Apresentação em tema: "História das negociações da Convenção-Quadro de Controle do Tabaco"— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 História das negociações da Convenção-Quadro de Controle do Tabaco Seminário Internacional – Controle Social do Tabaco em debate – propostas de ACTuaçãoHistória das negociações da Convenção-Quadro de Controle do TabacoDr Vera Luiza da Costa e SilvaConsultoraSecretaria de Vigilância em SaúdeMinistério da Saúde
2 A GLOBALIZAÇÃO DA EPIDEMIA DO TABACO .A GLOBALIZAÇÃO DA EPIDEMIA DO TABACOA globalização do consumo do tabaco gerou um aumento mundial de consumo, adoecimento e morteA doença é contraída em estádios, shows, concertos, em casa e nas ruas e disseminada para crianças e pessoas de todas as culturas, sexo e idadeMecanismos de marketing são globalizados e comuns a todos países mas as regulações são limitadas a cada umAs witnessed in this tobacco industry quote the tobacco companies are all too aware of the powers and profits that can be made by manipulating the globalization process. The Globalization of the epidemic restricts the capacity of countries to regulate tobacco through domestic legislation alone. It was in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic, the 191 member States initiated negotiations towards a Framework Convention on Tobacco Control would be a global complement to national actions.The public health community has been on the sidelines of the negotiations of environmental treaties such as the Ozone Treaty/Montreal Protocol, and the Framework Convention on Climate Change/Kyoto Protocol, and these treaties have public health implications. However, the public health community was not directly responsible for leading the political movement that led these treaty-making processes forward. But now for the first time in history the political limelight is on us, and is up to the tobacco control and public health community-at-large to show that it can link its solid scientific evidence base to an effective treaty negotiation and implementation process.
3 Um modelo de estabelecer uma legislação internacional Passo 1: Convenção-Quadroacordo de cooperação internacional com objetivos amplos e criação de mecanismos de governançaPassos futuros: Protocolsmedidas específicas designadas para implementar os objetivos da convenção e adicionar obrigações adicionaisPrecedentes:Proteção do meio ambienteFC can be contrasted with comprehensive agreements – that try to address all issues in one document – Law of the Sea Agreement ex.In contrast FC/P approach divides negotiation of separate issues into separate agreements: Protocols supplement, or amend the umbrellas agreement, the framework convention.
4 Coragem para liderarDr. G.H. Brundtland: olhando para o futuroNós convidamos os estados-membros da OMS a iniciar os trabalhos da Convenção-Quadro – dar os primeiros passos no processo que foi exigido pela Assembléia Mundial de Saúde em 1985Just over a decade ago the idea of an international treaty for public health would have seemed implausible, if not ridiculous. The courage and leadership of Dr Brundtland has helped to make the FCTC a global reality.An approach to international law making:The legal strategy is being pursued to address global tobacco control. The Framework Convention - Protocol Approach is a dynamic model of global standard setting. The term Framework Convention is used to describe a variety of legal agreements that establish broad commitments and general system of governance for an issue area.Assembléia Mundial de Saúde, 18 Maio 1998
5 O processo do tratado1. Início: iniciou-se com a resolução WHA em maio de 1995 e completou- se com a resolução WHA em maio de 19992. Preparo do texto:Um grupo de trabalho para propor as basesO orgão de negociação inter-governamental, subsidiário à AMS3. Adoção: Maio de 20034. Entrada em vigor: Fevereiro de 2005In Resolution 49.17, the health assembly called upon the DG to initiate the development of a framework convention strategy to deal with aspects of tobacco control that transcend national boundaries and include a strategy to encourage member nations to move progressively towards adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies.Number of remarkable things about FCTC process, but to me one of most interesting is that this first convention negotiations ever authorized by the Health Assembly in the 50 odd years of WHO’s history. Remarkable, given the fact that some specialized agencies have become veritable treaty making machines, such as the ILO with 180 Conventions. Despite early work on the issue, the idea of a framework convention lacked political support, resources and and policy direction.In May 1999, the Health Assembly adopted a critical resolution on the treaty that set forth the process of developing it. Political process mapped out in May consists of 2 steps:Working Group: a technical body open to all states to prepare proposed draft elements.Negotiating body: open to all member states.
6 Mobilização de forças A participação no processo O relógio da morte Organizações não-governamentaisA participação no processoO relógio da morteAs vítimas do tabacoA mobilização internacional de apoio ao tratadoNGOs are mobilizing support for the FCTC. They are in the forefront of the activities to counter efforts by the tobacco industry to undermine effective tobacco programmes.When the FCTC process first began in the fall of 1998, WHO was able to meet all the NGOs interested in international tobacco control around a small table in our WHO cafeteria. Today, it would take a large auditorium to meet all of the NGO representatives who were mobilized as a voice of civil society in the FCTC process.
7 Como as ONGs participam do processo Participam de audiências públicasEstabelecem relações oficiais com a OMS e apoiam participantes nacionaisDistribuem posicionamentos acerca das negociaçõesApoiam os delegados dos países diretamenteManifestam-se oficialmente em plenáriaRealizam oficinas informativas
8 Sociedade civil Organizações comunitárias Organizações civis Outros grupos de interesseOrganizações profissionaisOrganizações de saúdeCoalisões de ONGs
9 Principais atividades de ONGs Criar um clima nacional favorável para controlar o uso do tabacoDar suporte ao governo para fazer o que é precisoIdentificar legislação prioritária e ajudar a desenvolver um projeto legislativoAumentar a consciência da irresponsabilidade da atuação da indústria fumageiraContinuar a fomentar a necessidade de medidas necessárias para o controle do tabagismoManter uma imagem de respeito e de força
10 INGCAT ABOUT US Purpose Tobacco is the biggest single cause of preventable disease and death worldwide, and the problem is getting worse, not better. As developed countries reduce their addiction to smoking, tobacco companies are seeking new markets in the developing world. By 2010, 70% of the world’s tobacco-related death will be in developing countries, many of whom already suffer the environmental and economic impacts of involvement in tobacco production. INGCAT is a coalition of the world’s leading lung, cancer and heart organisations who are united in commitment to reducing this burden.MembersThe founding members of INGCAT were the International Union Against Tobacco and Lung Disease (The Union), the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and the World Heart Federation (WHF). These three together launched INGCAT at the World Conference on Tobacco or Health in Paris, INGCAT now has members all over the world, from small national societies to global-level organisations.Board and StaffINGCAT’s governing board is elected from its member organisations. The current Board members are:Archie Turnbull, European Respiratory Society (President)Nils Billo, The Union (Treasurer)Judy Wilkenfeld, Campaign for Tobacco Free KidsSania Nishtar, Heartfile Pakistan.The headquarters staff is currently based in London - Director, Doreen McIntyreMain activitiesINGCAT’s main purpose is to help its members take effective action on tobacco, principally within the context of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This includes providing information, help to find resources, technical assistance, training, opportunities to link with other members, and co-ordinated international campaigns.Policies and position statementsINGCAT’s members regularly debate issues in tobacco control, achieving consensus on policy measures, treatment recommendations and operational practice, such as considerations on engaging with tobacco companies. These policies and positions are promoted among INGCAT members and their respective communities. INGCAT now fully endorses the comprehensive set of measures outlined in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the recommendations in the WHO Code of Practice on tobacco control for Health Professional Organisations.
11 Vote for the Corporate Hall of Shame The Network for Accountability of Tobacco Transnationals (NATT) was founded by Corporate Accountability International in the spring of 1999 to broaden support for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). NATT members emphasize grassroots organizing, and are located in the developing world.NATT works to ensure a strong, unified voice for the global tobacco treaty, to institute effective controls over tobacco corporations. NATT also contributes to the establishment of broad global standards that hold corporations accountable for policies, practices, and products that endanger human health and the environment.NATT is made up of more than 100 organizations in 50 countries, including consumer, environmental, fair trade, human rights, faith-based and corporate accountability organizations.(click here for the full list of members)Corporate Accountability International and NATT played a vital role in mobilizing global support, especially in developing countries, for the adoption of the global tobacco treaty by the World Health Assembly in May NATT members also pushed for effective advertising and promotion limits and measures that restrict tobacco industry interference in public health policy. Those curbs on the industry have been written into the treaty.Corporate Accountability International and NATT continue to campaign for speedy ratification and implementation of the treaty. Click here for the Handbook for FCTC Ratification CampaignsOur FCTC Ratification Campaign Working GrAbout Us Corporate Accountability International is a membership organization that protects people by waging and winning campaigns that challenge irresponsible and dangerous corporate actions around the world. For nearly 30 years, Corporate Accountability International and our members have scored major victories that protect people's lives by forcing corporations like Nestlé, General Electric and Philip Morris/Altria to stop abusive practices.Our Vision for a Better World Today the air we breathe, the water we drink and our very democracy are under increasing threat from corporate abuses. Since our first campaign pressuring Nestlé to stop dangerous marketing of infant formula to children in developing countries, Corporate Accountability International has taken on abusive global corporations one industry at a time. Now, we are expanding our work to expose and challenge several industries at once. We are building on our successful track record to strengthen democracy by limiting corporate interference in national and international policymaking so that ordinary people around the world can hold corporations accountable for their actions and thereby put an end to irresponsible corporate behavior.Why We Target Global Corporations Corporations boost profits at the expense of people's health and environment by using campaign contributions, aggressive lobbying, deceptive public relations and influence over global trade talks to write the rules that govern our economy and society to their advantage. As corporations grow richer and more powerful than many countries, it becomes even more important to challenge the undue influence they use to weaken government policies that should protect people.How We Work Our campaign teams are engaged in advocacy, grassroots organizing, research and education as we work with an active membership and international alliances to put an end to irresponsible corporate behavior. In addition to our Campaign Headquarters in Boston, we have offices in Los Angeles, Oakland, Seattle and Bogotá, Colombia.Water Corporate control of water, including the bottle water industry, is contributing to the growing global water crisis.Join our Think Outside the Bottle campaignLearn MoreTobacco Why is Big Tobacco still fighting the global tobacco treaty? And why has the U.S. still not ratified it?Take ActionBig Box Behind Wal-Mart’s Low Prices: Abusive Political PowerFood What agribusiness and food corporations don’t want you to know about their role in the global food epidemic, hunger and obesity.Oil Oil companies across the globe are causing permanent damage to our air, water and communities.Vote for the Corporate Hall of Shame
12 Trabalhando pela CQCT da OMS Mais de 250 organizaçõesRepresentação demais de 90 paísesFoi criada para odesenvolvimento, ratificação e implementaçào do tratadoThe ALLIANCEThe Framework Convention Alliance is made up of more than 250 organizations representing over 90 countries around the world. It was created to support the development, ratification, and implementation of the WHO FCTC. This website will provide you with the resources you need to take the vision of this treaty and make it a reality. You will find details on the specific provisions of the FCTC, signing and ratification information and extensive links to online tobacco resources. Thank you for visiting, and please let us know how we can improve this site.What is the Framework Convention Alliance? The Framework Convention Alliance is made up of more than 250 organizations representing over 90 countries around the world which are working to support the signing, ratification and effective implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and related protocols. The Alliance includes individual NGOs and organizations working at the local or national levels as well as existing coalitions and alliances working at national, regional, and international levels.Why was it formed? Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death, disease, and disability in the world today. At present, an estimated 4.9 million people annually die from tobacco-related disease -- one death every seven seconds. If current trends continue, 10 million people will die each year by the year 2030, with the majority of those deaths occurring in developing countries. If swift action is not taken, tobacco will soon become the leading cause of death worldwide, causing more deaths than HIV, tuberculosis, maternal mortality, automobile accidents, homicide and suicide combined.However, if appropriate action is taken, the benefits to be reaped in terms of prevented death and disease, and enhanced quality of life for millions of people worldwide will be enormous.The FCA was formed out of the need for improved communication among groups already engaged in work around the FCTC process and the need for a more systematic outreach to NGOs not yet engaged in the process, particularly in developing countries, who could both benefit from and contribute to the creation of an effective FCTC.The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control represents an historic opportunity for global action to curtail the tobacco epidemic.The vision of the Framework Convention Alliance is a world free of death and disease caused by tobacco.The mission of the FCA is to promote and support a global network for co-ordinated international campaigning against tobacco; developing tobacco control capacity, particularly in developing countries; and carrying out effectively the watchdog function for the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
13 Organizações de controle do câncer The UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) is theonly international nongovernmental organisation dedicatedexclusively to the global control of cancer.Its vision is of a world where cancer is eliminated as a majorlife-threatening disease.Uniting 262 cancer-fighting organisations in 84 countries,the UICC is a resource for action and a voice for change.Global voices, global actionStatements from the cancer community in support of World No Tobacco Day, 2005Worldwide, cancer is on the increase. And so are tobacco-related cancers – over the past 30 years, lung cancer rates have doubled worldwide. Now, of the 5 million people killed every year by tobacco, 1.4 million die of lung cancer.World No Tobacco Day 2005 focuses on the role of health professionals and health organisations in tobacco control.In May 2005, the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) invited the cancer community – organisations and individuals – to send a statement of support for World No Tobacco Day.Organisations and individuals from over 60 countries responded. Many sent personal statements describing the impact of tobacco on cancer in their work, communities and countries. This short summary presents selected statements from those received.These voices from the frontlines of the war on tobacco paint a vivid picture of the deadly toll of tobacco-related cancer throughout the world. They highlight the need for concerted action to curb tobacco use: promoting awareness, protecting young people, helping patients, and supporting effective public policies, such as the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control.They also show how across the globe, the cancer community – oncologists, nurses, volunteers, researchers, workers with cancer organisations and many more – works to build a better, tobacco-free, future.These global voices call us to global action, to curb tobacco use, cut cancer rates and save lives.TobaccoCancer and tobaccoUnderstand the scale of the epidemicCommunicate the benefits of quittingHelp tobacco users to stopSupport effective smokefree policiesEducate for tobacco controlGLOBALinkLuther L Terry AwardsAbout UsThe Global Smokefree Partnership is a new multipartner initiative formed to promote effective smokefree air policies worldwide. The Partnership works by helping practitioners and advocates of smokefree policies to:access the evidence for smokefree policiesrequest assistance from a network of expertstake action in support of smokefree policiesThe Partnership is coordinated by the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), and the partners are listed below:Action on Smoking and Health LondonAmerican Cancer SocietyAmericans for Nonsmokers' RightsCampaign for Tobacco-Free KidsCancer Research UKEuropean Respiratory SocietyFramework Convention AllianceFrench National Cancer Institute (INCa)Global Tobacco Research NetworkHealthBridge IndiaInternational Nongovernmental Coalition Against TobaccoInternational Union Against CancerJohns Hopkins School of Public Health Institute for Global Tobacco ControlPfizerWorld Heart Federation
14 Organizações de doenças pulmonares e cardiológicas World Lung Foundation ®Organizações de doenças pulmonares e cardiológicasAbout the World Lung FoundationThe World Lung Foundation (Foundation) works in partnership with organizations throughout the world that share our mission of improving lung health. The Foundation cooperates closely with agencies working in the field of tuberculosis control, such as the STOP TB Partnership and the World Health Organization (WHO). In particular, the Foundation partners with the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), a nonprofit scientific organization that has played a leading role in the fight against tuberculosis and other lung diseases since Research by The Union led to the development of DOTS, the internationally recommended TB control strategy that has been adopted by the WHO for treatment and control of tuberculosis worldwide. Now, the Foundation partners with The Union to ensure wider and wiser application of DOTS, as well as to create new strategies to fight TB.INTERNATIONAL UNION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG DISEASE
15 Sociedades acadêmicas e científicas OverviewThe mission of the Society is to stimulate the generation of new knowledge concerning nicotine in all its manifestations -- from molecular to societal.The Society has the following goals:To sponsor scientific meetings and publications fostering the exchange of information on the biological, behavioral, social, and economic effects of nicotine; these activities shall include basic research and research on mechanisms of action and the use of nicotine as a probe for studying nervous systems function as well as applied research on the behavioral and pharmacological aspects of tobacco use, nicotine dependence, the therapeutic uses of nicotine, and related areas.To encourage scientific research on public health efforts for the prevention and treatment of cigarette and tobacco use.To provide the means by which various legislative, governmental, regulatory, and other public agencies and the ethical drug industry can obtain expert advice and consultation on critical issues concerning tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and the therapeutic uses of nicotine.Membership dues will be used to plan an annual meeting, to publish a newsletter, to compile a directory, to conduct advocacy and liaison activities for nicotine research, and to begin work on professional publications such as a journal. Though the Society will meet at least once per year in North America and will be incorporated in the United States, the intent is to be international in scope, with co-sponsorship of meetings in other countries and active recruitment of members outside the United States.Sociedades acadêmicas e científicas
16 Coalisões regionaisGlobal Partnerships for Tobacco Control Essential ActionGlobal Partnerships for Tobacco Control was launched in 2000 to help support and strengthen international tobacco control activities at the grass roots level. The program pairs groups in the United States and Canada with groups in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union, and assists them in initiating meaningful shared activities. More than 360 groups in over 100 countries and 40 U.S. states and territories are currently involved in the program. Participating groups include: tobacco control advocacy groups, youth networks and schools, hospitals and medical associations, local government agencies, consumer groups, and faith-based communities. Quienes somosEsta iniciativa está constituida por un grupo - inicialmente uruguayo - de médicos, intelectuales, periodistas y gente preocupada por la salud propia y la pública , que proponemos a toda América, tener un lugar común en la NET para organizarnos y combatir desde acá a la principal causa de muerte evitable del planeta: el tabaquismo ( OMS ). Invitamos a todos a participar, a informarse, a colaborar, a luchar por los derechos humanos de los no fumadores y también de los fumadores, muchos de ellos jóvenes engañados y estafados por una publicidad, mal intencionada, masiva, agresiva y cada vez más sofisticada de la industria tabacalera. La industria está a años luz de cualquier código de ética para los consumidores, la máxima hipocrática reza: " primun non nocere " (ante todo no hacer daño). Paradojalmente la industria promueve un vicio en la sociedad que -usándolo de la forma que lo indica su fabricante- le provoca la muerte al 50% de los que lo consumen, enfermando y mutilando a otros muchos ( datos de la OMS ). Todos son bienvenidos a participar: los colegas médicos, los estudiantes, los enfermeros, los sicólogos, los sociólogos, las asistentes sociales, los políticos, los maestros y profesores y el hombre/mujer medio que conforman nuestra sociedad y ven de cerca las consecuencias de este vicio. Todos hemos sufrido directa o indirectamente sus consecuencias viendo enfermar y morir a algún ser querido fumador o a nuestros pacientes o amigos u otra gente inocente estafada por años por una multimillonaria publicidad mundial a favor de una epidemia letal como el tabaquismo ( !!! ). Es peor que, hoy o mañana, se gastaran miles de millones de dólares favoreciendo las drogas ilegales, favoreciendo los accidentes, favoreciendo la transmisión del SIDA... Estamos convencidos que la medicina del nuevo siglo se basa inequívocamente en la medicina preventiva, en evitar que la gente se enferme y no en esperar a que esto suceda para recién ahí intentar algo.En momentos que hacen agua los diferentes sistemas de salud de toda América, donde en su mayoría se apostó a curar, a lo puramente asistencial, a apagar incendios y no a prevenir en forma primaria ( ¿principal estigma de un subdesarrollo social? ), nosotros apostamos a hacer planes de mediano y largo alcance de promoción de salud y prevención. Hay fuerte evidencia científica que la promoción de salud traerá consecuentemente ahorros y viabilizará a los sistemas de salud. Es evidente que la propuesta requiere ponerla en marcha, dar pasos firmes y apostar a beneficios no inmediatos, igual que en la economía mundial, lo que realmente es beneficioso es trabajar en la matriz estructural. Es probable que lo disfrutemos nosotros pero es seguro que lo harán nuestros hijos. Muchos países ya han tomado medidas trascendentes y tenemos que seguir ese ejemplo, difundirlo y buscar la sinergia necesaria en cada rincón de América para lograrlo. Nuestros conocimientos actuales y la fuerte evidencia científica del grotesco daño del tabaco se suman a las voces que nos llegan desde el principio de los tiempos, de nuestros ancestros precolombinos. Un verdadero legado para neutralizar la barbarie en que derivó su vieja y paleolítica costumbre de inhalar hojas de plantas una vez que ésta llegó a manos de la ambición desenfrenada de la industria...Por un lado está el derecho humano universal a la vida y en especial a la vida saludable, por otro la mezquina ambición económica de la industria tabacalera. Dr. Sergio Giovanetti.CardiólogoCoordinador de la edición digital. Nota: De las casi 5 millones de personas que mueren por causa del tabaquismo anualmente (OMS) uno fue mi padre en 1979, a los 59 años de edad por cáncer de pulmón, solo unos meses antes que yo pudiera recibirme de médico. Desde acá mi gratitud a su esfuerzo para hacer posible mi carrera universitaria. Comité Científico:Dra. Beatriz Champagne (EEUU)Dr. Eduardo Bianco Fonsalía (Uruguay)Sr. Manuel Arango (Canadá)Grupo de Trabajo sobre Convenio Marco para Control del Tabaco:Dra. Beatriz Champagne (IAHF)Dr. Eduardo Bianco (IAHF)Sr. Manuel Arango (Heart and Stroke Foundation, Canadá)Antonia J. Foreit (Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, USA)Jessica Corsi (American Cancer Society, USA)Laurent Huber (Framework Convention Alliance)Mirta Molinari (UATA, Argentina) Diseño y edición digital: G3Leonardo Giovanetti (Diseño Web)Augusto Giovanetti (Diseño Gráfico)Dr. Sergio Giovanetti (Coordinador editorial)Asesor Científico:Joaquin Barnoya (Guatemala)Laura Salgado (Honduras)Este grupo de trabajo interamericano es posible gracias al apoyo de:AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETYCAMPAIGN FOR TOBACCO-FREE KIDSAMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATIONAMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATIONFUNDACIÓN INTERMAERICANA del CORAZÓN - Objetivos del emprendimiento América Libre de Tabaco:Proteger la población no fumadora del daño causado por el humo de segunda mano (Tabaquismo Pasivo o humo de segunda mano).Fomentar el abandono del consumo del tabaco a nivel de la población, comenzando por los profesionales de la salud.Informar y sensibilizar a la población y diversos actores sociales sobre la magnitud y características de la epidemia de tabaquismo.Informar , sensibilizar y capacitar a los profesionales de la salud , educadores, profesionales de los medios de comunicación para asumir y cumplir el rol social que les compete en esta epidemia.Promover y apoyar la creación e implementación de legislación efectiva para control del tabaco.Promover y obtener recursos para estudios de investigación nacionales sobre diversos aspectos del problema del tabaco.Prevenir el inicio del consumo de tabaco por los jóvenes.Integrar a toda América en la lucha contra este flagelo.- Como comunicarse con nosotros para interactuar-Para contactarse con el comité científico click aquí.-Para contactarse con la edición digital click aquí.- ¿Qué es GLOBALINK?: "Internet and Tobacco-Control" - Ruben Israel - International Union Against Cancer (Switzerland). " GLOBALINK es el recurso más importante en internet, a nivel mundial, sobre tabaquismo y control del tabaco. Es un recurso imprescindible para todo activista en control del tabaco o toda persona interesada en conocer los distintos aspectos de esta epidemia ". Dr. Eduardo Bianco Director, Programa de Control del Tabaco. Fundación Interamericana del Corazón.
17 Organizações nacionais, estaduais e locais Chinese smoke free familyWelcome to ASPIRE! Whether you are a smoker looking to quit, a non-smoker seeking information about smoking and its effects, or anywhere in between, this self-paced learning experience offers interactive activities, videos, support strategies, and fun animations to help you reach your goal. You'll learn how to make the best choices for you — and how to stay on the path of good health. Ready to get started? Click the logo (or here) to begin now!This website is based on the school curriculum called ASPIRE (A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience). The ASPIRE curriculum was jointly developed by M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and was funded by a grant from the National Cancer Institute. Funding for this website was provided by the George & Barbara Bush Endowment for Innovative Cancer Research which was awarded to Dr. Alexander V. Prokhorov.This program requires the Macromedia Flash Plugin. Get it here.Trabalhando localmente
18 A importância da sociedade civil Não se aplaude com apenas uma mãoProvérbio chinês