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Comunicação mediada por computador e e-learning

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Apresentação em tema: "Comunicação mediada por computador e e-learning"— Transcrição da apresentação:

1 Comunicação mediada por computador e e-learning
Caroline Haythornthwaite Graduate School of Library and Information Science University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign IBICT, June 2009 Today, I will begin with some of what I presented yesterday on elearning trends and issues. Then I will move on to today’s focus which is on computer-mediated communication and how this new way of communicating affects the experience of teaching, learning and studying together online. To discuss this I will review background research on computer-mediated communication as well as discussing a major research study of student experiences as they learned to take classes and work with others in the elearning environment. We will soon also place these slides online so you can read them again more slowly in case I zoom by them!

2 E-learning é um fenômeno complexo
Um fenômeno que se situa na interseção de múltiplas forças sociais e técnicas e envolve: Ensino e aprendizado Administração de curso Implementação e apoio tecnológico Mandato administrativo Apoio social e político para infraestruturas de internet Aceitação pelas partes interessadas, por exemplo, professores, estudantes, empregadores, etc. Tendências tecnológicas como, por exemplo, a web 2.0 E-learning is a complex phenomenon

3 Comunicação mediada por computador e E-Learning
E-learning depende da CMC A questão não é “online é tão bom quanto presencial?” mas “que semelhanças e diferenças existem” e “que impacto isso tem no ensino e na aprendizagem?” O que há de diferente (ou de equivalente) na comunicação por computador? O que há de diferente entre as diversas tecnologias de comunicação por computador? Que tecnologia deve ser utilizada para o ensino e para outros tipos de interação/ O que precisamos conhecer para selecionar uma determinada tecnologia de comunicação?

4 A que área pertence o e-learning?
Educação Pedagogia, aprendizado colaborativo, aprendizado em contexto, educação de adultos Informática Learning objects; Trabalho colaborativo apoiado por computador; “Collaboratories” Administração Knowledge management; records management; comunidades de prática; teoria organizacional Psicologia Social e Comunicação Comportamento comunicacional; comportamento de grupo; estudos de “life stages” Sociologia Comunidades, estudos sociais da ciência e da tecnologia Biblioteconomia e ciência da informação Usos e usuários da informação; recursos online; biblioteca digital; ecologia informacional What fields can we learn from when looking to examine elearning phenomena. Traditional fields as listed here.

5 Perspectivas interdisciplinares do e-learning
Pesquisa sobre Internet Questões sobre acesso, cultura, comunidades online Comunicação mediada por computador Linguagem, comportamento, comunicação online Comunidades virtuais Criação de grupos, presença online Redes de aprendizado assincrônico (ALN) Educação online, redes assincrônicas Aprendizado colaborativo apoiado por computador (CSCL) Perspectivas educacionais em ambiente computacional Conhecimento distribuído Transferência de informação para a co-construção de novos conhecimentos … and emerging fields as listed here.

6 Novas questões Quem está aprendendo?
Alunos de graduação e adultos Estudantes motivados ou todos os estudantes 70% das instituições que oferecem cursos online consideram que requer mais disciplina do estudante Para obtenção de diploma ou para aprendizado ao longo da vida Aprendizado formal e/ou informal Baseado na universidade ou outros lugares Local de trabalho, treinamento, bibliotecas Aprendizado ubíquo Aprendizado buscando e acessando informações de qualquer lugar a qualquer hora E-learning as a total phenomena is very interesting because it makes us ask new questions about the learning experience -- such as who is the learner.

7 Quem ensina online? Questões relacionadas a status profissional, a controle administrativo, a recebimento de crédito pelo curso Uso de profissionais que não pertencem ao corpo docente “Comodificação” do processo de ensino Corpo docente cria o conteúdo e outros dão o curso Questões técnicas e administrativas De onde o curso é dado? Quem dará o apoio, com que tecnologia, quem auxilia a interação com os estudantes? Questões culturais e de identidade Como disseminar valores, comportamento e cultura acadêmica aos estudantes? O que significará pertencer a um corpo acadêmico da universidade E-learning do futuro? And who is the teacher

8 Qual é o papel do professor? Novos modelos e práticas
Aprendizado colaborativo Aprendizado colaborativo apoiado por computador (CSCL) Da autoridade no palco para o guia ao lado do aprendiz Aprendizagem em contexto Criando e mantendo “presença” Presença: sentimento de estar lá, com outros Criando comunidades de aprendizes Comunidades virtuais Comunidades de prática (Wenger) We’re also discovering new roles and practices both for teachers and students. For teachers … Presence … the sense of being there with others

9 Qual é o papel do estudante? Novos modelos e responsabilidades
Colaboração no aprendizado Aprendizado peer-to-peer Aprendizes-líderes (Montague) Estilo adulto de aprendizado para todas as idades Pesquisa independente, liderada pelo estudante Presença Entrando e mantendo presença em comunidades online de aprendizes Aprendendo novas normas de comunicação, de atuação em grupo e de educação Aprendizes ubíquos Do aprendizado ao longo da vida ao aprendizado na vida diária For students … who are now considered and treated as independent, self-motivated leaners, and who must now take on the role of becoming lifelong learners, but also ubiquitous learners -- seeking and grabbing learning from anywhere at anytime.

10 O que é a universidade na era do e-learning
Para que serve o campus universiário? Qual é o futuro da universidade em espaços físicos? Quais são as implicações para as bibliotecas? O E-learning está crescendo? O E-learning deve aumentar? É um meio de se atingir muitos com menos custos ou uma corrupção dos ideais do ensino universitário? Haverá um fim? Universidade - escola - vida diária And before we turn to CMC, one other large question is “what a university is in the age of e-learning?” When professors and students are distributed and fully engaged with each other without a physical campus, what is the role and meaning of a physical unversity campus?

11 Questões para seguir adiante?
Nas três aulas que se seguem serão abordados: Comunicação mediada por computador: que diferença um meio pode fazer Apresentando método e resultados obtidos de uma pesquisa longitudinal sobre “desenvolvimento de comunidade entre aprendizes online” A informática social do E-learning: E-learning como meio de intervenção sócio-técnica Apresentando método e resultados da análise das redes sociais que se formam entre membros de cursos online. Teorias e aplicações emergentes do E-learning Apresentando trabalho recente sobre apresentação computadorizada de redes online de E-leaners. What’s coming up -- today and for the next two days. Today, the focus on CMC Tomorrow exploring the concept of “social informatics” -- how to think about and examine interacting social and technical effects Thursday -- looking at emerging theories and applications -- with particular attention to new developments in automated analysis.

12 Comunicação mediada por computador: Que diferença um meio pode fazer
Background theory and research on Comunicação mediada por computador (CMC) Details of a study and analysis of research on student experiences with the e-learning CMC environment But today -- CMC …

13 Comunicação mediada por computador
A avaliação da CMC é uma parte fundamental do planejamento do E-learning Escolhas, usos, expectativas e impactos da CMC podem ser examinados como um problema de interface com o usuário, em termos de possibilidades de comunicação, de ensino, de aprendizado, de interação interpessoal, etc. CMC é também uma intervenção sociotécnica, envolvendo aspectos sociais e técnicos da interação que são iniciados e se desenvolvem. E-learning é uma intervenção sociotécnica

14 O que se pode fazer com a CMC?
“Affordances” (Gibson, 1979; Norman, 1988) O que uma tecnologia torna possível e/ou o que o usuário da tecnologia percebe como possível? “Social Affordance” (Bradner, Erickson & Kellogg, 1999) Como um grupo consegue fazer um uso comum de um objeto Affordances: Gibson (1979), Norman (1988) -- for a recent paper, see: Oliver, Martin (2005). The Problem with Affordance. E– Learning, 2(4),

15 Social Affordances (Bradner et al)
“Consider a door that opens out into a busy hallway. If a person opens the door quickly, it may strike someone entering from the other direction. One possible solution is to put a glass window in the door. The glass window addresses the problem at two levels. At the level of individual …, the glass makes a person on the other side visible (i.e., the window affords seeing through it…). At the social level, since people are socialized to not strike others with doors, they will refrain from doing so if given the chance. Furthermore, not only can the potential door opener see through the window, but the person on the other side can see as well, and thus there is shared knowledge of the situation (e.g., 'I know that you know that I know'). As a consequence, the door opener will be held accountable for her actions. This accountability, which arises from the optical properties of glass, human perceptual abilities, and the social rules of the culture, is an example of what we call a social affordance.

16 O que se conseque fazer com a CMC?
Comunicação com baixa fidelidade ou redução ao essencial, ao conteúdo sem interferências Barreiras à comunicação, à presença social, à imersão ou facilitador da participação igualitária e remota Entrada fácil com baixo custo or necessidade de mais tempo e esforço para manter a presença Conectividade em qualquer tempo e lugar or controle, responsabilidade e monitoramento constantes.

17 Debates sobre CMC: Atributos
Riqueza do meio de comunicação, escolhas, ajuste entre a mensagem e o meio Capacidade do meio de carregar informação, de prover feedback imediato; escolha do meio para ajustar-se à messagem Informações filtradas Verbal : tom de voz e volume Non-verbal : olhar, linguagem corporal, movimento das mãos Contextual : lugar de encontro, colocação dos assentos Status: roupa, posição de sentar ou ficar em pé, mobiliário, artefatos, localização do escritório Pessoal: aparência, maneira de vestir

18 Debates sobre CMC: Atributos psicológicos
Experiências individuais online: relações, ambiente, tarefas Social Presence Estar lá, estár lá com os outros Telepresença e imersão “subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another” (Witmer & Singer, 1998, p. 225); “perceptual illusion of nonmediation” (Lombard & Ditton, 1997, p. 8) Pouca presença social reduz o envolvimento e o trabalho conjunto Se existe muita presença social, as relações online tornam-se mais reais que as relações locais isolando o indivíduo da vida real.

19 Debates sobre o CMC: Atributos sociais
Experiência de grupo e co-construção de convenções online Normas emergentes: práticas compartilhadas e negociads emergem do uso da CMC Normas de uso são definidas localmente, incluindo que meio e com quem Normas emergem das comunidades online FAQs, rituais e cerimônias, papéis Uso de “subject lines” Surgem convenções online Paralinguagem, acronismos, assinaturas

20 Novos aspectos da CMC Novos estilos de comunicação
Conversação persistente (entre o texto e a conversação) Novos papéis: Wizards, webmasters, newbies, trolls Novos comportamentos Lurking, texting, chatting, blogging; 24/7 accessibility Novos vocabulários Flame, lurker, text chat, blog, splog, wiki, sms, emotions Acronismos, ortografia: LOL … C U L8r … :-) Diferenças entre gerações Em expectativas e usos: entre faixas etárias, entre os que adotam a tecnologia cedo ou tarde Alcance global Cruzando culturas, fronteiras, comunidades, fusos horários

21 Modelos de CMC: visões da tecnologia
Modelo do deficit CMC é limitada se comparada com a comunicação face a face Modelos da extensão e do aumento CMC estende a conectividade a participantes remotos Modelo da atração/detração Imersão facilitada pelo ambiente online atrai as pessoas e reduz medo de exposição, promove a participação Mas a imersão tira as pessoas da interação real e do envolvimento com a família e com a comunidade

22 Modelos da CMC: Visões sociais
Modelos da construção social Normas são criadas, adaptadas, reinventadas e reinforçadas pelo uso em grupo Normas sociais que emergem atraem o uso da CMC em contextos locais Modelos de redes sociais Padrões de uso dos meios estão associados à natureza dos elos entre comunicadores.

23 Modelos da CMC: Combinação do social e do técnico
Difusão e adoção de inovações Adoção da CMC segue princípios que são comuns aos da difusão e adoção de inovações Curva de adoção tem formato de S A adoção de uma inovação segue estágios conhecidos A inovação que tende a ser adotada tem determinados atributos Aqueles que adotam as inovações em diferentes momentos (“early, middle and late adopters”) têm daracterísticas psicosociais conhecidas.

24 E-Learning e CMC Os debates sobre CMC têm sido adotados na esfera do E-learning

25 Argumentos sobre E-Learning
Argumentos contra … A classe online não pode promover a mesma experiência da classe presencial Alunos perdem contato com os professores e com os outros alunos Não se pode aprender sem aulas e discussão face a face. Uma comunidade de aprendizado universitário requer aulas em conjunto num campus comum Argumentos a favor … Não há diferença no resultado da aprendizagem A experiência é diferente mas igualmente boa Permite proximidade com o trabalho, o que torna a experiência mais vantajosa A percepção de contato mais próximo com o professor é maior Não há que ceder a vez: todos são ouvidos Promove a contribuição dos estudantes tímidos, estudantes ESL Laços fortes com o grupo são criados

26 Qual é o papel do meio para o e-learning?
Comunicação assincrônica versus sincrônica O envolvimento se dá a qualquer hora, em qualquer lugar Interação e feedback não se dão sempre imediatamente Linguagem através de texto versus linguagem com voz + roupa + corpo Ganho em anonimato, avaliação apenas através de texto Perda de múltiplas dicas para interpretar e julgar os outros Ganho na habilidade de utilizar recursos de comunicação contemporâneos Perda na utilização de múltiplos meios de comunicação e persuasão Ganho na utilização de um registro de conversação escrito, visível e que pode ser preservado Presença física versus presença virtual Perda de presença física na sala de aula What is lost and gained in the change from physical classroom to online space(s)?

27 Críticas do E-Learning
As críticas são baseadas em dois pressupostos não testados Co-localização física é um fator essencial no aprendizado A experiência no campus é a melhor maneira de interagir, ensinar e aprender Necessidade de separar a experiência educacional do contexto institucional Desligar a educação de salas de aulas físicas

28 Modelos de experiência educacional
Modelo da Community of Inquiry (Garrison & Anderson, 2003) Social Presence, Cognitive Presence, Teaching Presence Social presence the “ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally in a community of inquiry” (Rourke, Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001)

29 Modelos de experiência educacional: Presença
Modelo da Community of Inquiry (Garrison & Anderson, 2003) Três tipos de presença são identificadas como importantes na educação online Presença cognitiva “o quanto os participantes em qualquer configuração de comunidade de pesquisa são capazes de construir significado através de comunicação sustentada” Teaching Presence “Elaborar e administrar sequências de aprendizado, provendo expertise em assuntos específicos e facilitando aprendizado ativo” Social Presence “Habilidade de… se projetar social e emocionalmente numa comunidade de pesquisa” Apoia objetivos cognitivos e afetivos, estando associada a aspectos como envolvimento, manutenção de interesse e persistência na execução de tarefas cognitivas Extra effort to create presence [quotes from Rourke, Anderson, Garrison & Archer, Online at

30 Modelos da experiência educacional
Collaborative Learning and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) (Bruffee, 1993; Koschmann, 1996) Participation, sharing of information, exposure to new ideas Redes sociais e comunidades de aprendizado (Haythornthwaite, 2002) Colaboração + cumprimento da tarefa = interações com laços fortes + laços fracos Quanto mais uso do CMC mais perto o laço profissional ou social Imersão (Burbules, 2004) Interesse, envolvimento, imaginação, interatividade

31 CMC e E-Learning Aspectos sociais, técnicos, pedagógicos …
Criando presença social online Promovendo participação, comunicação, trocas, interação Criando e sustentando a imersão

32 CMC e E-Learning Comunicação assincrônica (maior parte)
Comunicação distribuída Comunicação independente do site (em qualquer tempo e lugar) Interação baseada em texto (maior parte) Comunicação armazenada: às vezes modificável e descartavel, às vezes não Anonimidade (ou quase) – identificação por endereço de ou pseudônimo Informação reduzida sobre o indivíduo e os outros Menos redundância de informação Interatividade e comunicação imediata reduzidas Aumento da oportunidade de feedback (talvez)

33 Estudos sobre experiências de E-learners
Caroline Haythornthwaite Michelle Kazmer Jenny Robins Susan Shoemaker Alvan Bregman

34 Study of E-Learners Experiences
Estudo longitudinal (ao longo do tempo) para identificar como os estudantes lidam com esse novo contexto Que experiência têm? Quem ou o que os ajuda a aprender, interagir, executar tarefas, cursos, programas? Eles desenvolvem sentimento de comunidade? Que aspectos da sua experiência contribuem para aumentar o relacionamento com os outros, sentimento de pertencimento?

35 Caracteristicas do programa e do estudo
4 entrevistas com cada um dos 17 estudantes de mestrado do programa LEEP. Caracteristicas do programa 2 semanas no campus com os outros (“Boot Camp”) Demais cursos pela internet Cursos incluem: Aulas transmitidas ao vivo com RealAudio, web pages e Chat Discussões assincrônicas Fim de semana LEEP: no Campus no meio do período (1 dia por curso) Contato pessoal via ou telefone Tarefas individuais ou em grupo colocadas em páginas da web, enviadas por , etc.

36 Por que estudar a comunidade online?
Other studies show Ganhos individuais Desenvolvimento de sentimentos positivos Um conjunto maior de pessoas colaborando quando necessário Aumento da vontade de compatilhar informações e recursos Benefícios para a comunidade de aprendizado Aumento do fluxo de informação entre os membros Aumento da cooperação Maior engajamento com os objetivos da comunidade Maior satisfação com esforços do grupo Why Community? Positive outcomes for individuals and the learning community

37 Abordagem qualitativa do tipo “grounded theory”
Questões consideradas na entrevista Sobre a comunidade E-learning O que caracteriza a comunidade LEEP? O que a difere de outras comunidades? Como os estudantes se integram? Como se mantêm como comunidade ao longo do tempo? Questões focalizando “apoio social” dentro e fora da comunidade O que a comunidade oferece como apoio? Quem dá apoio que ajuda de fato? Que tipo de apoio é importante e de quem (família, colegas de trabalho, outros estudantes)? Research on community also stresses the importance of exchange and support and so in our interviews we asked many questions about support, such as

38 Análise qualitativa A codificação dos dados buscou a identificação de temas relativos às experiências dos estudantes Efeitos ao longo do tempo da participação na comunidade O que preocupa os estudantes em relação à experiência Jogando com múltiplos mundos

39 1. Desenvolvimento da comunidade
Estudantes aprendem a lidar com o ambiente online Estágios para se tornar parte da comunidade Entrando na comunidade Permanecendo na comunidade Distanciando-se da comunidade

40 Entrando na comunidade
Ligações iniciais Para o programa LEEP isso acontece no período inicial em que vão fisicamente ao campus (“boot camp”) Separando a comunidade das outras da sua própria comunidade It’s a different kind of world that most people aren’t used to so they can’t really understand it since they’re on the outside. [Betty] 1.A. Boot camp Boot camp unites the cohort and builds a community. It provides a 都hared experience, sort of a history� [Jeff] that forms strong intra-cohort bonds and initiates many lasting friendships. 1.B. First semester When the students are back at home and begin the distance portion of their program, they soon become aware of a distinction between themselves (LEEP students) and others. Family, work mates, and traditional students do not share the same experience and therefore remain outside the LEEP community. As Betty states, It’s a different kind of world that most people aren’t used to so they can’t really understand it since they’re on the outside. [Betty] In the semester immediately following boot camp, most students take a required course together. Cohort membership sustains individuals through this first semester, as they are in class with those they engaged with face-to-face. Their interpersonal ties remain strong, sustained by the memory of names, faces, and shared experiences: Even though they would be just a name on the screen in the chat room or on the Webboard, you still had the memory of knowing them from boot camp, which was such an intense experience. That gave you a connection. It was almost like they were there. You could imagine them. Since it was just recently, and you had them fresh in your mind� [Alice] At home they now deal with technical difficulties, course work load(s), and managing work, home and school with no one at hand who understands their 電ifferent kind of world.� But, virtually at hand � �here’s a group of people out there who know exactly what I’m going through and can help me, that have been there, and have done everything, and they’re supportive and caring and kind � [Rene] Exchanges with other LEEP students become vital for validating their own experiences and for overcoming isolation. These descriptions of the strength and importance of association and identification with cohort members are echoed in the reports from all interviewees. Students also find themselves in a 都afe� environment, filled with supportive others, a condition considered essential for collaborative learning (Bruffee, 1993). As Barbara explains: I think the other thing that the community has given me is the encouragement, you know in a regular situation to just...to speak out and say something...to write something in and to have a comment. It doesn’t feel like an unsafe environment to say something. [Barbara]

41 Entrando na comunidade
Visibilidade continuada e ligações com membros da comunidade com quem se relacionarm no “boot camp” Even though they would be just a name on the screen in the chat room or on the [Discussion Boards], you still had the memory of knowing them from boot camp, which was such an intense experience. That gave you a connection. It was almost like they were there. You could imagine them. Since it was just recently, and you had them fresh in your mind. [Alice] There’s a group of people out there who know exactly what I’m going through and can help me, that have been there, and have done everything, and they’re supportive and caring and kind. [Rene] 1.A. Boot camp Boot camp unites the cohort and builds a community. It provides a 都hared experience, sort of a history� [Jeff] that forms strong intra-cohort bonds and initiates many lasting friendships. 1.B. First semester When the students are back at home and begin the distance portion of their program, they soon become aware of a distinction between themselves (LEEP students) and others. Family, work mates, and traditional students do not share the same experience and therefore remain outside the LEEP community. As Betty states, It’s a different kind of world that most people aren’t used to so they can’t really understand it since they’re on the outside. [Betty] In the semester immediately following boot camp, most students take a required course together. Cohort membership sustains individuals through this first semester, as they are in class with those they engaged with face-to-face. Their interpersonal ties remain strong, sustained by the memory of names, faces, and shared experiences: Even though they would be just a name on the screen in the chat room or on the Webboard, you still had the memory of knowing them from boot camp, which was such an intense experience. That gave you a connection. It was almost like they were there. You could imagine them. Since it was just recently, and you had them fresh in your mind� [Alice] At home they now deal with technical difficulties, course work load(s), and managing work, home and school with no one at hand who understands their 電ifferent kind of world.� But, virtually at hand � �here’s a group of people out there who know exactly what I’m going through and can help me, that have been there, and have done everything, and they’re supportive and caring and kind � [Rene] Exchanges with other LEEP students become vital for validating their own experiences and for overcoming isolation. These descriptions of the strength and importance of association and identification with cohort members are echoed in the reports from all interviewees. Students also find themselves in a 都afe� environment, filled with supportive others, a condition considered essential for collaborative learning (Bruffee, 1993). As Barbara explains: I think the other thing that the community has given me is the encouragement, you know in a regular situation to just...to speak out and say something...to write something in and to have a comment. It doesn’t feel like an unsafe environment to say something. [Barbara]

42 Entrando na comunidade
Um lugar seguro para tentar coisas novas I think the other thing that the community has given me is the encouragement, you know in a regular situation to just...to speak out and say something...to write something in and to have a comment. It doesn’t feel like an unsafe environment to say something. [Barbara] 1.A. Boot camp Boot camp unites the cohort and builds a community. It provides a 都hared experience, sort of a history� [Jeff] that forms strong intra-cohort bonds and initiates many lasting friendships. 1.B. First semester When the students are back at home and begin the distance portion of their program, they soon become aware of a distinction between themselves (LEEP students) and others. Family, work mates, and traditional students do not share the same experience and therefore remain outside the LEEP community. As Betty states, It’s a different kind of world that most people aren’t used to so they can’t really understand it since they’re on the outside. [Betty] In the semester immediately following boot camp, most students take a required course together. Cohort membership sustains individuals through this first semester, as they are in class with those they engaged with face-to-face. Their interpersonal ties remain strong, sustained by the memory of names, faces, and shared experiences: Even though they would be just a name on the screen in the chat room or on the Webboard, you still had the memory of knowing them from boot camp, which was such an intense experience. That gave you a connection. It was almost like they were there. You could imagine them. Since it was just recently, and you had them fresh in your mind� [Alice] At home they now deal with technical difficulties, course work load(s), and managing work, home and school with no one at hand who understands their 電ifferent kind of world.� But, virtually at hand � �here’s a group of people out there who know exactly what I’m going through and can help me, that have been there, and have done everything, and they’re supportive and caring and kind � [Rene] Exchanges with other LEEP students become vital for validating their own experiences and for overcoming isolation. These descriptions of the strength and importance of association and identification with cohort members are echoed in the reports from all interviewees. Students also find themselves in a 都afe� environment, filled with supportive others, a condition considered essential for collaborative learning (Bruffee, 1993). As Barbara explains: I think the other thing that the community has given me is the encouragement, you know in a regular situation to just...to speak out and say something...to write something in and to have a comment. It doesn’t feel like an unsafe environment to say something. [Barbara]

43 Permanecendo na comunidade
Fazendo um esforço Fazendo um esforço constante para manter contatos e relações com os outros Exige mais esforço do que o contato face a face, então você não fica apagado e se mantem invisível. Aqueles que fazem o esforço ficam mais gratificados com a experiência. You have to make more of a point to reinforce things because you’re not going to bump into people, you have to make a point of nurturing friendships more so than you do in a neighborhood community or church community or work community where you just bump into people. [Doris] 2.A. Purposefulness First of all, maintaining ties and community at a distance and via CMC is perceived by students to require more effort than in a face-to-face community. As Doris describes it: 添ou have to make more of a point to reinforce things because you’re not going to bump into people, you have to make a point of nurturing friendships more so than you do in a neighborhood community or church community or work community where you just bump into people ....納 Doris] Those who fail to make community connections, particularly early in the program, tend to be more distressed about their LEEP experience (for example, isolation and loneliness). 2.B. General integration Secondly, as students become more integrated with other (non-cohort) LEEP students, and with faculty and staff, they move from a stressful position of isolation to confident membership in their community. These students show more satisfaction and happiness when connected to others. 2.C. Fading back Third, fading back, not participating, treating LEEP as a correspondence course, is relatively easy in this CMC environment. In the LEEP distance environment, you cannot be seen by others, put on the spot or made to participate. This environment can have a negative impact on the learning community when students let themselves fade back and then fail to contribute. It can also have a negative impact on the individual as they miss out on the socializing and support given by others, and finding that others share their trials and tribulations. However, this environment can also act positively to encourage contribution to the community, extending an 登pen invitation to participate in this online environment� [Barbara], where you are free to ask 都tupid� questions. Yet, those who fade back unwillingly, perhaps because of technical problems or because the social distance was initially too great to bridge, are not satisfied with this condition. Moreover, a non-participant does not contribute to the communal exchange, and diminishes the overall potential for interaction and collaborative learning. 2.D. The importance of synchronous connection Class-wide interaction There are two means of communication that support class-wide interaction at a distance: the synchronous IRC sessions, and the asynchronous Webboard posting. Synchronous communication, particularly during the live lecture times, contributes much more to community building than asynchronous communication. Live sessions provide both intellectual and emotional content, but more importantly provide simultaneous, many-to-many contact that helps stave off feelings of isolation. I seem to get more out of class when we meet live more often� It keeps you from feeling isolated� The immediacy [is nice], even though you’re typing, not speaking to them directly, you’re typing with them. [Jan] 2.D.ii: FTF Face-to-face communication, although considered by the students as essential for building community, nevertheless takes a second place to the use of communication technologies because of their distance from each other. Students who ‘save up’ their social interactions for face-to-face mid-term sessions remain isolated and dissatisfied with the meager contact they have. When the face-to-face contact supplements ongoing relations it 兎nhanced the program. It enhanced enjoying what you were doing because you had personal relationships with people� [Beth], and also has a powerful effect on their sense of community. 2.D.iii: private Along with the public, class-wide communication, private communication is also important for students. , IRC whispering, and the telephone provide person-to-person contact. This helps sustain stronger interpersonal ties, allowing those in crisis to communicate with their closest friends and allowing small groups to socialize around class activities and class times. We notice also that students develop a routine of private communication related to their class activities. For instance, students engage in near-synchronous sessions around regular class activities such as weekly Webboard posting or assignment due dates. For example, A lot of times last semester when I was working late at night, and then I would post my assignments, we found out that a lot of our ‑ well, both of us were working late at night. We were both working late at night; so even now, sometimes, I'll ‑ if I'm finishing up something, and I'll just send her a quick note. I'll say ‘Sandra, are you there?’ And she'll write me back, ‘Yes, I'm here.’ So, yeah I really feel very close to her, even though she's in [another state]. [Nancy]

44 Permanecendo na Community
Conexão sincrônica (“Live” sessions: audio + chat) aumento do sentimento de estar conectado: I seem to get more out of class when we meet live more often. It keeps you from feeling isolated. The immediacy [is nice], even though you’re typing, not speaking to them directly, you’re typing with them. [Jan] s trocado entre pares, muitas vezes de maneira sincrônica, constroem ralações A lot of times last semester when I was working late at night, and then I would post my assignments, we found out that a lot of our ‑ well, both of us were working late at night. We were both working late at night; so even now, sometimes, I'll ‑ if I'm finishing up something, and I'll just send her a quick note. I'll say ‘Sandra, are you there?’ And she'll write me back, ‘Yes, I'm here.’ So, yeah I really feel very close to her, even though she's in [another state]. [Nancy] 2.A. Purposefulness First of all, maintaining ties and community at a distance and via CMC is perceived by students to require more effort than in a face-to-face community. As Doris describes it: 添ou have to make more of a point to reinforce things because you’re not going to bump into people, you have to make a point of nurturing friendships more so than you do in a neighborhood community or church community or work community where you just bump into people ....納 Doris] Those who fail to make community connections, particularly early in the program, tend to be more distressed about their LEEP experience (for example, isolation and loneliness). 2.B. General integration Secondly, as students become more integrated with other (non-cohort) LEEP students, and with faculty and staff, they move from a stressful position of isolation to confident membership in their community. These students show more satisfaction and happiness when connected to others. 2.C. Fading back Third, fading back, not participating, treating LEEP as a correspondence course, is relatively easy in this CMC environment. In the LEEP distance environment, you cannot be seen by others, put on the spot or made to participate. This environment can have a negative impact on the learning community when students let themselves fade back and then fail to contribute. It can also have a negative impact on the individual as they miss out on the socializing and support given by others, and finding that others share their trials and tribulations. However, this environment can also act positively to encourage contribution to the community, extending an 登pen invitation to participate in this online environment� [Barbara], where you are free to ask 都tupid� questions. Yet, those who fade back unwillingly, perhaps because of technical problems or because the social distance was initially too great to bridge, are not satisfied with this condition. Moreover, a non-participant does not contribute to the communal exchange, and diminishes the overall potential for interaction and collaborative learning. 2.D. The importance of synchronous connection Class-wide interaction There are two means of communication that support class-wide interaction at a distance: the synchronous IRC sessions, and the asynchronous Webboard posting. Synchronous communication, particularly during the live lecture times, contributes much more to community building than asynchronous communication. Live sessions provide both intellectual and emotional content, but more importantly provide simultaneous, many-to-many contact that helps stave off feelings of isolation. I seem to get more out of class when we meet live more often� It keeps you from feeling isolated� The immediacy [is nice], even though you’re typing, not speaking to them directly, you’re typing with them. [Jan] 2.D.ii: FTF Face-to-face communication, although considered by the students as essential for building community, nevertheless takes a second place to the use of communication technologies because of their distance from each other. Students who ‘save up’ their social interactions for face-to-face mid-term sessions remain isolated and dissatisfied with the meager contact they have. When the face-to-face contact supplements ongoing relations it 兎nhanced the program. It enhanced enjoying what you were doing because you had personal relationships with people� [Beth], and also has a powerful effect on their sense of community. 2.D.iii: private Along with the public, class-wide communication, private communication is also important for students. , IRC whispering, and the telephone provide person-to-person contact. This helps sustain stronger interpersonal ties, allowing those in crisis to communicate with their closest friends and allowing small groups to socialize around class activities and class times. We notice also that students develop a routine of private communication related to their class activities. For instance, students engage in near-synchronous sessions around regular class activities such as weekly Webboard posting or assignment due dates. For example, A lot of times last semester when I was working late at night, and then I would post my assignments, we found out that a lot of our ‑ well, both of us were working late at night. We were both working late at night; so even now, sometimes, I'll ‑ if I'm finishing up something, and I'll just send her a quick note. I'll say ‘Sandra, are you there?’ And she'll write me back, ‘Yes, I'm here.’ So, yeah I really feel very close to her, even though she's in [another state]. [Nancy]

45 Distanciando-se da comunidade
Aulas agora incluem pessoas de outros períodos, não apenas aqueles que participaram do mesmo “boot camp” Quando eles se aproximam do final do curso, outros mundos tornam-se mais importante (Kazmer, 2002, 2007) Imersão nos cursos e as pessoas do LEEP dão lugar a outros interesses Mas alguns sentem realmente as perdas I feel a sense of loss because that real close community that I had with those folks isn’t there any more, and I think because you have that on campus time with those people, and you really develop a bond with them. [Holly] 3. Losing the Cohort: Disengaging from the community 3.A. Familiarity As students progress through the program, they become familiar with class routines, the technologies and norms for their use, and their distanced companions and fellow travelers. It is no longer all new, and even when new versions of software are introduced such changes are seen as minor. In other words, things have become fairly calm, the stress of doing 都omething new� has dramatically lessened, and attention and effort decrease. Yet, change is happening. 3.B. Dilution First, their cohort becomes diluted. Members of previous and following cohorts join their classes. As the immediacy of the boot camp fades, making connections to LEEP students becomes harder, especially making new connections to non-cohort class members. Early in their program, most students strive to maintain connections to the LEEP community, making new contacts through classes and group projects. Yet, the cohort still dissipates. Fellow cohort members and others students with whom they have been close throughout the program fail to end up in the same classes or may have already graduated. Sue, who is nearing the end of her degree, describes how this affects her in-class interactions: Now I am in a class where there is no one in there that I really have any kind of connection with and I actually have to someone today and ask if they will provide me with some information and it’s a little awkward because I don’t have any kind of relationship with that person, you know? [Sue] As students approach the end of their time in the LEEP program, they go through a process of disengaging from the program, fading back from the community, reluctantly watching it and their membership in it recede in time. Here is Holly’s account of this phenomenon: I feel a sense of loss because that real close community that I had with those folks isn’t there any more, and I think because you have that on campus time with those people, and you really develop a bond with them� [Holly] 3.C.: re- or newly-engaging elsewhere At the same time as they are going through a process of disengaging from LEEP, students are simultaneously going through a process of engaging or re-engaging with the 登utside world.� Students about to leave the program turn their attention instead to their work and home communities, re-engaging with the people and activities that received less attention while they were in school. Some LEEP graduates are starting new jobs and need to develop ties with a new work community; others are reconnecting with the jobs they held throughout their time in the program. We see their focus changing from being overwhelmingly engaged with LEEP, to largely, and then to only marginally engaged with LEEP. As an extreme example, when one of the interviewees was asked to participate in an interview only a few months after she had graduated, her response was, 的’ve totally put all of that out of my mind.�

46 2. Preocupações básicas Três preocupações básicas (Bregman & Haythornthwaite, 2003) Visibilidade Preocupação a respeito de uso de listas e bulletin boards Relações Relações no espaço online Co-Presença Estar lá com outros online ao mesmo tempo

47 Visibilidade Consciência da visibilidade da conversação (Tom Erickson & Susan Herring) Novos estudantes se preocupam com O que postar Linguagem a utilizar: linguagem certa, linguagem online Tornar-se confortável com o ambiente online: tecnicamente e socialmente

48 Visibilidade Discobrindo a visibilidade Aprendendo a ficar visível
At first I was self-conscious about the webboards and putting myself out there for everybody to read rather than its being between you and the teacher. [Ellen, looking back on her early days in the program as she nears completion] Aprendendo a ficar visível At the beginning it was difficult for me because I felt like when I posted something it had to be perfect… It takes me a lot of time just to post on the webboard just because of the idea that it has to be perfect. [Ted] Observando os outros You also get to know them [the other students] through their postings and their responses to what we are supposed to be doing [for the class]. [Beth

49 Relações Quem está com eles online O quanto os outros se conhecem Conhecer os outros que estão online aumenta a presença e a sensação de segurança no ambiente online There’s 5 or 6 of us that are sort of a group – someone will ask…'Does anyone have any idea what she’s talking about?' and then one or two people might clarify it without having everyone in the class see that this person doesn’t have any idea what the teacher is talking about. [Bill]

50 Co-Presença Estar lá com os outros e ao mesmo tempo
Aumento do feedback imediato, aumento da percepção de estar presente com outros I need to hear my professor's voice. I need the stimulation of comments … I need my other classmates to respond to me … I mean I just need that feedback from them. [Nancy]

51 3. Jogando com múltiplos mundos
Mundos sociais (Strauss, 1978) Pessoas que compartilham atividades, espaços e tecnologia e que se comunicam Em torno de uma atividade primária (aprendendo, cuidando da família, trabalhando) Geralmente associados um lugar (a universidade, a casa, o trabalho) E-learning acontece no meio de outros mundos sociais No trabalho (com ou sem um chefe compreensivo) At home (com ou sem uma esposa compreensivo) E-learning é como uma terceira jornada que acontece simultaneamente com trabalho e família, especialmente para as mulheres (Kramarae, 2001). Unlike on-campus students in a classroom, online learners are often ‘in class’ while also at work, or at home Bordieu writes about schools being the socialization into cultural practices. What does an e-learning world socialze us into?

52 Qual é o papel do contexto local?
Contextos online Aprendendo novas normas de interação e educação Novas tecnologias, cada uma apoiando aspectos diferentes da interação ( diferentes tipos de ‘affordances’) Contextos offline competindo com o E-learning Trabalho, casa, família Trazendo o que é aprendido no E-learning para outros contextos “Community-embedded learners” (Kazmer) Aprendendo no ambiente de trabalho e trazendo para o trabalho o que aprendeu Ajudando a família no uso da tecnologia

53 Ecologias do E-learning
Lugares e espaços online; aprendendo offline e local de trabalho; bibliotecas; Em casa Cozinha, quarto; escritório; de dia e de noite; com filhos ou sem filhos; com companheiro ou sem companheiro No trabalho Durante o trabalho, depois do trabalho Na escola Fora da classe ou dentro da classe; em público ou sozinho No Facebook, Orkut, etc. Classes híbridas com componentes online e offline Vidas híbridas com componentes online e offline

54 Sugestões para a prática do E-Learning

55 Suggestions on Managing Entry
Address expectations Train new students on CMC, online communication, expectations for class, schedule management Instructors specify their expectations about use of language, contributing, responding Technology Provide ways to try out technology Provide way to post personal identifying information, to change names Social and Technical Synchronous sessions for immediate feedback, co-presence Multiple media for public and private communication Common meeting place for groups interaction

56 Suggestions on Maintaining Presence
Staying connected, not ‘fading back’ Takes more effort online because of lack of serendipitous encounters Juggling worlds Not the isolated world of school, but instead mixed with home or work distractions Managing new information with task completion, and engaging with others for class, for projects Using CMC to interact with classmates and instructors in class; added, private CMC with friends and project workmates Engaging in local-to-student pedagogical relationships (e.g., internships; Kazmer 2002) Maintaining commitment to personal goal, embedding online community, embedding family, work and local-to-student community

57 Suggestions on Managing Disengagement
Challenges Help students stay engaged to the end Activities to engage students Encourage learner-leaders who help new students learn about the environment Help students leave Connecting to future work world Connecting to alumni worlds Continuing access to communication technology (e.g., accounts) Continuing access to course sites, bulletin boards, etc. Kazmer, M. M. (2002). Disengagement from intrinsically transient social worlds: The case of a distance learning community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Kazmer, M. M. (2007). Beyond C U L8R: Disengaging from online social worlds. New Media and Society, 9, [http://mailer.fsu.edu/~mkazmer/kazmer_disengaging_nms.pdf]

58 Summary: CMC and E-Learning

59 Celebrating the Differences
Asynchronous communication Provides time for reflection, to form clear language, to join even if shifted in time and place Multiple simultaneous voices Removes traditional turn-taking issues Relative or actual anonymity Reduces barriers to participation Multiple media Provide opportunity for variety of interaction styles, support of different aspects of relationships (e.g., public, private interaction; one-to-many, one-to-one interaction) Recording and archiving Provides ability to hear and review synchronous class presentations

60 Cautions about the Differences
Asynchronous communication Out of sight, out of mind Assumption it can be fit with other activities Assumption by others that it is deferable, not real Multiple simultaneous voices Not manageable with larger class sizes, with one instructor Relative or actual anonymity Reduces responsibility, accountability Multiple media More to learn about, more to manage on a daily basis Archiving Barrier to participation, awareness of persistence Assumption that listening to archive replaces interaction Ownership: who owns the text; who manages the archive

61 Why Does the Medium Matter?
Need advance understanding of how each means of communication differs To make the right use of the media available To understand how it changes how people communicate To understand and adjust for the effect on learning and social interaction To consider how prepared students (and teachers) are for this new environment

62 Why Does the Medium Matter?
Our perceptions of others affect our acceptance of them as real Trust; Identity; Commitment to joint efforts The perception of the communication environment draws us into its reality Online programs, online worlds The perception of others draws us into a jointly constructed reality Group projects, online (virtual) communities, Multiplayer games Perceptions of others affect the way we treat relationships built and maintained online Being trustworthy, staying committed

63 Conclusion CMC dá subsídios para a pesquisa e a prática do E-learning
Ajuda a entender como as interações acontecem online, que relações são importantes, como os grupos trabalham online O que considerar da CMC na prática do E-learning Permite o uso de meios sociais e técnicos para promover a presença social Aumenta a compreensão das diferenças entre comunicação em ambientes online e face-a-face Permite tirar mais vantagens das características da CMC Aumenta a experiência educacional, dando atenção a Presença social, cognitiva e da “presença ensinando” Visibilidade, relações, co-presença Comunidade online Imersão social, técnica e pedagógica

64 Leituras CMC Reviews Herring, S. C. (2002). Computer-mediated communication on the Internet. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 36, Haythornthwaite, C. & Hagar, C. (2004). The social worlds of the web. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 39, Haythornthwaite, C., & Nielsen, A. (2006). CMC: Revisiting Conflicting Results. In J. Gackenbach (Ed.) Psychology and the Internet, 2nd edition (pp ). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Presence and Community Garrison, D. R. & Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. London: RoutledgeFalmer. Haythornthwaite, C. (2002). Building social networks via computer networks: Creating and sustaining distributed learning communities. In K. A. Renninger & W. Shumar, Building Virtual Communities: Learning and Change in Cyberspace (pp ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Learner Experience Haythornthwaite, C., Kazmer, M.M., Robins, J. & Shoemaker, S. (2000). Community development among distance learners: Temporal and technological dimensions. JCMC, 6(1). haythornthwaite.html Kazmer, M. M. & Haythornthwaite, C. (2001). Juggling multiple social worlds: Distance students on and offline. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), Bregman, A. & Haythornthwaite, C. (2003). Radicals of presentation: Visibility, relation, and co-presence in persistent conversation. New Media and Society, 5(1), Haythornthwaite, C. & Bregman, A., Affordances of persistent conversation: Promoting communities that work. (pp ). In C. Haythornthwaite & M.M. Kazmer Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education (pp ). NY: Peter Lang.


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