos radioativosPedido de informação de clientes de negóciosMercados emergentes para “Eletricidade Verde”Fixação de preços verdes / tarifasSelos de eletricidade verdeProgramas de compras verdes por administradores públicosProblemas de aceitação social / Diálogo com partes interessadasex. nuclear, mas também renováveis
62Energia Exemplos de Comunicação de Ciclo de Vida Vattenfall (SE)Enel (IT)British Energy (UK)Electricité de France (FR)
63Setor I. Energia Estudo de caso 1: Vattenfall (Suécia) Longa experiência em ACVRelatório extensivoRelatórios ambientaisAnálise de ciclo de vida do suprimento de energia de Vattenfall na Suécia, 2005Diversas EPDsEPD Lule River 1999 primeiro EPD® absoluto no sistema suecoSelo ambiental ISO-tipo I para certificado de “energia verde”Vattenfall retains a long tradition of disclosure and reporting. Several publications are publicly available and directly accessible from the company’s website, including various editions of Environmental reports, Life Cycle Assessment reports, and EPDs.As far as ACV is specifically addressed, Vattenfall has a long-standing experience, which covers all types of generation technologies, ranging from fuel-fired power plants to nuclear, hydropower and wind, as well as cogeneration plants for district heating. In addition, she provided quantitative data deriving from the assessment of the environmental performance of electricity generation and delivery at Vattenfall.The main motivations for “translating” this experience in ACV into credible and transparent life cycle communication tools for customers and partes interessadas were threefold, i.e. to:- Respond to Vattenfall’s strategic goals, with specific respect to aiming at being the number one for the customer and for the environment- Respond to Vattenfall’s core values of openness and accountabilityComply with the forthcoming EU directive on fuel mix disclosure.Source: Bodlund, in Frankl et al (2006)
64I.1 Vattenfall Combinação de EPIS para comunicação Vattenfall pode pleitear o selo para eletricidade ca 1 TWh, Bra Miljöval, ”Boa Escolha Ambiental”95% da produção de eletricidade é certificada com uma Declaração Ambiental de ProdutoVattenfall applies a combination of EPIS to communicate with its clientsToday, Vattenfall has approximately 1 TWh of electricity certified under the Swedish Bra Miljoval quality ISO-type I eco-label system. In addition, the company has issued certified EPDs for 95% of its entire electricity production[Fonte: Bodlund 2005]
65I.1 Vattenfall Valor adicionado do certificado EPD® - Mais do que ACV Sistema de informação aberto para todos os produtos e serviçosBaseado na ISO/DIS 14025Terceira parte verificada e certificadaUma EPD® para eletricidade e aquecimento distrital contémAnálise de Ciclo de Vida (ACV)Estudo de impactos na biodiversidadeAnálise de Risco Ambiental (ARA)Radiologia (energia nuclear)The main advantages of EPD identified by Vattenfall are:- The possibility to provide information to customers- EPDs are useful tool to orientate purchasing decisions- Environmental Management- To provide support for Sustainability Reporting- Evidence for continuous improvement- Environmental licensingThe EPD process also helped Vattenfall identify and carry out a series of environmental actions, which resulted in further benefits in terms of environmental impacts mitigations, costs cuts, and improved dialogue with suppliers and other partes interessadas. In addition, EPDs are used to enable a dialogue with public administrations for permitting licenses. Generally improved awareness and commitment among the staff have led to an increased used of life cycle thinking as an integral part in the planning for refurbishments and investments. EPDs are also mostly used to exchange information along the supply chain, to orientate investment decisions and to choose among different technical solution alternativesSource: Bodlund, in Frankl et al (2006)[Fonte: Bodlund 2005]
66I.1 Vattenfall Estratégia e conclusões chave em Vattenfall ACV dirigida à prática comumCredibilidade necessária, assegurada pela certificação por terceira parte e Regras para Categorias de Produto (PCR) com participação de parte interessadaFoco em diversas questões ambientais e não em apenas umaEPD® é um caminho, o qual os paises nórdicos Vattenfall escolheram para trilharValores chave: “Abertura e responsabilidade”At Vattenfall:- ACV-based information is useful and is becoming common practice- Credibility is needed, and certification improves the credibility- The focus is not just on one environmental issue, but on several aspects- EPD is an effective tool that Vattenfall Nordic countries have adopted to measure their progress- EPD is also a powerful communication toolIt is also a precious tool to meet the key company value “Openness and accountability[Source: Bodlund 2005]
67Sector I. Energia Estudo de caso 2: Enel (Itália) Atividades de ACVDesde 1999 a nível de R&DApenas recentemente a nível empresarial (Direção Ambiental)Dois primeiros EPDs em no contexto do projeto LIFE-INTENDEPDs em duas tecnologias de energia renovávelEólica (primeiro EPD de sistema de eletricidade na Itália)Geotérmica (primeira EPD no mundo)EPDs usadas para comunicação com autoridades locaisProblemas de aceitação social (eólica)Fornece aproximação holística e nova perspectiva na comparação de tecnologiasCanais de comunicação: website + relatório de sustentabilidadePreço verde: adoção de selo de garantia “100% energia verde”Since 2003 Enel, one of the most important European and the largest Italian utility, has been involved in the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) of selected renewable power plants. The EPDs are carried out within the EU-LIFE project INTEND, co-funded by the European Commission. As of August 2004, the EPD of a wind power plant has been published and the EPD of a geothermal power plant is in preparation. The former is the first EPD on electricity ever carried out in Italy; the latter is going to be the first EPD on geothermal energy worldwide. The EPDs have been carried out with the scientific support of Ecobilancio Italia.The main motivation for the involvement in the project INTEND and the development of several EPD at Enel is the potential external use of the latter as communication tool for the involvement of local partes interessadas.In fact, despite their significantly lower emissions over the whole life cycle compared to conventional fossil fuel power plants, the installation of wind power plants is facing severe social acceptance problems in Italy, as in many other European countries. Local partes interessadas often lack of comprehensive information and might oppose to the construction of new wind farms based on a limited picture of the problem.Enel is currently exploring new and innovative ways to involve local decision-makers in a participative multi-Partes Interessadasapproach based on complete life cycle information, in order to increase the social acceptance of new power plants. In this initiative, EPDs is to play a major role as communication tool, providing comprehensive, as well as reliable and credible life cycle information to partes interessadas
68I.2 Enel EPDs na EnelCovers of the two published EPDs and related information on Enel’s website
69I.2 Enel - Rotulagem de eletricidade verde para clientes de negócios e consumidores Enel is also using another type of label to communicate to consumers:The ISO-type I-like label “100% energia verde” on green electricity.The interesting aspect is that this label is also attached on the final product of the company buying renewable energy from Enel, thus being an important vehicle of LCM information both for Enel and the clientSelo de eletricidade verde é também anexado aos produtos dos clientes empresariais que compram energia renovável da Enel (ex. produtor de água mineral) Significados importantes da comunicação de CV
70I.2 Enel GCV no relatório sustentável Resultados da GCV (ex. rotulação de eletricidade verde) são comunicados através de Relatórios Empresariais de SustentabilidadeLCM and the involvement in green pricing are reported in the Corporate Sustainability Report
71Setor eletrônico Agentes específicos de setor Ambiente embutido na estrutura de gerenciamentoACV/PCV e eco-design com objetivos clarosProgramas de compras verdes por administradores públicosJapão, China, outros países e administradores públicosPressão da regulamentaçãoWEEE, RoHS, Diretrizes para baterias e acumuladores contendo mercúrio, etc.Pedidos de informação de clientes empresariaisDiversificação e competitividade do mercadoAumento na atenção de partes interessadas do setor financeiroThe second key sector, in which clear LCM communication strategies can be identified is the electronic sector.Japanese companies are particularly active.
72Setor eletrônico Exemplos de comunicação CV SamsungSeiko EpsonCanonKonica MinoltaMatsushita Electric / PanasonicRicoh
73Sector II. Setor Eletrônico Estudo de caso 1: Samsung (Coréias do Sul) Relatório de gerenciamento verde desde 1999Meio ambiente/Comitê de Gerenciamento de Segurança, encabeçado pelaACV adotada desde 1995, atualmente aplicada para planejamento & desenvolvimento de produtos, combinada com DfX (projeto para reciclagem/uso/desmontagem/montagem)Ferramenta interna EPS – Eco-Product System (Sistema de produto Ecológico)5 módulos: ACV, ecodesign, apresentação de um relatório ambiental, Aquisição Verde, Serviço ao ConsumidorGrande alcance dos EPIS aplicadosSince 1999 Samsung has published a “Green Management Report.” In addition to environmental information and ambitious targets, it also reports the main social activities, as well as the achievements in terms of health, safety and the security of products. Green Management policies and strategies are established by an Environment/Safety Management Committee, which periodically appraises the performance. The Committee is headed by the CEO and supervises five subcommittees in charge of eco-design, eco-products, green production, lead-free soldering and eco-devices. In order to boost the production of environmentally sound products, every factory both at home and abroad is subject to the activities promoted by the Committee.LCA was first adopted in 1995 to assess the environmental burden of microwave ovens. Currently, it is constantly applied for the design and development of new products, together with the DfX methodology. After the introduction of the EPD system in Korea, Samsung Electronics is using the tool as a way of marketing and to provide customers with reliable environmental information on its products. In 2003, an EPD for a VCR model was issued, which was the first to obtain the certification under the new born Korean system. The company was also awarded the 2003 Green Marketing Grand Prize from the Ministry of the Environment and the Maeil Business Newspaper, for the VCR’s excellence in such environmental factors as recyclability, energy consumption and non-toxicity. Prize winners are selected through a multi-tier process of screening which is based also on a consumer survey.Regarding the semiconductor sector, in 2001 a "green" semiconductor product entered into mass production. The device uses no halogen compound, which contain such toxic substances as lead, chlorine and bromine. In September 2003, Samsung opened a web site on environment-friendly semiconductors, in order to respond to customers' increasing requests concerning the environmental characteristics of semiconductors’ devices, with particular respect to the content of banned or toxic materials. The web site provides information on semiconductors such as Samsung Electronics' environment-friendly semi-conductor development strategies, status of products in development and production, quality, reliability tests and future roadmap. Releasing this professional and practical information is a demonstration of Samsung’s commitment to leading in standardization and development of environment-friendly semiconductors.Finally, the company has developed an internal tool which is called Eco-Product System (EPS). The tool is composed of five modules: ACV, Eco-Design, Environmental Accounting, Green Procurement and Environmental Customer Service. The single outcomes are shared for a systematic total assessment. EPS provides publicly available ACV data for both the general public and experts. The system also provides a database on environmental suitability of raw and semi-raw materials. It will be further used to provide environmental information on work processes, loadings of substance, costs of products, evaluation of suppliers, and accreditation of eco-partners. In addition, EPS is equipped with the green procurement capability (for acquiring environmentally friendly raw materials) and Eco-DB (for providing customers with product-related environmental data in real time).  Design for Recycle/Service/Disassembly/Assembly.  The URL isSource: Menichetti (2005)[Source: Menichetti 2005]
74II.1 Samsung Combinação de EPIS aplicado ISO TIPO IKela (since 1995)More than 60 products, of which:7 models of printer1 model of fax5 models of TV sets20 models of computers+monitors8 models of air purifiers19 models of other products (not specified)TCO15 models of displaysBlue Angel1 model of printerISO TYPE IIEco – RoHS compliant label (for memories, PwBs, DVDs, digital cameras, etc.ISO TYPE IIIEMC (Korean EPD system)1 model of digital camera1 model of optical disk drive1 model of TFT-LCD plate glass1 model of CRT glass1 model of TFT-LCD monitor1 model of PDP TV1 model of air conditioner1 model of VCR1 model of household refrigerator1 model of laser printerDiferentes EPIS aplicados para diferentes produtos e diferentes mercadosWith respect to EPI tools, the company started adopting ISO-type I ecolabels in Currently the ecolabels are still considered as one of the most promising instruments, according to the Environmental manager contacted. Samsung believes in fact that new regulations like the EuP directive or the green public procurement will necessarily boost the market of ecolabelled products. In this sense, Samsung has first started to obtain ecolables for its products under the Korean system but has turned its interest also to European schemes like the TCO label and the Blue Angel. The table provides an overview of all the EPI tools adopted by the company.Source: Menichetti (2005)[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
75II.1 Samsung Combinação de EPIS aplicado – (cont.) Selos de energiaEU Energy Star10 modelos de monitor de PCUS Energy Star15 modelos de monitor de PC2 modelos de impressora/fax36 modelos de impressora/fax16 modelos de impressora75 modelos de impressora8 modelos de MFD14 modelos de MFD3 modelos de fax18 modelos de faxHong Kong Energy Efficiency labelling scheme3 modelos de impressoraEnergy Saving LabelSouth KoreaDiversos produtos incluindo: TVs, notebooks, telefones celulares, condicionadores de ar(cont.)A very interesting label developed by Samsung is related to products that comply with the EU RoHS Directive. The type II Eco-label developed is applied to products that do not contain internationally banned toxic chemicals. The label is also a practical response to an increasing request of transparency risen by customers. As pointed out by the manager contacted (and publicly reported), from 2000 the interest in eco-products has continuously increased. Customers are particularly interested in the application of the Eco-products, touted as the high performance digital product, which would lead the future market. The most frequently asked questions are about the substitution plans for banned products, followed by requests on the material component and the availability of a guarantee letter for products. In average, more than 90% of questions are on hazardous materials. In addition, Samsung is also supplier to NEC and other Japanese companies. NEC, in particular, requires Samsung to provide ACV data on its products. Other Japanese purchasers apply eco-labels for their products therefore requiring their suppliers to submit the information about hazardous materials. These circumstances can well explain Samsung’s interest in EPI tools. In order to show its environmental commitment to both the general public and the industrial customers, the company discloses a lot of environmental information in its website, makes dedicated advertisement, has developed its own ecolabel and has applied to both ISO I and III labels.According to the environmental manager, type I ecolabels and environmental self-claims are seen as the most promising. The first because the EuP directive and the green public purchasing will increase the number of ecolabelled products, the second because the variety of functions and the environmental characteristics of products can be best highlighted by self-declarations. In addition, the manager honestly believes that an environmental certification cannot be requested for all products. Currently the use of different EPI tools is dependent on the type of customer and its particular requests or needs, as well as the expected effect of marketing. The marketing component is particularly important at Samsung. In fact, EPI tools have been promoted jointly by the R&D and marketing departments which collaborate together for the promotion and the exploitation of the mentioned instrumentsSource: Menichetti (2005)Selos de energia usados em mercados relevantes, adicionalmente aos selos e declarações ambientais[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
76Setor II. Setor eletrônico Estudo de caso 2: Seiko-Epson (Japão) Auto-definição: “Companhia Visionária”CEO: “meta da corporação é estar cinco ou dez anos a frente de outras companhias na implementação de eco-programs inclusivos, excedendo assim as expectativas de seus partes interessadas”Relatório ambiental desde 1999, Relatório de sustentabilidade e de CSR desde 2003Metas ambientais e progressoACV em ambos os níveis: produto e planta produtivaFortes reduções de emissões atingidas na nova plantaMetas focadas em PCV em cada nível:Projeto, aquisição, manufatura, vendas, recuperação/reclicoObtenção de qualificações de selo ambiental é um objetivo de ambos departamentos: projeto e vendasEpson defines itself as a “visionary company”, which is engaged in “progressive activities”. As an example, it was the first company in the world to completely eliminate CFC gas from its manufacturing processes. The aim of the corporation, as made explicit by its CEO, is to be five or ten years ahead of other companies in implementing comprehensive eco-programs, thus exceeding the expectations of its partes interessadas.Among the companies contacted, Epson was the first one to have already prepared its new report for the year Epson began publishing its Environmental report in In 2003, it issued the first Sustainability report, which is now in its third edition. The document contains information on CSR. In addition, it highlights the continuous improvement recorded in the environmental performance of the Group. Within the environmental programs and targets, ACV plays a major role. The tool is used in fact both at the factory and product levels. With respect to the first issue, for example, Epson has carried out an extensive ACV in the Chitose plant in Hokkaido in order to assess the environmental performance of the newest electronic device production plant, which began full-scale operations in April The plant manufactures high-temperature polysilicon TFT LCD panels, a core device for LCD projectors and large-screen LCD projection televisions. Since the production process accounts for 70% of total energy consumptions of the Group, Epson wants to monitor its plants in order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. The ACV conducted on the Chitose plant has allowed the company to achieve a CO2 reduction rate of 55% per m2 of wafer processed with respect to other plants.As far as ACV for products is concerned, Epson has a specific program to quantify the environmental impact throughout the lifecycle and plans to deploy ACV Groupwide in order to produce high quality performing products. The ACV approach is part of a Life Cycle Thinking which establishes several targets at every stage: from the design phase to the procurement, manufacturing, transportation, sales, use and recovery/recycling. Obtaining environmental label qualifications (type I, II, III) is an established objective both for the design and the sales departments. This is a confirmation that the R&D and the commercial/marketing activities are considered synergic by the Group. Unlike other companies, the sales are assigned the second largest amount of environmental targets to be reached, after the design unit. In addition to a series of targets to be accomplished by the offices (like zero emissions, to comply with green purchasing laws, etc.), there is a specific focus on the environmental information disclosure, to be carried out by each regional site. The disclosure must be obtained through websites, catalogues, environmental labels. Data must be quantified and the information must reach the customersSource: Menichetti (2005)[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
77II.2 Seiko-Epson Combinação de aplicação de EPIS ISO TIPO IEco MarkImpressoras jato de tinta, laser e SIDM + papelBlue Angel2 modelos of impressoraTaiwan Green Mark41 produtos, incluindo impressoras a laser, jato de tinta e cartuchosISO TIPO II50% de todos os produtos e 43% do total de vendas em todos os negócios qualificam para o selo Epson EcologyISO TIPO IIIEcoleaf1 modeo de notebook PC15 modeols de impressora1 modelo de desktop PC20 modelos of projetor1 modelo de PC display4 modelos de impressora de formato grandeSelos de EnergiaInternational Energy Star4 modeols de computadorUS Energy Star1 modelo de MFD6 modeos de impressora25 modelos de impressora3 modelos de scanner7 modelos de scannerEnergy Saving LabelSouth KoreaN.A.Energy Conservation Product CertificationChinaseveral models of printers (inkjet, laser, SIDM)Diferentes EPIS aplicados para diferentes produtos e diferentes mercadosWith respect to EPI tools, Epson has already achieved compliance with various international environmental labels standards, including Eco-Mark, Blue Angel, Taiwan Green Mark, China Energy Conservation Product Certification label, Energy Star, and Ecoleaf. In addition, the company has developed its own voluntary label program. The label is granted to products that achieve industry-leading levels or demonstrate improved environmental performance over conventional models, in terms of in-operation energy savings, resource savings and elimination of hazardous substances. The label thus communicates a product’s proven environmental performance to customers. The latter can also obtain environmental specifications through the Epson Ecology Profile sheets which are part of the ecology label program. The data sheets show the environmental specifications of the product itself, the packaging and the consumables. For electronic devices, they also include the quantities of chemical substances contained in the device.Source: Menichetti (2005)[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
78II.2 Seiko-Epson Estratégia de comunicação Existência de uma estratégia global de comunicaçãoCada tipo de EPIS tem seus próprios objetivos e público alvoO selo ISO-tipo II label “Epson Ecology” demonstra desempenho ambiental melhor do que os modelos convencionais (ambos: IT e semicondutores)Usuários podem obter especificações com Epson Ecology ProfileSelos específicos ISO-tipo II para compras sustentáveisDeclaração formato IT Eco nos paises escandinavosSelo verde PC no Japão (indica promoção da “sociedade da reciclagem” e atingimento de metas industriais)As a further step, Epson uses two specific ISO-type II labels in the European Nordic countries and in Japan. In Scandinavia, it presents its environmental claims according to the IT Eco Declaration format, a voluntary label developed by the Swedish Environmental Management Council which aims at supporting sustainable procurement. In Japan, it makes use of the PC green label to commercialise its PCs. The use of the label indicates the producer’s intent to promote the establishment of a “recycling society” and the fact that it has met industry-wide voluntary targets. The table summarizes the number of environmental labels with which Epson complies[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
79II.2 Seiko-Epson Estratégia de comunicação – (cont.) Alta prioridade nos selos ISO-type IJapão, Taiwan e AlemanhaEm Taiwan, aumento de vendas Epson visa certificar pelo menos 80% de toda a gama de produtosResposta a um número crescente de regras de aquisições públicas verdes (ex: certificada pela Certificação de conservação de energia em produtos da China)42 modelos têm a declaração Ecoleaf ISO-tipo IIIForte comunicação interna sobre Gestão de Ciclo de VidaUso de ferramentas de comunicação da internetAs a further tool to disclose environmental product information, in 2004 Epson issued a leaflet titled “Environmental Newsline”, which was sent by the CSR manager contacted. In this document, Epson declares to be committed to proactively disclosing product environmental data through environmental labels. In order of priority, the company seeks for ISO type I labels. Environmental self-declarations and EPDs are seen as very important, too. EPI tools are considered to be a distinctive feature which enhances the competitive advantage of the companies. With this respect, Epson reports that Green Mark ecolabelled products in Taiwan have had a very positive impact on the market, thus increasing the product sales. As a consequence, Epson Taiwan has decided to get the Green Mark for at least 80% of the entire production. Such a cause-effect relation is usually difficult to be recorded. None of the other companies contacted had a clear perception of a possible correlation between the use of EPI tools and the sales increase. Other justifications were given for their interest in the tools, first of all the need to respond to a growing number of green public procurement regulations all over the world. This is an important issue for Epson, as well. For example, the Chinese government has adopted a policy to give priority to products compliant with China’s energy conservation product certification in public procurement. In response, Epson has immediately obtained qualification for the mark and was recognised as a certified manufacturer in the first round of certification.Beyond using different types of ecolabels, the company has set its own type II label with the objective to disclose product environmental data. Besides its commitment to cut CO2 emissions, Epson has developed a method, which is available on the website, to calculate the emissions of PFC (Perfluorocarbons) gases used in the manufacturing of semiconductors, in order to allow other companies to reduce their GHG emissions.In the list of high-priority activities, the following are included: improve corporate citizenship activities by collaborating with environmental organisations in each region of the world, and support environmental education for the next generation. The environmental education and awareness raisings of employees is a key issue at all levels, both inside the Group and with respect to affiliates. Briefings are regularly carried out with local administrations and representatives of local communities and positive feedbacks in terms of confidence and sense of security have been received by the population representatives. Another interesting example is related to the education of final consumers. Epson has included an environmental page in printer catalogues to help customer understand their environmental performance and the recovery and recycling system. On the same page, the company also requests their cooperation for an effective recovery and recycling  Perfluorocarbons.Source: Menichetti (2005)[Fonte: Menichetti 2005]
81Tendências recentes e a curto prazo Relatórios: mais enfoque no Ciclo de VidaComunicação relacionada ao produto: no sentido de promover benchmarks e comunicar o progressoAvaliação da sustentabilidade (também relacionada ao produto) integrando aspectos ambientais, sociais e econômicosUma só ferramenta não é suficiente! Combinação de EPIS ao longo do ciclo vida do produto
82Relatório de sustentabilidade Outubro de 2006: Revisão das diretrizes GRI (G3)Aumento da atenção sobre gestão do ciclo de vidaIn the current revision of Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) there is an increase in attention on LCM
83Comunicando o progresso (relativo ao produto) Novos requisitos ISO-tipo II Exemplo: selos ISO-tipo II no JapãoPanasonic: o fator X fornece informação concisa sobre a melhoria de novos produtos em relação aos antigosThere is another trend that can be observed in Japan, where life cycle information is usually considered to be complex, but at the same time companies want to report their progress.As a consequence, some electronics companies in Japan have tried to simplify such complex life cycle information so that consumers can easily understand how products are improved in a life cycle perspective. For instance, Matsushita, generally known as Panasonic, has invented Factor X, which represents the improvement ratio from the product life cycle viewpoint. They have applied the Factor X to most of their products. Purchasers and consumers can access to the converted life cycle information easily, from the web and product catalogues. Matsushita and Hitachi have established an alliance about sharing those factor methods. Hitachi also implements the same concept. The main indicators to communicate environmental performance improvement are the greenhouse gas (GHG) factor and the Resource Factor, defined as follows:GHG factor = (GHG efficiency of the new product) / (GHG efficiency of the old product), whereGHG efficiency = (Product life x Product functions) / (GHG emissions over the entire life cycle) Resource factor = (Resource efficiency of the new product) / (Resource efficiency of the old product)Resource efficiency = (Product life x Product functions) / (Resources that do not circulate over the entire lifeThe Factor X by PanasonicThe Factor X developed by Matsushita / Panasonic in the electronic sector is an ISO-type II label, which provides final consumers with concise information about the improvement of new products with respect to old ones in a product life cycle perspective. Focus is on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), resource consumption and product-specific environmental issues (e.g. lead-free)cycle)Source: Frankl et al (2004)Fator GHG = (eficiência GHG do novo produto / (eficiência GHG do produto antigo),whereEficiência GHG = (Vida do produto x Funções do produto) / (emissões GHG por todo o ciclo de vida)
84Futuras EPDs com benchmarking Recente estudo (2006) sobre Demanda do Consumidor por Declarações Ambientais do Tipo IIIRecommendação: benchmark com apresentação gráficaBenchmark econômico, refletindo a relação qualidade/preçoBenchmark tanto na categoria do produto quanto na média dos produtosThe information currently reported in most EPDs is still too difficult to be understood by the majority of people. Results are often reported in terms of tables and absolute values of mid-term life cycle indicators, which are generally not understandable for non-experts. The format and length of an EPD is generally not standardized and can be very variable, possibly leading to further confusion. Moreover, information recipients need a benchmark, i.e. reference values to compare with.A first step is to standardize the format or EPDs as much as possible. Moreover, the complete information should be always presented by a four-page summary.Furthermore, it was proposed to develop sector-specific “average” EPDs, which should serve as benchmark value for the specific product group. This kind of work might be supported and commissioned by the relevant industry association. This is actually what is going on in France in the building sector. This also goes in a similar line with the indication of the recent survey on Consumer demands on type-III environmental declarations carried out in Denmark (Christiansen et al. 2006). Among other things, this study recommends to present results also in graphic form, comparing the impacts of the product with the ones from spending the same amount of money on an average product form the same product group.Source: Frankl et al (2006)[Fonte: K.Christiansen et al 2006]
85Rumo à comunicação da sustentabilidade relacionada a produto “Análise de Socio-Eco-Eficiencia” (SEEbalance®) na BASFUso para fins internos (eco-design, desenvolvimento de produto) mas também:Marketing, apoio a clientes externos e aceitação social do produtoPara fins de comunicação, como em relatórios corporativos de sustentabilidadeBASF is the largest chemical company in the World. In the 1990s BASF developed the “Eco-Efficiency Analysis” as a standard tool for a comprehensive assessment of products and processes; until August 2005 more than 240 analyses had been carried out. Recently, this tool has been amended to include a social dimension, “Socio-Eco-Efficiency Analysis” (SEEbalance®), when needed. The products are analyzed from the angle of the end customer, and ecological, economic and social aspects are given equal weight in assessments. It is possible to evaluate future scenarios and effects of various action options.BASF uses Eco-Efficiency Analysis or SEEbalance® forStrategic decisions on investments, products and markets.Comparison of production sites and markets.Prioritization of research and product development.Discussion with opinion makers in political decisions.Marketing, support to external customers and social acceptance of product.For communication issues e.g. corporate sustainability reportsSource: A.A. Jensen (2006)[Fonte: A.A.Jensen 2006
86Gestão do Ciclo de Vida Treinamento - Sumário Introdução à GCVPrimeira sessãoComo a GCV é usada na PráticaSegunda sessãoComunicando os Resultados da GCVTerceira SessãoGCV e expectativas das Partes InteressadasQuarta Sessão