Apresentação em tema: "Envolventes do Marketing"— Transcrição da apresentação:
1 Envolventes do Marketing FEPAM - RecifeProf. Wagner Andrade
2 Meios Envolventes Demográficos e Econômicos Demographic and Economic EnvironmentsThis CTR relates to material on pp The remaining macroenvironmental forces are discussed on following CTRs. Demographic and economic environments can be discussed as foundations for marketing strategy.Meios Envolventes Demográficos e EconômicosMeio Envolvente DemográficoNatalidadeFamíliaPopulaçao/ImigraçãoEducaçãoDemographic EnvironmentDefinition. Demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, sex, race, occupation, and other aggregate statistics.Key Aspects of the US demographic environment include:Age Structures (esp. Baby Boomers). The post WWII Baby Boom is the most significant demographic feature by its sheer size: 75 million or over 1/3 of the US population. This bulge in age distribution leads growth strategies in industries serving age-specific markets. Where boomers go, marketers must follow. More proactively, marketers need to identify emerging boomer needs to plan strategically for an aging population that also lives longer than previous ones.Family Structure. The typical American family rarely exists anymore. Increasing age of those marrying, delayed child-bearing, increased two-income families, and non-family households are key demographic trends.Geographic Population Shifts. Americans are mobile. Trends include movement to Sunbelt states, rural to urban shifts, and present urbanites moving to suburbs.Trends in Education. Americans are becoming more educated and white-collar. You may wish to link this to information-based technology industries in class.Economic Environment:Marketers must address income and changes in spending patterns. Income is rising slowly for some groups, especially “baby boomers.” Discussion Note: Tax and census data indicate a declining middle class earning power.Spending patterns are consistent with Engel's Laws for income groups. However, upper income households are generally unaffected by changes in the economy.Meio Envolvente EconômicoRendimentosPadrõesde consumo
3 Meios Envolventes Naturais e Tecnológicos Natural and Technological EnvironmentsThis CTR relates to the material on ppMeios Envolventes Naturais e TecnológicosMeio Envolvente NaturalMateriasPrimasCustos daEnergíaPoluiçãoIntervençãoNatural EnvironmentThere are several areas affecting marketing that stem from the natural environment. Raw material storages both increase demand and sprout counter-movements aimed at conservation. Both sides of the "green" movement utilize sophisticated database marketing and lobbying techniques. Energy Costs make long-term growth of high energy industries and goods difficult to predict. Changing philosophies on the role of government in managing natural resources also blends into the legal environment. Marketers must take care in identifying natural environmental trends.Technological EnvironmentMost texts emphasize the dramatic nature of technology to shape the future of business and create marketing opportunities. You might point out to students raised on Star Trek and Star Wars how much of yesterday's sci-fi is already coming true. Cellular phones as Star Trek-type communicators might get class discussion going. That technology also affects the rate of change itself is important as marketers seek to plan product introduction strategies.Other areas of concern to marketers in the technological environment include the high cost of R & D for technological innovation. Risk factors associated with high costs of development often lead to minor improvements over substantive product changes. While minor improvements help keep products "fresh" to the market, marketers must anticipate that changing consumer needs will limit the competitiveness of too little innovation.Regulation of technology is also a key influence marketers need to consider and leads well into discussion on political and cultural macoenvironmental forces.Meio Envolvente TecnológicoCambioRegulaçãoOportunidadeMelhoramentosPesq. & Des.
4 Meios Envolventes Culturais e Políticos Political and Cultural EnvironmentsMeios Envolventes Culturais e PolíticosThis CTR relates to the material on pp Government's role in business activities as the USA enters an increasingly global marketplace is being re-examined and re-defined in light of world standards. As students learn about cultural influences in US markets, they may be motivated by opportunities to apply knowledge of cultural influences abroad later in their careers.Meio Envolvente PolíticoLegislaçãoOpinião públicaGrupos depressãoPolitical EnvironmentThe political macroenvironmental forces consist of laws, government agencies, and interest groups that seek regulation of business activities to forward their own interests. Business in general, more than other groups, uses lobbying efforts to try and obtain legislation favorable to their competitive interests.Legislation. Laws generally attempt to protect companies from each other to create more competition that in turn creates more value for the consumer. Laws also aim at protecting consumers from unfair and sometimes dangerous business practices. Laws sometimes seek to protect society as a whole from practices that endanger whole communities or other publicly owned resources such as rivers, forests, and parks.Enforcement. The effect of laws depends upon the emphasis given to enforcing them within the regulatory agency responsible for administering the law. Regulation varies in intensity with political agendas of sitting presidents and budget allocations. Public interest groups too affect the degree of legislative activity and administrative enforcement.Cultural EnvironmentThe key elements of understanding the cultural macroenvironment lie in values, subcultural influences, and shifts in secondary cultural values. Core values are relatively enduring and must be considered by marketers positioning products. For example, product innovations that conflict with core values are unlikely to be adopted. Secondary values change over time and change more often than core values and may provide positioning opportunities. Subcultures consist of homogeneous ethnic or lifestyle groups within the larger culture.Meio Envolvente CulturalValoresSubculturasTendências
5 Modelos de Comportamento do Consumidor Model of Consumer BehaviorThis CTR corresponds to Figure 7-1 on p. 174 and serves as an overview to the entire chapter. You may wish to add a discussion of situational factors on consumer behavior to your in-class lecture.Modelos de Comportamento do ConsumidorMarketing:ProdutoPreçoDistribuiçãoPromoçaoEstímulosOutros:EconômicosTecnológicosPolíticosCulturaisConsumer BehaviorConsumer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers -- individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption.Model of Consumer BehaviorThe model shown on the CTR corresponds to Figure 7-1 in the text. The following CTRs and accompanying notes discuss the influences on consumer behavior in greater detail.Discussion Note: You may wish to discuss the “buyer’s black box” (which corresponds to the middle box in Figure 7-1 on p. 174) at this stage. Students sometimes become involved in the controversy regarding the presence or absence of consciousness in consumers. Experimental psychologists argue that what we call consciousness is merely a set of complex learned responses -- an ordinary physiological function. Sociologists and social psychologists argue that consciousness is greater than the sum of its physiological parts. For marketers, the issue is sometimes linked to free will: Do marketers create needs by conditioning consumers? Do marketers offer need-fulfillers to needs consumers create in their “black box?”Caixa Preta do CompradorBuyer’s Black BoxCaracterísticasdo CompradorProcesso deDecisão doCompradorEscolha do produtoEscolha da marcaEscolha do fornecedor“Timing” da compraQuantidade de compraRespostas do Comprador
6 Influencias sobre os Consumidores CulturaisCultura Subcultura Clase SocialSociaisGrupos de Referencia Família Roles & StatusPersonaisIdade & Ciclo de Vida Profissão & EconômicosEstilo de Vida & PersonalidadeInfluences on ConsumersThis CTR relates to Figure 7-2 on p and previews the material on pp The factors influencing consumers stem from a combination of forces over a consumptive lifetime. Marketers cannot control these factors but in understanding them can better predict how the factors shape consumer preferences. Consumer needs are shaped and often given importance from the influences discussed here.Influencias sobre os ConsumidoresPsicológicosMotivaçao Percepção/ApredizagemCrenças & AtitudesDiscussion:Cultural. Culture is the most basic influence on a person's values, priorities, and beliefs. Cultural shifts make marketing opportunities although most such changes are in secondary rather than core cultural values. Subcultures are important markets as these groups are often significantly different in their needs to warrant different marketing approaches.Social. Social class is determined by a combination of income, occupation, education, wealth and other variables. Social factors within one's class that affect consumer behavior include reference groups & aspirational groups. Families also exert strong social influences. Finally, each relationship a person has with his or her group carries with it certain roles and status that may carry consumptive responsibilities.Personal. Major personal factors are age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, life style and personality/self-concept. Texts vary in their treatment of the PLC stages but it is clear that singles buy different products than do young marrieds with small children. Occupations differ in time constraints and social pressures to conform that affect consumption decisions. Lifestyles measured by AIO or VALS typologies can reveal different consumption patterns across otherwise dissimilar groups. The unique characteristics of each person that make up their personality also affect behavior.Psychological. Maslow's hierarchy reminds marketers that need states vary in their intensity or motivation. Perception is the process of organizing stimuli and is influenced by selective exposure, distortion, & retention. Learning occurs in response to the presentation of information linked to relevant drives, cues, responses, and reinforcement only some of which is under the control of the marketer. Beliefs and attitudes, though shaped by cultural and social forces, may vary considerably on the individual level.Comprador
7 Hierarquia de Necessidades de Maslow Maslow's HierarchyThis CTR corresponds to Figure 7-3 on p. 185 and the material on pp Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs provides a theoretical framework for understanding how humans seek need-filling products. After discussing each level in the hierarchy you may wish ask students to explain situations in which higher level needs are met before lower level needs are addressed.Hierarquia de Necessidades de MaslowFisiológicasDe SegurançaSociaisDe PrestigioDe Auto-reali zaçãoNeed Levels (Lowest to Highest):Physiological. Physical needs such as hunger, thirst, and bodily functions are the lowest level need and require satisfaction before other needs become important to the individual. Sometimes this helps students understand the difference between needs and wants. A thirsty person may still want an expensive car but if thirsty enough will take a drink of water.Safety. Safety needs for security and protection are the next level needs in the hierarchy. So long as physiological needs are met, safety needs will take precedence over other needs. Fear appeals for consumer products are often linked to safety needs.Social. Human beings are social, gregarious animals. We group together in part to fulfill physiological and safety needs but also because we enjoy and need the company of others. Going to malls to "hang out" fulfills social needs.Esteem. To be recognized as an individual fulfills esteem needs. Self-esteem is the value a person places on himself or herself. As lower level needs become more stable, esteem needs become more important to the individual.Self-actualization. Beyond esteem needs very successful people may still be driven to improve themselves and "accomplish something." These people are driven to self-actualize their potential.Discussion Note: You might want to have students compare and contrast Maslow’s Hierarchy with Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation (p. 186) for in-class discussion.
8 O Processo de Decisão do Comprador The Buyer Decision ProcessThis CTR corresponds to Figure 7-4 on p and relates to the material on pp Consider asking students to describe some of their purchases decisions made at the beginning of the term and link them to steps in the process. Or you may provide them with a brief description of a purchase and ask them to identify passages linked to each stage.O Processo de Decisão do CompradorEtapas no Processo de Decisão do CompradorReconhecimento daNecessidadeProcura deInformaçãoStages in the Buyer Decision ProcessNeed Recognition - Problems are recognized when people sense a difference between an actual state and some desired state. Problem recognition can be triggered by either internal or external stimuli.Information Search -Consumers vary in the amount of information search they conduct. Information search may be a survey of information stored in memory or may be based upon information available externally. Search effort varies from heightened awareness corresponding to increased receptivity for relevant information to active information search modes where the person expends some energy to obtain information that is desired. External information vary in their informational and legitimizing characteristics. Riskier decisions usually elicit more search behavior than non-risky decisions.Evaluation of Alternatives - Following information search, the person compares decisional alternatives available. Criterion for evaluation compares product attributes of the alternatives against degrees of importance each attribute has in meeting needs, beliefs about the product or brand's ability and utility, and an evaluation procedure that ranks the alternatives by preference that forms an intention to buy.Purchase Decision - the individual buys a product. Purchasing other than the intended product may be due to attitudes of others exerted after the evaluation of alternatives is completed or unexpected situational factors such as point of purchases promotions that affect the alternatives' ranking.Post-purchase Behavior - involves comparing the expected performance of the product against the perceived performance received. Cognitive dissonance describes the tendency to accentuate benefits and downplay shortcomings.Validação dasAltenativasDecisão deCompraCondutaPos-compra
9 Diferenças mais importantes Characteristics of Business MarketsThis CTR relates to the material on pp This summarizes the areas where business markets differ from consumer markets.Diferenças mais importantesEstrutura doMercadoe da ProcuraDiferenças entreos mercados deconsumidoresfinais e osmercados deorganizaçaõesNaturezada Unidadede CompraCharacteristics of Organizational MarketsMarket Structure and Demand. Business markets have far fewer buyers than consumer markets. Business markets are much more geographically concentrated. Business demand is derived demand coming from the demand for the consumer goods the organization produces. Demand is more inelastic and more fluctuating.Nature of the Buying Unit. Business markets have more buyers and more professional purchasing procedures. Purchasing agents may be career professionals highly trained in how to buy better. As purchases become more complex, more people are likely to become involved in the purchase decision.Types of Decisions. Business buying decisions may be more complex due to the large amounts of money involved, technical specification considerations, and the interaction and coordination of more people in the buying process.Decision Process. Beyond the complexity of the decision business buying is more formalized, often with written procedures. Also, business buying decisions feature buyer-seller relationships that are more dependent upon each other than consumer buying situations. Both buyer and seller have fewer options to do business elsewhere than do consumer buyer and sellers.Other CharacteristicsDirect Purchasing. Business buyers usually buy direct from producers.Reciprocity. Business buyers often practice reciprocity, selecting suppliers who also buy from them.Leasing. Many businesses lease rather than buy equipment. Leasing gains a number of advantages over buying such as having more capital, having newer products, and tax incentives.TiposdeDecisõesOProcessode Decisão
10 Influencias Principais Dos Meios EnvolventesNível de Procura Primaria Panorama EconômicoCustos Monetarios Condições de FornecimentoTecnología Regulamentos CompetiçãoOrganizacionaisObjetivos Políticas ProcedimentosEstrutura Organizacional SistemasMajor Influences on Business BuyingThis CTR corresponds to Figure 8-1 on p and the material on ppInfluencias PrincipaisInterpersonaisAutoridade Status Empatía PersuasãoIndividuaisIdade EducaçãoPosição Personalidade Atitude vs. riscoMajor Influences Are:Environmental Factors. Industrial Buyers are heavily influenced by the economic environment especially the level of primary demand, economic outlook, and the cost of money. Materials shortages are also increasing in importance.Organizational Factors. These factors stem from each organization's objectives, policies, procedures, and ways of doing business. Marketers must identify how each of these elements are manifest in a particular company.Interpersonal Factors. Interpersonal influences center on group dynamics and the interplay of personalities and organizational roles. Buyer roles within the buying unit may differ not only from organizational factors but from the interpersonal interaction of the individuals involved as well.Individual Factors. A person's age, status, education, professional specialty, and overall personality and attitudes affect how they participate in organizational buying decisions. It may be difficult for the marketer to identify individual factors directly.Comprador Organizacional
11 Etapas no Processo de Compra da Organização Stages in Business Buying ProcessThis CTR corresponds to Table 8-1 and relates to the material on ppEtapas no Processo de Compra da Organização1. Reconhecimento do Problema2. Descrição geral da Necessidade3. Especificação do ProdutoStages (Buyphases) Include:Problem Recognition. Problem recognition can result from internal or external stimuli. They may emerge from an identified shortage or ideas for improvements recognized by buyers.General Need Description. The buyer describes the overall characteristics and quantities of the needed item. For complex items, this step may require coordinating the efforts of many specialists.Product Specification. A developmental team must translate general needs into product specifications. An engineering value analysis team may look at alternative designs to reduce production costs.Supplier Search. The buyer conducts a search for the best vendors for the product specifications.Proposal Solicitation. The buyer invites qualified suppliers to submit proposals covering the terms of supply and support. Selected proposals may be asked to make formal presentations.Supplier Selection. The buyer selects suppliers based upon a combination of technical competence and service record and reputation. Negotiation of specific terms may occur before final selection, especially on price.Order Routine Specification. The buyer specifies the details of the supplier's contract listing technical specifications, delivery terms, policies for return and warranties, and quantities needed. Sellers will seek blanket contracts binding them closer to the buyer.Performance Review. The buyer will review how the supplier contract is working for the company and may continue, amend, or drop the seller.4. Pesquisa sobre Fornecedores5. Solicitação de Propostas6. Selecção do Fornecedor7. Especificação do Processo de Entrega8. Revisão do Desempenho