Apresentação em tema: "Gestão do Ciclo de Vida um Guia de Negócios para a Sustentabilidade Sessão de capacitação 2 de 4 Novembro 2006."— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 Gestão do Ciclo de Vida um Guia de Negócios para a Sustentabilidade Sessão de capacitação 2 de 4 Novembro 2006
2 Gestão do Ciclo de Vida Treinamento - Sumário Introdução à GCVPrimeira sessãoComo a GCV é usada na PráticaEsta sessão!Comunicando resultados de GCVTerceira sessãoGCV e Expectativas das Partes InteressadasQuarta Sessão
3 feita Introdução à GCV Sessão anterior Objetivo de aprendizado: Entender as bases teóricas da gestão do ciclo de vida & sua históriaO que é ciclo de vida? Impactos & valores criados ao longo do ciclo de vida de um produto ou serviçoDefiniçõesHistóriaUsoPor que a GCV é necessária nos negócios e no governo?AgentesO que a GCV compreende?Quais os aspectos únicos da GCV?Exercício em grupoIntervalo para caféIntrodução à GCVSessão anteriorHere is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the previous session...feita
4 Um processo para implementar GCV Objetivo de aprendizado: Entender os aspectos práticos da GCV no desenvolvimento de políticas & operações de negócios, por meio de discussões sobre como integra-la na tomada de decisões & por meio de estudos de casoGestão do Ciclo de VidaDefinição & BenefíciosGCV envolve…Aprendizado a partir de exemplosUm processo para implementar GCVPlanejar – Fazer – Verificar – AjustarFoco no projetoMais exemplos ilustrativosExercício em grupoIntervalo para almoçoComo a GCV é usada na PráticaEsta Sessão!Here is our agenda for this session, and a statement of learning objectives – The session will last no longer than 2.5 hours
5 Por que comunicar GCV? Para quem? Objetivo de aprendizado: Fornecer um bom entendimento na comunicação de ferramentas e estratégias. Por que e como podem ser utilizadas para avaliar os negócios?Por que comunicar GCV? Para quem?Definição e escopo, agentes, público alvo da comunicaçãoCaixa de ferramentas da comunicaçãoPrincipais características e vínculo com GCV Exemplos e difusão das ferramentasEstudos de casoAgentes setoriais específicos Estratégias de comunicação Combinação de ferramentasExercício em grupoIntervalo para caféComunicando os resultados da GCVTerceira SessãoHere is a preview of the agenda for the third, upcoming, session - - to give you an understanding of what we’ll cover next
6 Por que Engajar as Partes Interessadas? Objetivo de aprendizado: Entender como identificar as partes interessadas, bem como suas prioridades & preocupaçõesPor que Engajar as Partes Interessadas?Identificar as Partes InteressadasPotenciais Partes InteressadasQuestionar a pessoa certaClassificaçãoImportância de incluir as partes interessadasEvitar riscosCriar oportunidadesEstudo de casoExercício em grupoIntervalo para almoçoGCV e Expectativas das Partes InteressadasQuarta SessãoHere is a preview of the agenda for the fourth session - -
7 A GCV como parte das Boas Práticas Considere as seguintes perguntas durante esta sessão:Quais são os principais obstáculos para incorporar a GCV na organização?Quem na organização gostaria de estar envolvido com a iniciativa de GCV?Quais as cinco áreas de impacto das operações?Onde estão as melhores oportunidades para a organização nesta área?Quais são os maiores riscos para a empresa e a indústria nesta área?Consider these questions as we go through these slides & be ready to discuss at the end of this session
8 INÍCIO GROUP DISCUSSION – Spend 10 minutes engaging the participants. Ask them to think for one minute about how they would define LCM to a new person, and what they would say is valuable about LCM. Once participants have had one minute to think, ask for volunteers to state their ideas out loud... allow for questions and clarifications. Alternatively, ask participants simply to write their answers, and keep them.Be sure to ask the same question at the end of the session – again, either have participants think about an answer and then state ideas to the group, or quietly write their answers/ideas... They can compare what they thought (or wrote) at the beginning of this session to what they think (or write) at the end.INÍCIO
9 Gestão do Ciclo de Vida é… … a aplicação do pensar ciclo de vida às práticas empresariais, com o objetivo de, sistematicamente, gerenciar os produtos e serviços da organização… a gestão sistemática do ciclo de vida de produtos e materiais, para promover padrões de produção e de consumo que sejam mais sustentáveis do que os atuais…uma estrutura de gestão de conceitos, técnicas e procedimentos, flexível e integrada, voltada para os aspectos ambientais, econômicos e sociais dos produtos, procedimentos e organizaçõesThink of one current program in organisation, focused on environmental and/or social performance... Write answers to the following?What department(s) owns the program / initiative?What parts of the life cycle does the program focus on?Is the program part of a broader system, (e.g. are their targets and deadlines? Is it an isolated program)?Is it structured to promote continuous improvement, stimulate new ideas?
10 GCV – colocá-la em Prática ObjetivoEntender os elementos fundamentais e os passos que uma organização precisa executar para por a GCV em práticaPontos fundamentaisQualquer organização pode exercer GCVNão há necessidade de começar pelo topoGCV envolve todos os niveis da organizaçãoGaranta o enfoque além das fronteiras tradicionaisComoPlanejar – Fazer – Conferir – Ajustar para melhorar continuamente!This slide outlines what will be covered in the next section of this Session. Each of these items will be discussed in detail in the next slides.
11 1. Qualquer organização pode aplicar a GCV Any organisation can apply LCM from the smallest vendor to the world’s largest corporations. How each organisation structures and pursues LCM will vary greatly, especially in regard to speed and focus.LCM is a dynamic process; organisations may start with small goals and objectives with the resources they have and get more ambitious over time. Organisations should not “jump into” advanced tools or complicated, data-intensive programs, but can instead take a step-by-step approach – begin with developing a life-cycle perspective and finding reasonable possibilities to improve the environmental characteristics of a product, a process or a service.Over the next few slides we will discuss the best practices for applying LCM which applies to any organisation looking to adopt it.
12 2. Não há necessidade de começar pelo topo Wherever one starts on the spiral of improving their performance the critical aspect is the act of pursuing improvements.To be successful there are some important contextual considerations one has to start with. First, LCM has to involve many levels of the organisation and second, organisations have to be willing to reconsider how they define the scope of their impacts.With these elements in place organisations can then start to pursue the plan>do>check>act/adjust/improve cycle
13 3. GCV envolve todos os níveis da organização Note to Trainer: Tools listed outside the circle in this figure are only examples – change them to suit the tools your audience is using, or is familiar with – Draw other examples from the many tools and approaches presented in the slides in Session IThere are several conditions to try to foster when implementing a LCM program. (1) Involving all Departments; (2) Management Support & Interest; (3) Engaging all Employees:(1) Involving all Departments - - An LCM initiative may impact all functions and departments of an enterprise. For example, a design-for-environment program will be less able to implement new design ideas, without support from procurement and marketing... You can see that a decision to change the material composition of a product not only affects the environmental aspects of a product, but also procurement of supplies, marketing of that product to customers, as well as distribution logistics, perhaps packaging and storage, among others. Therefore, communication and sharing ideas within and across departments in an organisation is key to LCM. Communication and interaction helps generate a range of news ideas, and helps push ideas into realization. Be sure, also, to recognize the environmental and social initiatives which already exist in various departments. Involving all departments in LCM means learning from what has gone before.(2) Management Support & Interest - - Introducing LCM in a company, it is ideal if it is a top management decision and is according to the company’s policies and strategy. Continued support from top management during implementation of LCM is also needed. The full support of the Management requires in practice:Necessary resources have been set aside for the LCM initiative including time and educational resources.Management of the organisation actively participates in setting up the strategic goals.Explicit communication throughout the organisation regarding the ambition level and goals.Ideas and suggestions of the employees involved are taken seriously.(3) Engaging all Employees - - Participation of a range of employees ensures that the LCM initiatives will be deeply rooted in the organisationand that the focus will be on concrete improvements to a product’s environmental proﬁle, rather than unco-ordinated programs and data collection that is not part of systematic improvement plan. Furthermore, broad participation ensures that the LCM program doesn’t ‘die’, if a key employee involved leaves the organisation.Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Política ambiental baseada no Ciclo de Vida e estratégia de produtoFrom: Life Cycle Management - A Business Guide to Sustainability. UNEP/SETAC, 2007.
14 4. Olhe além das fronteiras tradicionais Fornece-dores de matérias-primasFornecedores de componentesGerenciadoresde resíduosRecicla-doresConsumidoresProdutoresTo capitalise on opportunities and make meaningful improvements, organisations can look beyond traditional boundaries of facilities, and expand collaboration and communication to suppliers, customers, employees and communities, peers and other stakeholders in the value chain. In this way, organisations accept that impacts of their operations, products or services may occur well outside of their traditional sense of their responsibility – while this of course creates some challenges it also creates opportunities.Supporting Case Study, “Good Coffee” - see “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – It illustrates how social issues along the life cycle of coffee are considered, and addressed[CLICK]Particular areas to consider include:The product life cycle: flow of materials from acquisition of raw materials to production, transport, use and disposal.The market: a value and currency flow from the consumer to the producer.Communication and cooperation in form of exchange of knowledge and experience.RetalhistasTransportadorGerenciamento da Cadeia de SuprimentoMateriais e EnergiaGerenciamento da Cadeia de ValoresMoeda e InformaçãoFrom: Life Cycle Management - A Business Guide to Sustainability. UNEP/SETAC, 2007.
15 Implementar GCV: o ciclo Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir Melhoria ContínuaWe have learned LCM is a dynamic process... How to Implement LCM? Consider a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach, as followed by many other types of management systems. Aim for an approach that enables continuous improvement over time, and progress that employees, customers and others can get enthusiastic about!A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle provides an organisation with a systematic approach to management along the product life cycle.Supporting Case Study, “Involving the supply chain in Peruvian Mining Activities”, in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual - provides insight into the implementation of an environmental management system, and the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach which is recommended for LCMFrom: Life Cycle Management - A Business Guide to Sustainability. UNEP/SETAC, 2007.
16 Implementar GCV: o ciclo Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO UM – PLANEJAREstabelecer PolíticasOrganisarRevisão e PesquisaEstabelecer metasPLAN: Identify your current level of ambition, ensuring that you have the appropriate resources – namely management support – survey impacts and opportunities for improvement, and set goals.Set policies – determine the ambition level of the organisationOrganise – get engagement and participationSurvey and Research – identify key environmental and social impacts and opportunities and decide where the organisation wants to be.Set goals – select an area/s where the efforts will be directed, determine goal(s) and make an action planSource: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Plan
17 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO UM – PLANEJAREstabelecer PolíticasNível de AmbiçãoDisponibilidade/comprometimento interno com a melhoria contínuaMelhoria no Ciclo de Vida dos produtosPerfil ambiental dos produtosOrganisarRevisão e PesquisaEstabelecer metasLCM has to be part of an organisation’s policies so its importance rings through all management levels. LCM policies should be visionary and long-term while also being realistic and concrete, parallel to its level of ambition. However, in absence of all this – START SMALL. Focus on one project, such as greening purchases of office supplies, or purchasing offsets for energy use, or making public statements or commitments to improve their performance. Later, build on experiences and successes to graduate to higher levels of ambition and commitment.Set goals according to the level of ambition to ensure conformity between policy and actions. Consider three different levels of ambition, to help you understand where you might begin:Internal readiness/commitment to continuous improvement This level signifies awareness that environmental and social improvements can be made using management frameworks such as ISO 9001 and/or ISO 14001, and that a commitment to improvements is the first step to a more integrated systemLife cycle improvement of productsAn organisation understands the value of addressing its products beyond the manufacturing level, for instances in materials acquisition, use of the product, distribution and end-of-lifeEnvironmental profiles of productsA step further by reporting and marketing activities and thereby creating general organisational successes, e.g. eco-labellingSource: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Plan
18 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO UM - PLANEJAREstabelecer PolíticasOrganisarRevisão e PesquisaEstabelecer metasIdéias iniciaisConsulte todos os chefes de dep.Onde estão as questões importantesOnde estão as oportunidadesO que foi feito no passadoCrie uma equipe com pessoas interessadasExperience with LCM and other management systems shows the value of having interested, enthusiastic people at all levels of the organisation. As an example, the success of Interface Flooring and Patagonia’s sustainability efforts can be directly linked with the ability of their leader’s to infect others with the power of their visions and commitments.EXAMPLE: E’Terra Inn is a 6 room Inn located on a picturesque lake in Southern Ontario Canada. When it was constructed the owner was committed to the principles of Green Building and was determined to minimise the impact of the building’s construction on the local environment. As a result every piece was carefully selected from the source of materials (to minimise transportation impacts) to the local natural plants placed in the garden (to eliminate the need for an irrigation system). Even though this was a small scale project the care and commitment the owner showed was critical in “going against the grain” to find sometimes unconventional solutions that would improve the final result: minimise the Inn’s impact, create a unique and popular travel destination, and minimise costs of the Inn’s operation & maintenance.Plan
19 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO UM - PLANEJAREstabelecer PolíticasOrganisarRevisão e PesquisaImpactos AmbientaisCondições de Mercado / ComerciaisParceirosEstabelecer objetivosExistem dois caminhos para se perder. Um é não saber para onde voce está indo, o outro não saber de onde voce partiu- anônimo“There are two ways to get lost. One is not to know where you are going, the other is not to know where you are starting from” - anonymousLook for existing information that helps you outline current performance: where the largest environmental or social issues/impacts are, and what opportunities exist to improve or change.Many companies already posses information on the impacts of their production process and operations, but are uncertain of how to expand their understanding. Some may find it useful to think in terms of products rather than processes to identify material flows through the entire life cycle system. This would include impacts/issues associated with suppliers, purchased materials or components, storage and distribution, use of the product, and waste streams. Further, it is useful to leverage the insights of external stakeholders – reach out to academics, policy makers and interest groups, which can often act as quasi leading indicators of future areas of concern. Specifically, aim to gather the following types of information to define your current performance:Environmental ImpactLife Cycle Phases – where are the most important environmental and social impacts? (SEE MET MATRIX ON NEXT SLIDE)Technology – is new technology available or being developed that can reduce the impacts?These can be assessed quantitatively or qualitatively (For an example of how this can be done see the Materials, Energy and Toxics Matrix Tool in the Delegates Manual)Market or Commercial ConditionsSupply – what is characteristic of the product’s profile?Demand – how important is the social and environmental awareness of consumer?Value – what advantages are achieved by adding positive environmental and social characteristics as an extra product quality?PartnersProduct Chain – are suppliers, retail stores, or others interested in collaboration on environmental and social initiatives?Authorities – what are the demands of authorities? What support programs do they have in place?Within sector – what are competitors doing? Codes of conduct within the trade?Consumer Associations – what are their interests? What are their values?Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Plan..
20 Emissões tóxicas Saída ESTÁGIO UM – PLANEJAR Revisão e Pesquisa principais impactos ambientaisCiclo MaterialEntrada/SaídaUso de EnergiaEmissões tóxicas SaídaProdução e Suprimento de todos os Materiais e ComponentesProdução própriaDistribuiçãoUsoOperaçãoServiçosSistema de Fim de VidaRecuperaçãoDisposiçãoThe Materials-Energy-Toxic Substances MatrixThe MET Matrix is a means of organising information about a product’s environmental impacts for analysis. It is one example of a simple, qualitative tool organisations can use to summarise information on the environmental issues of a product, throughout its life cycle. The purpose of the MET Matrix is to identify “hot spots” of environmental concern that require further investigation, and “cool spots” for new, innovative solutions.Motorola - - Motorola use this qualitative matrix tool to identify design-for-environment opportunities. Over time, Motorola has observed that designers have started to recognize and consider all aspects of the life cycle throughout the design process, which leads them to new ideas and solutions which enhance product performance. Motorola also conducts more quantitative LCA matrix for use in the detailed design phase.Before using the MET matrix:Define the system boundaries for the product – define what exactly will be included in the product system and what will not. This should also focus on auxiliary products and consumables associated with the total life span of the product.Perform a needs analysis – This involves two central questions:How does the product fulfill the needs it is meant to satisfy? And Can a system be developed to fulfill the same needs in a radically more effective and efficient way? This is not to imply that you will aim to radically change the whole premise of your business each and every time you consider a product design BUT questions like this get the product design team thinking beyond the usual – outside the box – more often.Now, use the MET matrix...The Material Cycle column is for information on environmental problems concerning the input/output of materials – This column is where the team would record information on:Non-renewable materialsMaterials that create emissions during productionIncompatible materialsInefficient use or lack of re-use of materials/components in all five stages of the product life cycleThe column on Energy Use is for information regarding energy consumption – This column is where the team would record information on:List inputs of materials with an extremely high-energy content in the first cellInclude energy consumption for the product itself as well as for transportation, operating, maintenance and recoveryInclude exhaust gases produced as a result of energy useThe Toxic Emissions column identifies emissions that are potentially toxic to land, water and air.
21 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO UM – PLANEJAREstabelecer PolíticasOrganisarRevisão e PesquisaEstabelecer metasRelevânciaPotencialInfluênciaBuilding on the policy, engagement across the organisation and findings from research, establish goals. Consider:Relevance: Where are the most significant environmental or social problems in the product’s life cycle?Potential: Where is it possible to achieve environmental and social improvements?Influence: Where can the enterprise make a difference?An enterprise may have several opportunities for improvements, and should choose several initiative areas to involve many departments across the organisation – for example, procurement and logistics, marketing, product development.Aim for concrete goals and action plans – define who will be responsible for what action, and by when.EXAMPLE – BIG GOALS: Interface Flooring set a “Mission Zero” goal: “Every creative, manufacturing and building decision we make will move us closer to our goal of eliminating any negative impact our flooring and fabric companies may have on the environment by the year 2020.” (www.interfaceglobal.com/)EXAMPLE – SMALL GOALS: Fulcrum Consulting a small firm in England decided to set the goal of reducing their carbon emissions by the equivalent volume of their office building. Over 100 days through a number of activities including raising awareness, turning off lights they were not using, and purchasing more energy efficient equipment, they achieved their goal. When asked about their accomplishment Susie Diamond, Building Physics Engineer commented “We are proud of the changes we have made to our company in 100 days and are keen that it won't stop here. We have shifted our purchasing and disposal habits as an organisation and taken steps to reduce wastage and cut our energy bills. These are intended as permanent changes and we are setting targets to further reduce our environmental impact over the coming years.” (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ stm)Supporting Case Study, “Green Management as Sony” in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – includes specific goals the company set for improving product life cycle performance... There are explicit targets to reduce product weight, number of parts used, and to increase proportion of recycled materials within the products, to use halogen-free materialsPlan.
22 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO DOIS - FAZERRealizar melhorias ambientaisPor o plano em açãoRelatórioDocumentar as ações e seus resultadosIt is now time to “do” - - To review, we have talked about how to lay the foundation for effective action (first, you don’t need to start at the top; next, you do need to look beyond the traditional boundaries of operations to find impacts, opportunities and risks; next comes initial phases of the Plan-Do-Act cycle, the planning, during which it is important to make a clear commitment, get people engaged, specify impacts, risks and opportunities for improvement, and set goals for making improvements). With these elements in place it is now time to ‘Do’.Practical results create credibility, enthusiasm, and active support for a product initiative and help to ensure continued support as one increases their ambition. From accomplishments such as increasing the recycled content of paper used in the office, to reducing waste water in the production process, or dematerializing a product, what is important is setting clear goals, achieving them, communicating lessons learned and setting the next round of goals.Supporting Case Study, “3M - a pioneer in LCM”, in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – shows how LCM is supported at 3M by “technology study reports and success stories” which promote the sharing of new environmental/health/safety ideas and results within the 3M technical communityThe “do” part of the cycle can include both “easy rewards” and new challenges to tackle, For example, what if an EU directive that required a company to take back all its scrap comes into force in one year? Such a demand would, of course, be added to an enterprise’s list of initiative goals and an action plan. The company could implement life cycle thinking to engage a re-design of the product to meet the requirements of the EU directive, including easier recycling, easier disassembly, new materials selection, etc.Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Fazer
23 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir To keep the enthusiasm and commitment of management and employees, document achievements and challenges. Make these public whenever feasible as it adds credibility, captures the interest of customers and other stakeholders, lets interested suppliers know where to find you and keeps momentum! Documentation also lends support and credibility when answering inquiries from customers, suppliers, investors, government agencies. The form of documentation depends upon the ambition level in the enterprise. It is advantageous for enterprises to have some insight into the environmental and social impacts the enterprise’s stakeholders prioritise, so that communication can be aimed at this group. Take a look at what your competitors, and peers are documenting on their website or annual reports.How to Document?State environmental goals, progress towards goals, and success stories within corporate annual reportsPress releases, news paper articles or interviews with mediaProduct labelsSupporting Case Study, “Green Management at Sony” – see “Case Studies and Resources” section in manual – It illustrates how the company examines the entire life cycle of a product, in order to identify points in the life cycle at which environmental impacts are greatest, and thus, priorities for improvementProduct brochures, or informational pamphletsWhat to Document?To what degree has the energy consumption of the product in the use phase been reduced?How much of the product can be recycled?To what degree and how has transport been optimised?How much energy was consumed during production of the product?The topic of Communication is covered in detail in Session III of this Training – Glance ahead in your Training Manual! Or look for examples in the Case Studies and Resources section of your ManualFazer
24 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO TRÊS – CONFERIRAvaliarRevisarrevise as políticas e estruturas organizacionais, na medida das necessidadesHaving, evaluated the initial situation, set goals, initiated a plan to achieve them, and reported your efforts to stakeholders, an organisation is now in a position to consider their accomplishments and learn from their mistakes. The types of questions one might ask at this phase would include:What worked and what did not?How can the effort be improved?Should more of the employees be involved in the initiative?Should the efforts be focused in a different direction?Were the appropriate means and methods used?Should more partners be involved?Should the level of ambition be raised?ConferirConferir
25 Implementar GCV: Planejar-Fazer-Conferir-Agir ESTÁGIO QUATRO - AGIRAtue. Ajuste. Melhore.Passe para o próximo nível.On the basis of experience, redefine and update goals:Begin a new round of planning, doing and checking. Always, keep focusing on achieving concrete environmental and social improvements to the product and supporting operations or services.Begin (or continue) to broaden relationships in the product chain – it is much easier to develop a base of knowledge if there is good cooperation and an atmosphere of trust among producers, suppliers, retail store owners, disposal facilities and other stakeholders in the product chain.Make the choice to increase ambition. This can be as simple as expanding the scope of their existing policies or as aggressive as establishing “Big Hairy Audacious Goals”.EXAMPLE: “Boeing sets BHAGS that are so audacious that they literally bet the company. When the built the 707, they did it in light of an industry view that the jet was not the right plane for the airline industry, no-one else is doing it, and Boeing said, ‘We’re going to build it,’ and they did. And it was successful, and it transformed the airline industry.” Note the Boeing 707 commercial passenger jet airliner was developed by Boeing in the 1950s. Although not the first commercial jet in service, it was a huge market success and is credited as ushering in the “Jet Age”. Sony also set a BHAG: Change the worldwide image of Japanese products as poor quality; create a pocketable transistor radio. (Source: Professor J. Porras, Lane Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Change, Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Co-author with James C. Collins of 'Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies‘, 1994).Agir
27 Estudos de casoThe following case studies provide examples of how companies are coordinating different concepts and tools amongst departments – to create an LCM approach, or to move toward LCM. The Ciba Chemicals and Utz Kapeh Coffee case studies illustrate how companies are also targeting improvements in their supply chain.If desired, walk participants through some or all of the following case studies. Ask questions of participants. Encourage discussion of the different strategies/concepts, systems/processes, programmes, tools/techniques, and data/information elements present in each case study and how the link amongst departments in an organisation. Tie the discussion back to:1) the elements of LCM introduced in Session I2) the specific concepts, programs and tools in place in the participants’ own organisations, or which they have observed at other organisations, or their ideas for new initiatives in their organisation3) the case studies written in the manualsDo not try to cover all case studies. Pick those most relevant to the audience (by sector, by concept or tool, by size or geography). Add other examples meaningful to the audience. Ask the participants to talk about other examples they have seen or heard. Discuss whether, and why, these are illustrative of LCM or elements of.
28 Estudo de caso – Mercedes Classe S ProjetoConsiderado todo o ciclo de vida do carro, incluindo:Produção de materiais e componentesVida útil de kmDisposição finalConsiderados processos individuaisUsado o software para ACV (GaBi 4.0) para considerar 200 parâmetros de entrada e 300 de saída.This case study demonstrates eco-design...Life Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that will enable the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. LCM should be, in the end, a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures that promote innovative production and consumption patterns more sustainable than those in place today. Therefore, to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors. Eco-design, or design-for-environment, is one such concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. supply chain management in the purchasing department, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.EXAMPLE: The development process for the S-Class (“Design for the Environment”) met all criteria described in the international guidance document ISO TR14062, for the inclusion of environmental aspects in product development. The environmental analysis – or “environmental balance” – included the entire life cycle of the new S-Class, from the production of materials and components to a service life of km, and disposal. In order to establish this environmental balance the Mercedes specialists considered over individual processes. The overall results included a total of more than 200 input parameters (resources) and around 300 output parameters (emissions). A full life cycle assessment was initiated according to standards ISO using a life cycle modelling software (Gabi 4.0 software).
29 Estudo de caso – Mercedes Classe S Mercedes Benz Environmental Certificate p. 16 ww.daimlerchrysler.com/Projects/c2c/channel/documents/776132_environmental_certificate_s_class_w221.pdf
30 Estudo de caso – Mercedes Classe S ResultadosO primeiro carro com certificado ambiental.Supera os padrões europeus de emissão de NOx e de hidrocarbonetos em 85 e 75%Melhoria na eficiência de consumo de combustível e redução de ruído.Uso de tintas à base de água para reduzir as emissões de solventes.Atende os requisitos europeus de reciclagem, de 2006 e de 2012.The S-Class models of Mercedes-Benz are the World’s first automobiles with an environmental certificate (of 44 pages) confirming the environment-oriented product development of this car, during which significant progress was made in numerous ecological important areas. For example, the exhaust emissions of the new S 350 are 85% below the current EU limit for nitrogen oxides and 75% below the EU limit for hydrocarbons. In addition, fuel consumption is reduced by 9%, and driving noise is reduced with 2 decibel (dB(A)). Use of water-based paints and water-borne fillers sharply reduces solvent emissions. Nanotechnology is used for the coating to give a surface more resistant to scratching than before.Further, Mercedes Benz offers a service to its customers – “Eco Driver Training”. The training can reduce fuel consumption by an average 15%. The diesel models can be operated with SunDiesel fuel.The materials for the new S-Class have been selected to meet both the recycling rate of 85% valid in EU from 2006 but will also comply with the 95% overall recycling rate applicable from More raw materials than before are made from natural or recycled resources.
31 Estudo de caso – 3M Por que a 3M está usando Gestão do Ciclo de Vida? A 3M produz cerca de 500 novos produtos a cada anoNos anos 90 começou a gerenciar todos os aspectos de um produto, desde a idéia até o uso e disposiçãoDe acordo com o CEO da 3M“[Gestão do Ciclo de Vida é] um compromisso que devemos assumir para manter nossa liderança na área ambiental e para fortalecer nossa posição competitiva”
32 Estudo de caso – 3M Como a 3M está usando a Gestão do Ciclo de Vida? A 3M usa uma matriz para identificar o impacto de produtos ou processos em todoo o seu ciclo de vida
33 Estudo de caso – 3M Como a 3M está usando Gestão do Ciclo de Vida? A 3M usa uma matriz para identificar o impacto de produtos ou processos em todo o seu ciclo de vidaIsto é utilizado para identificar riscos e oportunidades do produtoRiscos: perigos de um produto, grau de incerteza e viabilidade de controle da exposiçãoOportunidades: encaminha soluções para essas questões
34 Estudo de caso – BASFA BASF tem a ferramenta “Análise de Sócio-Eco-Eficiência”(SEEbalance®)lEles usam a Análise de Eco-eficiência ou SEEbalance® para:Decisões estratégicas sobre investimentos, produtos e mercados.Comparação de locais de produção e mercados.Priorização de desenvolvimento e pesquisa de produto.Discussão com fazedores de opinião para decisões políticas.Marketing, apoio a clientes externos e aceitação social de produtos.Para questões de comunicação, como por exemplo relatórios de sustentabilidade da corporação.LCM is... :... “the application of life cycle thinking to business practices” – BASF uses data from the SEEbalance tool to inform strategic business decisions. It applies life cycle thinking to business practices... “with the aim to systematically manage the life cycle of an organisation’s products and services... to promote production and consumption patterns that are more sustainable than the ones we have today” – BASF in this case uses SEEbalance to compare different product scenarios (and process scenarios), to foster improvement, to prioritise research & developmentBASF’s tool analyzises products from the end customer’s angle and weights the economic, ecological and social aspects equally. Examples of the output are on the next slide.
35 Estudo de caso – BASFA aplicação da ferramenta permite à BASF a comparação de produtos, em relação a vários critérios.
36 Estudo de caso – BASF FPartes Interessadas de sucesso da BASF: Comprometimento da alta cúpulaCombinação de ACV, CCV e aspectos sociais.Resultados quantitativos com uma avaliação clara.Ilustração simples e expressiva dos resultados.Possibilidade de análises de cenário e de sensibilidade.Rapidez (2 meses) e baixos custos das análises (<30,000 €).
37 Estudo de Caso – Gestão Verde na SONY Estabelecimento de metaSão estabelecidas metas de desempenho ambiental nos planos anuais de negócios das divisões da companhia, através de metas de longo prazo.A SONY usa uma equação de eco-eficiência para monitorar os progressosEco-Eficiência = Vendas / Impacto AmbientalAs metas incluem:Redução no peso do produtoRedução no número de partes usadasAumento na proporção de materiais recicladosBanimento de soldadores de mercúrio e chumboUso de materiais isentos de halogêniosOs impactos são considerados e monitorados no seu ciclo de vidaEles tambem apoiam a responsabilidade social corporativa e têm um código de conduta para os fornecedoresA Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is recommended for structuring LCM in an organisation. A key part of “Planning” includes setting meaningful goals for improvement.SONY’s approach illustrates goal setting, and examples of product-focused goals which cover the life cycle of the product...
38 Estudo de Caso – Gestão Verde na SONY SONY believes it is critical that customers are able to factor environmental considerations into purchase decisions. Therefore, SONY informs customers about the environmental performance of products using an “Eco Info” mark.Source:
39 Estudo de Caso – Hartmann Group Produz embalagens para ovos, frutas e industriais, principalmente a partir de papel recicladoVem usando Gestão de Ciclo de Vida desde 1997Desenvolveu e usa o “Systematic Tool for Environmental Progress” ou STEP®-modelDesenvolve estudos de ACV para todos os principais produtosDá uma visão geral de todos os aspectos ambientais e conduz as decisões do negócio, do planejamento às vendasEm 2006, foi introduzido um conceito de avaliação de fornecedoresLife Cycle Management... Reflect on the strategies/concepts, systems/processes, programmes, tools/techniques, and data/information elements presented in Session I (remind participants they can look back to slides in their manuals) – Identify, and discuss, how many of these are mentioned in the Hartmann example:The Hartmann Group produces packaging for egg, fruit and industrial products mainly based on recycled paper. The company conducts life cycle assessments on major products, by also have a tool for modelling “environmental progress”. Hartmann has around 2,600 employees in 21 countries worldwide and have an annual turnover of about 1½ billion €. Hartmann has also a long tradition for preventive environmental initiatives, and in 2002 Hartmann received the European Commission’s Management Award for Sustainable Development. Hartmann is member of World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and has joined the United Nations Global Compact. Nine production sites are certified according to ISO for environmental management systems, and five production sites are certified according to OHSAS for occupational health and safety management.
40 Estudo de Caso - ABBABB integrou a sustentabilidade em cada aspecto de seu negócio, incluindo:Desenvolvimento de produtoFornecedoresProduçãoFluxo de materiais e resíduosLCM is...:“… the application of life cycle thinking to business practices” – ABB has integrated life cycle thinking into product development, supply management, production/manufacturing“…a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures to address environmental, economic, and social aspect of products, procedures and organisations” – ABB’s framework includes: life cycle analysis, life cycle costing tools, published/certified Environmental Product Declarations, a set of minimum standards for suppliers and a process for qualifying them, management systems at all manufacturing sites, tools to track waste/emissions/flow of materials throughout the company, goals to phase hazardous substances out of manufacturingABB is a global leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve their performance while lowering environmental impact. ABB has about employees in more than 100 countries and had revenue of 22.4 billion $ in 2005.Product Development:A lifecycle perspective is required in all product developmentProvide guidelines and tailored life cycle analysis and life cycle costing toolsAs part of this have undertaken over 100 Life Cycle Assessments many of which were further developed into Environmental Product Declarations.SuppliersA Supplier Qualification Process ensures that suppliers meet defined minimum standardsProductionManagement Systems have been established at all manufacturing sitesMaterial Flows and WastesWaste, emissions, and flow of materials are tracked throughout the whole companyUse of hazardous substances are being phased out of manufacturing
41 Estudo de Caso – Procter & Gamble Produz uma grande variedade de produtos, desde baterias até alimentosAvalia a sustentabilidade de produtos usa sua própria ferramenta Product Sustainability Assessment Tool PSATResponsabilidade social.Riscos e benefícios para consumidor/sociedade.Segurança humana.Responsabilidades sociais ao longo da cadeia de suprimento.Perfil ambiental.Segurança ambiental.Gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos.Eficiência de recursos.Esforços para redução de riscos.Desenvolvimento econômico.Aspectos econômicos da companhiaAspectos econômicos de consumidor/sociedade.The multinational Proctor & Gamble Company is committed to sustainability. In all years , Proctor & Gamble was ranked first in the consumer, non-cyclical market sector of the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, and P&G is also an original charter supporter of the Global Sullivan Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility.P&G, as one of the business pioneers in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is introducing a Product Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT) for assessing sustainability profile of new products. It looks holistically at systems, considers the whole life cycle and addresses science-based data and perceptions. It may guide on design choices, help communicate data and identify opportunities and potential issues/risks.
42 Estudo de Caso – Procter & Gamble PSAT fornece indicadores quantitativos nas seguintes formas:Swiffer is a floor sweeping product...
43 Estudo de Caso – Ciba Especialidades Químicas A Ciba tem operações em 22 paises, várias delas em Países em DesenvolvimentoEles mantém um padrão ambiental, de saúde e de segurança aplicado a todas as operações, independentemente de sua localizaçãoEstão cobertos aspectos tais como: direitos humanos, trabalho infantil, propina, empregos e saúde e segurança da comunidade, bem como considerações padrão de Meio Ambiente/Saúde/SegurançaDependendo da violação, isto pode resultar no término de um contrato ou assistência para ajudar um fornecedor a atingir os critériosLife Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that will enable the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. It has been said, already, that to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors. Supply Chain Management is one such concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. eco-design in the product development process, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.Ciba has committed to meeting a standard of performance, but also holds its suppliers to this same level of performance
44 Estudo de Caso – Utz Kapeh Certificado de Café Responsável Certifica social e ambientalmente a origem e produção responsáveis de caféEstabelece um conjunto de critérios para a prática responsável e eficiente da cultura de café incluindo:Ambiental: minimização e documentação do uso de agroquímicos, gerenciamento do uso de água e segurança do alimentoSocial: proteção de direitos trabalhistas e acesso a cuidados com a saúde e educação para empregados e suas famíliasLCM is...:“… the systematic management of product and material life cycles, to promote production and consumption patterns that are more sustainable than the ones we have today” – Utz Kapeh coordinates efforts amongst actors along the coffee supply chain, to optimise improvements and solutionsThe foundation ”Utz Kapeh”, meaning ”good coffee” in a Mayan language, was formed by three Guatemalan coffee producers and the Dutch coffee roaster company Ahold in It is independent, worldwide, non-for-profit organisation with the aim of developing a program to guarantee responsibly grown mainstream coffee as a mean of recognizing and differentiating progressive growers. An office was opened in Guatemala in 1999, and it’s headquarter in The Netherlands was established in 2002.Utz Kapeh’s worldwide certification program sets and implements the global standard for socially and environmentally responsible coffee production and sourcing. It is the fastest growing coffee certification program in the world. Utz Kapeh assures the social and environmental quality in coffee production that coffee drinkers expect. The Utz Kapeh certification provides the answer to two key questions:Where does the coffee come from?How was it produced?A web-based ”Track and Trace System” follows the certified coffee though the chain from grower to roaster. This gives buyers insight into where their coffee really comes from. Utz Kapeh’s “Chain of Custody” criteria assure that certified coffee is not mixed with non-certified coffee.The certification program is based on a 32 pages long “Code of Conduct” with a set of social and environmental criteria for responsible coffee growing practices and efficient farm management. It includes elements such as standards for recordkeeping, minimised and documented use of agrochemicals for crop protection, water management, food safety, protection of labour rights and access to health care and education for employees and their families. Independent certifiers conduct annual inspections to ensure producers comply with the requirements.In September 2005 Utz Kapeh worked with more than 100 producers and producer groups throughout Latin America, Asia and Africa. In addition 57 roaster companies and 146 registered buyers.
45 Estudo de Caso – Utz Kapeh Certificado de Café Responsável Utz Kapeh monitors the coffee through its entire system to ensure that the benefits are maximised and that it’s reputation is protected.The numbers here indicate the process of attaching a certificate to a shipment of coffee.is the sale of the coffee which the certified producer informs Utz Kapeh of who in turnsend back a certificate for that shipmentthe same process takes place at the roasting stage and there is auditing to make sure that no co-mingling of coffee takes placeif necessary this step can be repeated with the final trade/sale of the coffee even to a number of purchasers.Image from Utz Kapeh Traceability System (http://www.utzkapeh.org/index.php?pageID=159)
46 Estudo de Caso – Inovação Induzida pela Sustentabilidade Constatações95% das companhias acreditam ter potencial de agregar valor;Cerca de 25% acreditam poder, definitivamente agregar valor;Este tipo de inovação está começando a oferta valor agregado, mas os benefícios ainda são intangíveis;Líderes estão atualmente focando mais em oportunidades do que apenas em riscosUma pequena minoria de companhias integrou na estratégia e no projeto de produto/processoPoucas companhias estão explorando oportunidades de evolução baseadas na Inovação induzida pela SustentabilidadeThis case study demonstrates some of the perceived value created by applying Sustainability criteria to business decision makingIn 2005 the consultancy company Arthur D Little has conducted a study of, how 40 leading international companies are using Sustainability-Driven Innovation, which means the creation of new market space, products and services or processes driven by social, environmental or sustainability issues.The full report is available here:
47 Estudo de Caso – Inovação Induzida pela Sustentabilidade
48 Estudo de Caso – The Zabbaleen Cairo Egypt Cairo produz t of resíduos/diaZabbaleen coleta resíduos porta-a-porta e tem retorno financeiro, selecionando os reclicáveisZabbaleens reciclam 60-90% dos resíduosCatadores contratados reciclam apenas uma média de 20% dos resíduosThis case study demonstrates the types of opportunities that exist for perhaps unconventional approaches to addressing some of the economic, environmental and social impacts by the application of legislation.Cairo is one of the most populated cities in the Middle East and Africa. Municipal solid waste, MSW generated daily is in the range of 10,000 – ton. A number of national and international companies are engaged in the collection of about 60 – 70 % of daily generated MSW, while Zabbaleen would account for the collection of the remaining %. The Zabbaleen of Cairo have been involved in the collection, recycling, and reuse of domestic waste as a means of survival. Zabbaleen works involve labour intensive door to door collection, mostly using donkey carts. Collection is followed by sorting out in nearby districts. Non – organic recyclable waste, including glass, paper, plastic, bones, metals, and textile is used to provide local market with products and consumer items at reasonable prices. Meanwhile, organic waste is used for pig raising industry.An average of 60 – 90% of MSW collected by Zabbaleen is recycled or reused, while 10 – 40 % ends up in dumps and / or landfills.National and international companies use trucks, of varied sizes to collect domestic waste from pooling sites, or building to building. Collected waste is transported for intermediate sites for mechanical compression, then further transported to compost facility for sorting out. An average of 20% of the collected waste is composted, while the remaining 80% is further transported in heavy trucks to landfills located in remote areas rather far from collection and composting sites.Zabbaleen collection has different advantages, that include,Negligible gas emissionWaste minimisationEnergy savingLonger life span of the landfillHigh recovery rateCheap labourLow overheadProviding consumers with affordable products.In contrast, national and international companies engaged in MSW have a number of undesirable features that include,Air pollution, gas emissionExtensive use of energyWaste generationLow recovery rateHigh overheadA high labour / ton ratioOthers
49 Estudo de Caso Study - Sayman & Danks Acabamento de Metais Localizada em Durban, África do SulAgentes motivadoresMudanças RegulatóriasDemanda de ClientesAtividadesRedução global do uso de produtos químicosEliminação de substâncias tóxicas como o cromo 6Redução de 50% no consumo de águaEm processo de certificação pela ISO 9000ResultadosGanho de vantagem competitivaVisão do desempenho ambiental como uma oportunidadeTornou-se defensora da prevenção da poluiçãoThis is an example of a company affected by legislative change and the benefits derived from striving to meet this new challenge.Industry in South Africa is beginning to start its environmental transformation. South African industry faces many challenges following the country reintegration to the global economy after the fall of the apartheid regime. The change is slow but it can be observed that some industries are beginning to aim for more integrated forms of environmental management to their operations. Sayman & Danks, a metal finishing company in Durban, illustrates the changes of some medium, small and micro enterprises in South Africa in their way towards a life cycle management approach.Sayman & Danks is a medium sized company in the city of Durban, South Africa that exemplifies the environmental improvements led by pressure from customers and government environmental legislation.REGULATORY CHANGESThe metal finishing sector has been traditionally a highly pollutant and problematic industry in Durban. eThekwini Municipality, the local authority in charge of the city, tightened its regulations to the metal finishing companies while offering them an alternative to achieve the new standards through one of the first waste minimisation clubs in the country.CUSTOMER DEMANDThe company is a supplier to the automotive industry who has put direct pressure on them to improve their operations; reduce waste, recycle and reuse and phase out toxic substances.ACTIVITIESThe change was not easy for the company due to lack of capital to invest, human resources and lack of previous experience in managing their environmental performance. The pressure brought a new learning curve to the company as they had been working using the same technique for 15 years and initially did not see any reason to change.The company has achieved numerous benefits thanks to their new approach to their operations; they have reduced their use of chemicals while producing three times the volume, a 50 % water reduction and phased out toxic substances such as Chrome 6. The company is in the process of gaining ISO 9000 certification, has a robust occupational health and safety system, an uncommon feature among the industry and complies with government regulations quite comfortably. Additional to these benefits Sayman & Danks is now building effluent plants thanks to the experience won with their waste minimisation and cleaner production activities.RESULTSSaymand & Danks is one of the advocates of pollution prevention among the sector and its example has influenced positively the metal finishing industry. The company has gained a competitive advantage over competitors and now sees improved environmental performance as a window of opportunity rather than a burden.
51 Descreva uma iniciativa corrente Purpose and Objectives: This exercise is designed to allow participants to think about one environmental/social initiatives that exist within their own organisation today – specifically within one department – and then to think about an new environmental/social initiative which could be established (or augmented) in another part of the organisation tomorrow, in order to support LCMMaterials: Note pads for each individual to write their ideas on, and a method of documenting a group discussion at the end of the exercise.Facilitating the Activity:Ask the group to work individually (or in pairs if they are from the same organisation)Ask each participant to think of one current program in their organisation that is focused on environmental and/or social performanceRequest participants answer four questions about the program they’ve identified:What department(s) owns the program / initiative?What parts of the life cycle does the program focus on?Is the program part of a broader system, (e.g. are their targets and deadlines? Is it an isolated program)?Is it structured to promote continuous improvement, stimulate new ideas?Write these four questions on a white board or flip chart so participants can see themOnce participants have had enough time (10 minutes), ask for volunteers to talk about the program/initiative which came to their mind. Ask them to describe it to the group, and discuss answers to any of the four questions they choose. Allow others to ask questions, and offer their ideasCapture ideas, or highlights, on a white board or flip chartShow next slide while participants work & write...From: Life Cycle Management - A Business Guide to Sustainability. UNEP/SETAC, 2007.
52 Gestão do Ciclo de Vida é… … a aplicação do pensar ciclo de vida às práticas empresariais, com o objetivo de, sistematicamente, gerenciar os produtos e serviços da organização… a gestão sistemática do ciclo de vida de produtos e materiais, para promover padrões de produção e de consumo que sejam mais sustentáveis do que os atuais…uma estrutura de gestão de conceitos, técnicas e procedimentos, flexível e integrada, voltada para os aspectos ambientais, econômicos e sociais dos produtos, procedimentos e organizaçõesThink of one current program in organisation, focused on environmental and/or social performance... Write answers to the following?What department(s) owns the program / initiative?What parts of the life cycle does the program focus on?Is the program part of a broader system, (e.g. are their targets and deadlines? Is it an isolated program)?Is it structured to promote continuous improvement, stimulate new ideas?
53 Imagine uma iniciativa futura Facilitating the Activity, continued:Now ask participants to think about: (1) a different part of their organisation, a different department, than they just described; and (2) a concept, programme, or tool they learned about so far which interested them – With these two things in mind, ask participants to answer the following questions:If your organisation were to implement a new program/initiative in a department today, what should that program be?What department(s) should be involved? And whyDescribe how this could foster LCMWould this new program link to, or support, the existing program you described earlier?Write these four questions on a white board or flip chart so participants can see themOnce participants have had enough time (10 minutes), ask again for volunteers to talk about the new idea for a program/initiative which came to their mind. Ask them to describe it to the group, including answers to any of the four questions. Allow them to explain where they got the idea, and why they think it is interesting / valuable. Allow others to ask questions, and input ideas they generated during the exercise.Capture ideas, or highlights, on a white board or flip chartFrom: Life Cycle Management - A Business Guide to Sustainability. UNEP/SETAC, 2007.
54 CONCLUSÃO GROUP DISCUSSION – CLOSING DISCUSSION This is the same short exercise participants went through in the opening of this session. Ask participants, now that they have participated in this Session, to think about how they would define LCM to a new person, and what they would say is valuable about LCM. Once participants have had one minute to think, ask for volunteers to state their ideas out loud. Allow for questions and clarifications. Alternatively, ask participants simply to write their answers, preferably on a different sheet of paper than where they wrote their first answer.Ask participants to now compare this with what they thought (or wrote) at the beginning of this session. Ask for volunteers to state differences, similarities or other interesting observations from their two answers.CONCLUSÃO
55 Exemplo: Implementação de Eco-Design em uma Companhia com GCV REVIEW THIS “Eco-Design” EXAMPLE, and decide whether this level of detail is appropriate for the audience you are training - - It is not obligatory to include the remaining slides in this SessionLife Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that enables the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. LCM should be, in the end, a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures that promote innovative production and consumption patterns more sustainable than those in place today. Therefore, to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors.Eco-design, or design-for-environment, is one existing concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. supply chain management in the purchasing department, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.Exemplo: Implementação de Eco-Design em uma Companhia com GCV
56 A Importância do Projeto ImpactoImpactoRegardless of where a product’s impact occurs it is commonly accepted that design will determine 70-80% of the total life-cycle costs and as a consequence the majority of the life-cycle impacts.Early assessment of the cradle- to- grave environmental aspects of the product system can lead to effective integration of environmental considerations into the design process. This is also the most cost effective stage to integrate these considerations as retrofitting existing products may lead to additional costs.Supporting Case Study, “First car with an environmental certificate”, in “Case Studies and Resources section of manuals – it illustrates how life-cycle thinking integrated eraly into product design & development influenced new products, such as the Mercedes S-ClassProduto AProduto B
57 O estágio genérico – “Gate Development Process” Plane-jamentoPolíticas e Metasda CompanhiaGProjetoConceitualGProjetoDetalhadoTeste/ProtótipoInício deProduçãoRevisãodo produtoGGGWhile the design process is unique to every industry and organisation this stage-gate diagram depicts the generic new product development process. (The green boxes represent stages or steps that need to be taken while the blue diamonds represent gates or decision points.) By incorporating the collection of economic, environmental, and social data it is possible to integrate considerations of these aspects into the decision making gates.Atividades de SuporteFonte ISO/TR 14062: 2002
58 Eco-Design Eco-Design se aplica para produtos existentes ou novos Adapte-o ao perfil do ciclo de vida do produto em questão... Mas também às estratégias de negócio da companhia e à cultura e capabilidade da organizaçãoThere are different concepts organisations use to stimulate designers to consider sustainability criteria during the design and development of new (or revised) products. Eco-Design, Eco-Efficiency and Bio-mimicry are among those. In this example, we will examine Eco-design...
59 Eco-Design Definição do Produto (Sistema) Avaliação Ambiental Perspectiva doCiclo de VidaPerspectivado stakeholderEcodesignComunicaçãoAmbientalEco-design can follows a general pattern, like that presented here.ISO has issued a technical report outlining the integration of environmental aspects into product design and development (TR14062:2002). In Session I, we learned how organisations combine different Concepts, Programmes, Tools and Data to support LCM. ISO’s technical report, guidance document, on eco-design serves as an example of how an internationally accepted guidance document can serve to support, foster, LCM in an organisation.The European Commission has issued a framework legislation on Eco-Design of Energy Using Products. Not voluntary, but mandatory for companies selling into the European Union, this also serves as an example of how international policy may drive and support certain elements of LCM in an organisation.Fonte ISO/TR 14062: 2002
60 Na prática – Eco-Design Definição doProduto (Sistema)EcodesignComunicaçãoAmbientalAvaliação ambientalPerspectiva doCiclo de VidastakeholderImpactoOutput from this stage will include:the product compositionproduct systemlife cycle stage datatechnical parameters of the product relevant to the significant environmental aspects or environmental parameters
61 Na Prática – Eco-Design Avaliação AmbientalPerspectiva doCiclo de VidaPerspectivado stakeholderEcodesignComunicaçãoAmbientalDefinição doProduto (Sistema)Environmental Assessment:Life Cycle Perspective- Assesses the environmental aspects of a product system based on the impacts caused by the system. Tools that can be used to support this include life cycle thinking and assessments, both formal and informal.Stakeholder Engagement - Assess the environmental aspects of a product based on the stakeholders view such as legal requirements, market demands, and competitor’s products.
62 Na prática - Eco-Design Definição doProduto (Sistema)Avaliação AmbientalPerspectiva doCiclo de VidaPerspectivado staleholderComunicaçãoAmbientalBens duráveis (ex. aparelhos)ImpactoConservação de energiaEliminação de constituintes tóxicos e outros micro constituintes que complicam a manutenção e upgradesDescatáveis (ex. fraldas)Once the environmental impact criteria has been established one is then able to apply the appropriate design criteria to the areas of largest impact. In these cases one can see that the design strategies address the areas of greatest impact.Below is a step-by-step procedure to implementing eco-design task with relevant tools identified in bracket (Wimmer, Zust, and Lee, 2004).Link the significant environmental parameters to relevant environmental strategies. (Any set of environmental strategies and guides). In the above examples one can see the difference between impacts from an appliance and from diapers.Identify relevant implementation measures for the improvement of the environmental parameters belonging to a certain environmental strategy. (Any checklist that allows evaluating implementation measures). On the right of the above slide there are possible measures to address these impacts.Develop product specification. It consists of fixed and wished specification.Identify function of the reference product and then add new function and/or modify existing function based on the product specification (Function analysis).Generate ideas to realize the function. (TRIZ, brain-writing, brainstorming, patent search, etc).Generate variants. Assembling idea corresponding to each function of the newly improved product generates the variants.Develop product concept by selecting variant. Variants are evaluated against criteria such as economic, technical, social and environmental onesContinuing detailed embodiment design, layout, testing, prototype, production and market launch.ImpactBiodegradabilidadeEliminação de quaisquer materiais problemáticos após sua disposição
63 Na prática – Eco-Design ComunicaçãoAmbientalDefinição doProduto (Sistema)Avaliação AmbientalPerspectivado Ciclo de Vidado stakeholderEcodesignCommunicate the environmental aspects of the environmentally improved product or eco-product to the market with the hope of increasing market share or at the least to enhance the image of the product and the company
64 Gestão do Ciclo de Vida Treinamento - Sumário Introdução à GCVPrimeira sessãoComo a GCV é usada na PráticaEsta sessão!Comunicando resultados de GCVTerceira sessãoGCV e Expectativas das Partes InteressadasQuarta Sessão